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ftartar* »btaitp ftcftool 



Raymond Calkins 















[The Right of TramlaHon and Reproduction i$ reterved.] 

Βλ€Π€Τ€ ΜΗ HApAIT^CHCee TON λΑλΟγΝΤΑ' €| ("ty ίΚ€ΙΝΟΙ ΟΥ* 

Hebr. zii. 25. 
ZtkiepoN &n tAc φωΝΑε Αγτο? akoycht€, 


Λ. zcv. 7; 2fc6r. HI iv. 

Fint Edition printed 1889. Second 1891. 


Ί7 1 VERY student of the Epistle to the Hebrews must feel that 
"*^ it deals in a peculiar degree with the thoughts and trials of 
our own time. The situation of Jewish converts on the eve of the 
destruction of Jerusalem was necessarily marked by the sorest 
distress. They had looked with unhesitating confidence for the 
redemption of Israel and for the restoration of the Kingdom to 
the people of Qod ; and in proportion as their hope had been 
bright, their disappointment was overwhelming when these ex- 
pectations, as they had fashioned them, were finally dispelled. 

They were deprived of the consolations of their ancestral 
ritual: they were excluded from the fellowship of their 
countrymen: the letter of Scripture had failed them: the 
Christ remained outwardly unvindicated from the judgment of 
high-prieets and scribes ; and a storm was gathering round the 
Holy City which to calm eyes boded utter desolation without 
any prospect of relief. The writer of the Epistle enters with 
the tendereet sympathy into every cause of the grief and de- 
jection which troubled his countrymen, and transfigures each 
sorrow into an occasion for a larger hope through a new 
revelation of the glory of Christ. So it will be still, I cannot 
doubt, in this day of our own visitation if we look, as he 
directs us, to the Ascended Lord. The difficulties which come 
to us through physical facts and theories, through criticism, 
through wider views of human history, correspond with those 
which came to Jewish Christians at the close of the Apostolic 
age, and they will find their solution also in fuller views of the 
Person and Work of Christ. The promise of the Lord awaits 
fulfilment for us in this present day, as it found fulfilment for 
them : In your patience ye shall win your souls. 

w. h. 1 6 


This conviction has been constantly present to me in 
commenting on the Epistle. I have endeavoured to suggest in 
the notes lines of thought which I have found to open light 
upon problems which we are required to face. In doing this it 
has throughout been my desire to induce my readers to become 
my fellow-students, and I have aimed at encouraging sustained 
reflection rather than at entering on the field of controversy. 
No conclusion is of real value to us till we have made it our own 
by serious work ; and controversy tends no less to narrow our 
vision than to give to forms of language or conception that 
rigidity of outline which is fatal to the presentation of life. 

Some perhaps will think that in the interpretation of the 
text undue stress is laid upon details of expression ; that it is 
unreasonable to insist upon points of order, upon variations of 
tenses and words, upon subtleties of composition, upon indica- 
tions of meaning conveyed by minute variations of language in 
a book written for popular uee in a dialect largely affected by 
foreign elementa The work of forty years has brought to me 
the surest conviction that such criticism is wholly at fault. 
Every day's study of the Apostolic writings confirms me in the 
belief that we do not commonly attend with sufficient care to 
their exact meaning. The Greek of the New Testament is not 
indeed the Greek of the Classical writers, but it is not less 
precise or less powerful I should not of course maintain that 
the fulness of meaning which can be recognised in the phrases 
of a book like the Epistle to the Hebrews was consciously 
apprehended by the author, though he seems to have used the 
resources of literary art with more distinct design than any 
other of the Apostles ; but clearness of spiritual vision brings 
with it a corresponding precision and force of expression through 
which the patient interpreter can attain little by little to that 
which the prophet saw. No one would limit the teaching of a 
poet's words to that which was definitely present to his mind. 
Still less can we suppose that he who is inspired to give a 

menage of God to all ages sees himself the completeness of 
the truth which all life serves to illuminate. 

I have not attempted to summarise in the notes the opinions 
of modern commentators. This has been done fairly and in 
detail by Litncmnnn. Whcro I fcol real doubt, I havo given the 
various views which seem to me to claim consideration: in other 
cases I have, for the most part, simply stated the conclusions 
which I have gained I have however freely quoted patristic 
comments, and that in the original texts. Every quotation 
which I have given has, I believe, some feature of interest ; and 
the trouble of mastering the writer's own words will be more 
than compensated by a sense of their force and beauty. 

It did not appear to fall within my scope to discuss the 
authorship of the Commentary which I have quoted under the 
name of Primasius (Migne, P. L. lxviii). The- Commentary is 
printed also under the name of Haymo (Migne, P. L. cxvii) with 
some variations, and in this text the lacuna in the notes on c. iv. 
is filled up. 

As far as I have observed the Commentary of Herveius 
Buigidolensis ('of Bourg-Dieu or Bourg-Deols in Berry 9 f 1 149, 
Migne, P. Z. clxxxi) has not been used before. The passages 
which I have given will shew that for vigour and independence 
and sobriety and depth he is second to no mediaeval expositor. 
I regret that I have not given notes from Atto of Vercelli 
(fa 960, Migne, P. Z. exxxiv). His commentary also will repay 
examination 1 . 

1 The following summary enume- Latin Commentaries is greailj to be 

ration of the chief patristio Oommen- desired. 

taries may be of some nee : Thbodobb of Mofsuzstia. The 

Greek fragments have been printed by 

i. Grki. Migne, P. G. Ixvi, pp. 651 ft 

OaidKH. Of his xviii Homilies and Chbysostom. xxxiv Homilies. 

Boohs (τόμοι) on the Epistle only These were translated into Latin by 

meagre fragments remain; hot it is not Mutianus Boholastieus at the request 

unlikely that many of his thoughts of Caseiodorus (e. 500), and this trans- 

hate been incorporated by other writers, lation was largely used by Western 

An investigation into the sources of the writers. 



It would be impossible for me to estimate or even to 
determine my debts to other writers. I cannot however but 
acknowledge gratefully how much I owe both to Delitzsch and 
to Riehm. The latter writer appears to me to have seized 
more truly than any one the general character and teaching of 
the Epistle. 

For illustrations from Philo I am largely indebted to the 
Exercitationea of J. B. Carpzov (1750), who has left few parallels 
unnoticed. But I have always seemed to learn most from 
Trommius and Binder. If to these Concordances — till the 
former is superseded by the promised Oxford Concordance — the 
student adds Dr Moulton's edition of Winer's Grammar and 
Dr Thayer's edition of Grimm's Lexicon, he will find that he 
has at his command a fruitful field of investigation which 
yields to every effort fresh signs of the inexhaustible wealth 
of the Written WonK 

Thbodobit. Migne, P. 0. lxxzti. 

Job* o* Damascus. Migne, P. 0. 

(Eoumbvius. Migne, P. 0. oziz. 

Euthymius ZioiBXKue, ed. Μ. Galo- 
geras, Athene 1887. 

THBOPHTL40T. Migne, P. 0. our. 

ii. Latin. 

Pbimasxus. Migne, P. L. lxviii. 
Alio under (he name of Ha ymo. Migne, 
P. L. ezvii. 

Gassxodobus (a few notes). Migne, 
P. L. Izz. 

Alulvus. Migne, P. L. lxxix. (a 
collection of passages from Gregory 
the Great). 

Auram . Migne, P. L. 0. (on 00. i— z. 
chiefly from Ghryeoetom [Primaeius]). 

Bznuuue Sootus. Migne, P. L. 

RabamusMaubus. Migne,P.L.ozii. 
(chiefly eztraote from Ghryeoetom). 

Walatbid Stbabo. Migne, P. L. 
cut. (Qloua Ordinaria). 

Flobui Diacomus. Migne, P. L. 
oziz. (a collection of paeaagee from 
Augustine). Assigned also to Bede and 
Robertas de Torreneio (Migne, P. L. 

Atto or Ybboblli. Migne, P. L. 
czzziv. Old materials are used with 
independence and thought 

Bbumo. Migne, P. L. oliii. 

Lamibamo. Migne, P. L. ol. 

Huoo μ θ. ViOTOHB. Migno, P. L. 
oIxzt. (Interesting discussions on 
special points.) 

Hzbtbius Buboidolbnsis. Migne, 
P. L. dzzii. (of the highest interest). 

Pbtbb Lombard. Migne, P. L. 
czoii. (Collectanea). 

Thomas Aquinas. It would be of 
considerable interest to compare the 
Latin translation of Chrysostom with 
the notes of Primaeius (Haymo), Al- 
ouin and Atto. 

1 For the Index I am indebted to 
my son, the Rev. G. H. Westoott, M.A., 
now of the 8.P.G. Mission, Cawnpore. 


No work in which I have ever been allowed to spend many 
yean of continuous labour has had for me the same intense 
human interest as the study of the Epistle to the Hebrews. If 
this feeling, which must shew itself in what I have written, 
moves others to work upon the book with frank and confident 
reverence, to listen to the voice which speaks to us 'to-day' 
from its pages, to bring to the doubts, the controversies, the 
apparent losses, which distress us, the spirit of absolute self- 
surrender to our King-priest, the living and glorified Christ, 
which it inspires, my end will be fully gained. Such students 
will join with me in offering a devout thanksgiving to God 
that Ho has mado a little plainer to us, through lessons which 
have seemed to be a stern discipline, words which express the 
manifold experience of life and its final interpretation : 

ττολγΜβρακ: και πολγτροπαχ: π<£ααι ό ©eoc AaAhcac toic π&τρ&ΐΝ 
in toic προφύτΑκ: 4H &χ4τογ τωΝ Auepu>N Tof tcon €AaAhc€N hmin 
in γίφ. 

Β. F. W. 


August j6, 1889. 


ΓΊΊΗΕ present Edition is essentially a reprint of the former 
one. I have indeed endeavoured to make one or two notes 
clearer, and I have noticed one or two new facts. The kindness 
of friends, among whom I may again mention Dr C. J. Beard 
and the Rev. H. A. Brooksbank, has enabled me to correct 
many misprints in references. To the former I am also in- 
debted for additions to the Index. 

The engrossing cares of new work have made it impossible 
for me to consider afresh conclusions which I formed when I 
was able to study all the materials which I thought likely to 
contribute to a right decision ; but indeed in any case I should 
have been unwilling to do more than remove unquestionable 
errors in the revision of a Commentary which, however im- 
perfect, was the best I was able to make when I was wholly 
occupied by the subject 

The more I study the tendencies of the time in some of 
the busiest centres of English life, the more deeply I feel that 
the Spirit of God warns us of our most urgent civil and spiritual 
dangers through the prophecies of Jeremiah and the Epistle to 
the Hebrewa May our Nation and our Church be enabled to 
learn the lessons which they teach while there is still time to 
use them. 

B. P. D. 
Robin Hood'b Bat, 

Sept. 12M, 1892. 


p. ii, ool. ft, 1. 16 from bottom, for xfr. «a ; xri. 16 read τί. ιό; ziv. as. 

p. 58 add in inner margin v. 18 K* om. wnpaeBtlt. 

p. 74, ool. a, 1. 5 from bottom, for Gal. iv. 5 read Gal. ir. 4. 

p. 146, 00L 6, 1. 5 from bottom, Jar James ir. 14 read James it. 15. 

p. 413, 1. 3, from top, for άγγίλωτ, ναητγύρ* read iyrikv* wantrfpet, 

p. 495, L 33 from top, for 06* ίδόξασν eavrb* read ούχ eavre* έδόξασν. 



I. Text xv 

II. Title xxvii 

III. Position xxx 

IV. Original language xxxii 

V. Destination xxxv 

VI. Date xlii 

VII, Place of writing xliii 

VIII. Style and language xliv 

IX. Plan xhriii 

X. Charaeterietict li 

XI. History and Authorship lxii 

XII. ΊΊι* EpitiU to the Hebrews and the EpidU of Barnabas lxxx 


Chap, i ν 3 

The teaching upon Sin in the Epistle 31 

The Divine Names in the Epistle 33 

Chap, ii 36 

Man's destiny and position 60 

The reading of ii. 9 id. 

The idea of rArUtr. 63 

The rfXr/iMfir of Christ 65 

Quotations from the 0. T. in 00. i, ii 67 

Passages on the High-priesthood of Christ 70 

Chap, iii 72 

The application to Christ of words spoken in the Ο. T. 

of the Lokd 89 

Chap, iv 92 

The reading o/iv. 2 no 

On some hypothetical sentences 111 

The origin and constitution of man 114 



Chap, ν . ιΐ7 

The praj-Christian Priesthood 137 

Crap, vi 143 

Sin far which there is no renewal to repentance 165 

The Biblical idea of 'inheritance' 167 

Chap, vii 170 

The significance of Melohuedek 199 

The Biblical idea of Blessing 303 

The superiority of the High-priesthood of Christ to 

the Levitioal High-priesthood 210 

Chap, viii 211 

Christ the High-priest and the High-priest- King 227 

The present work of Christ as High-priest 229 

On the words Xttrovpyf ip, Xorpc w <y 4o 230 

The general significance of the Tabernacle 233 

The Quotation in 0. viii. 8 ff. 240 

Chap. ix. 242 

The Service of the Dag of Atonement 279 

The pro-Christian idea of Sacrifice 281 

The idea of σνηίοησα 293 

On the use of the term 'Blood' in the EpistU id. 

The idea of λντρανσθαι, λύτρ*σπ So. 295 

Aepeote of Christe Sacrifice 297 

The meaning of fcaftfa in ix. 15 ff. 298 

Chap, χ 303 

The reading of τ. ι 339 

The Body of Christ 340 

The expression of an end or purpose 342 

The effects of Chrisf* Sacrifice 344 

On the quotation from Hob. ii. 3/.. 347 

Chap, xi 349 

The reading of xi. 4 384 

On the social images in the Epistle id. 

Chap. xiL 391 

The Christology of the Epistle 424 

Chap, xiii 429 

On the history of the word Φνσιαστήριορ 453 

The teaching of a xiii. 10 461 

On the references in the Epistle to the Gospel History 463 

On the Apostolic Doxologics 464 


INDEX. 497 




The original authorities for determining the text of the Epistle Original 
are, as in the ease of the other books of the New Testament, numerous ties, 
and varied. There are however, from the circumstances of the history 
of the Epistle, comparatively few patristic quotations from it* and 
these within a narrow range, during the first three centuries. 

The Epistle is contained in whole or in part in the following 
sources : 

i. Grrsk M8S. ! Qun 

(i) Primary uncials : I Primary 

M, Ood. Sin. ββο. iv. Complete. XhM *' 

A, Cod• Alex, ββα v. Complete. 

B, Cod. Vatio. sec iv. The MS. is defective after ix. 14 
KoBo[pul\ [« Manus multo reoentior supplevit.' This 
text is sometimes quoted by Teschendorf as δ, e. g. ix. 
18; x. 4, 23; xi. 15; xii. 24.] 

C, Cod. Ephr. sec. v. Contains ii. 4 μιρντμοΐτ — vii 26 
άκακο*, ix. 15 Ιστίν — X. 24 αγά{πψί]. xii. 16 μη τ« 
— xiiL 25 *Κμψ. 

D lt Cod. Clarom. sreo. vi. Complete. (E a is a copy of D a 

after it had been thrice corrected.) 
H f , Cod. Coislin. sec. vi. Contains i. 3 βηματι — 8 cit τόν. 

il II 81* $v — 16 'Αβραάμ. UL 13 £χρκ — 18 μ$ ffort. 

iv. ζ 2 ζων — 15 ημών. Χ. Ι των [μ*\λο]ντων — η θίλημά 

σον. Χ. 3 2 [vireJftc/KOTe — 38 4 ψνχί Α* 011 • ***• ίο ol 

xvi TEXT. 

μίν—ι$ πολλοί (with some gapt). The scattered frag- 
mente have been edited by H. Omont, Pari• 1859. 
Fa (mbo. vii) oontains only x. 26. 

ii Second- (tf\ Secondary uncials : 

ary ' 

OneiaU. K,, God. Mosqu. anc. iz. Complete. 

L l9 Ood. Angel, sec. iz. Complete to xiii. 10 ουκ Ιχουσι*. 

M a , (Hamb. LoncL) sec. iz, z. Containa L ι νολνμ4ρως — 

iv. 3 ck τψ. zii. ao [λι0ο]0ολισ6^σα-α4 — xiii 25 % λμ$ν. 
N l9 (St Petersburg) sec. iz. Contains v. 8 [fjiraftr—- vi. 

10 ArtXa0ar[Au]. 
P„ Cod. Porphyr. sec. iz. Complete (xii. 9, 10 illegible). 

To these must be added MSS., as yet imperfectly known, which 
have been described by Dr 0. R. Gregory. 

♦ Cod. Athous Laura sec. vm, iz. Complete with the excep- 
tion of one leaf containing viil 11 κοΧον μη — ix. 19 Μωνσά*. 

3 Cod. Rom. Vat smo. v. Oontains xi 32 — xiii. 4. 

The Epistle is not contained in the Greek-Latin MSS. F, (Cod. 
Aug. s»c. iz) and G a (Ood. Boern. sec. iz). The last verses of 
Philemon (21 — 25) are wanting in the Greek text of both MSS. F a 
gives the Latin (Vulgate) version of the Epistle. G a has after Phi- 
lemon 20 in Ohriato 

ad laudicenses inoipit epistola 

Προς λαονδακιρτας. αρχπαι επιστολή (sic Matthset). 

The archetype of the MSS. was evidently mutilated before either 
of the oopies was written, so that there is no reason to suppose that 
this note was derived from it 

The following unique readings of the chief MSS. offer Instructive 
illustrations of their character. Readings which are supported by some 
late MS. evidence are enclosed in ( ). 

Unique readings : 
(a) OfK. • 

ϋ 18 otn. w*ipav$*U. 
Hi. 8 πφασμψ (for ναραπι*ρασμψ). 

TEXT. xvii 

iv. 6 Απιστία*. 
7 4ρ• *»■• 

9 am. wri. add. A. 
ii om. Tit add. C. 
vii. 2i otlt. fir top almpa. 
▼Ki- 3 om. ml 2*. 
ix. 5 ?»« ση* (fori»), 
x. 7 om. #κ«. 

12 /κ 0f£/o. 

N 1 8 <!φ«ι (fclWif), om. iWiw. 
26 T$r imypwrlav της. 
32 rdf «p. Αμαρτίας. 

36 xpciov Gfl>«-) fxfr* κομίσασθαι. 

39 Ar-X/of. 
ad. 31 4+ArA«w'»r'ir. 
xiL Ι ΐΊ|λικο{Ιτον (τοσούτον). 

2 ctH» TOU vCOV. 

10 <S μι» yap. out. fir τό. 
Rone of these readings have the least plausibility. Most of them are 
obvious blunders, and many have been corrected by later hands. 

(ό) Of A. 

fl. ISa^tmroXXainiawaXkafy). 
Hi. 9 ol π. ήμ*ρ. 

\7 rfotvbi + iuiL 
iv. 3 om. fit 1 om. *L 

4 om. h τ. ή. τ. 4fib\ 

▼ϋΧ I i» τ. Xfy. 
Χ. 29 om. h ί τγκίσΛ,. 
xL I /SovXojm'nn' βλατομά»»). 

13 wpotrb&upoi. 

39 w AreyytX/or (t (or ). 
xiL opoupoL 

22 ov* yiip (Αλ<1) /irovpoW»». 

27 Om. tra μ. τα μή <ταλ. 
xiii. 1 1 om, *f pi αμαρτία*. 

21 iravrt + ίργφ mil Xoyy 'dy. 

Of these again no one possesses any intrinsic probability, and several 
are transcriptional errors. 

(e) OfB. 
i. 3 φαΡίρΛρ. 
4om. τ*ρ. 
(8 om. του almpot.) 

14 duueoWaf. 

xvui TEXT. 

tt. 4 σνψμαρτνρουντος. 

8om.adrf (ι). 
iv. (7 προιΙρηΜΡ.) 

8 ουκ Spa. 

9 aWoXf irat (aWoXf fotrat). 
12 Ιναργής. 

16 <WI. *νρωμ*ρ, 
viL 2irairoff. 

12 Of», καΐ νόμου. 
15 om. ni». 
TiiL 7 Jrrpas (dtfvrtfpaf). 

(9 «Μ«**•) 
ix. 2 + ri' ayui. 

B?en though no one of these readings may gt?e the original text, few 
are mere blunders. 

(<*) OfO. 

i?. 8 μβτ* αυτά (oomp. y. 3). 
12 (w (s* for i*). 
(ix. 20 6W0cro (Λτβίλατο).) 
xiii. 7 aW6Vi»pii?ajrcr. 

(#) The peculiar readings of D, are far too numerous, especially in 
chapters x.— xiii. to be given in detail. A few examples must suffioe : 
ϋ 4 row oVov (avrou). 

1 4 r»r αιί. + παθημάτων, αοράτου + Θάνατο*. 
UL 13 άμαρτίαι* (riff όμ.). 
ir. 1 1 c Ισ. + άσιλφοί. άληΰιία* (Arc i&iar). 
vi. ι8/4€τά(6*ά). 
riL 27 ό dpxupm. 
ix. 9^τ4Γ+ιτρωτϊ;. 
1 8 ij πρ. + ο\αθήκη. 
23 καθαρίζεται. 
Χ. Ι καθαρίσαι (τιλιιάσαι). 
ΙΟ aifiarof (σω /iaror). 

26 irfpiXffiirffrai θυσία* wtpl αμαρτίας wpoatPtPKip. 
33 eVAfe/i**•* (6Var/M{o/ir>O4). 
35 airoXvqrf (aWo/SaXyrf). 
XL 23 Add. ιτ/στ* fifyac ycpo/wor Μωνσζ* driktr top Αίγνπτιορ κατα- 

ροώρ τή* ταπίρωσιρ τωρ άδιλφωρ αύτοΰ. 
xiL 23 τ«θ9μ*\ιωμ4ρω* (τιτ*\*ιωμ€Ρωρ). 
(28 *ύχαρίστω{ (*ύαρ4στ*ς).) 
29 xvpiof γαρ («αϊ γαρ). 
xiii 1 1 καταναλίσκονται (κατακαίεται). 

17 owoeefcrowai «rfpl νμώ* (άποδωσαρτις). 
25 πι» άγίω? (ύμ£ρ). 

TEXT. xix 

These variations it will be seen are wholly different in character, and 
have more the character of glosses than true variants. 

Compare also i. 7, 9; Hi. 1; iv. 1, 5, 12, 13, 16; v. 2, 7, 11, 12, 13; 
vl 2, 6, 10, 12, 19, 20 ; Til 6, 13, 18, 19, 20, 24 ; viii 9 ; **• »> 5, »3> *4, 26, 
28 ; x. 3, 7, so, 25, 28, 32, 37 ; xi. I, 4, 9, ", ". U, 15. 3*, 33, 36 ; xu 2, 
7, 10, 11, 17, 22, 25 ; xiii. 3, 6, 7, 8, 16, 21, 22. 

The dual combinations of the primary uncials are all of interest : 
KB L 8; vi. 3; ?ii 23; viii. 10, 12 ; ix. 2, 3, ία 
BO Til. 21. 

BD f iv. 3; v. 3 ; vi 2 ; viL 4, 5 ; viii. 6; ix. 11. 
Hk i. 9 ; vii. 27 ; ix. 24 ; x. (34), 3» J **• ". 3*• 
AC iii. 13; iv. 3; vi. 7; vii. (6), 13; x. 11; xiii. 21. 
AD, ix. 14; x. 34; xi 8. 
KO ▼. 12; vii 26; xiii α 
MD, i 12; x. 30; xii 3, 21; xiii. 21. 
OD, iv. 12 ; vii 9. 

Compare also 

Κ vg ϋ 1; iv. 6; Μ syrr vi. 9; Μ segg. ix. 25 ; D t vg x. 23. 
A vg iii. 14. 

Β vg viii. 10; Β d vi. 2 ; Β segg. iii 2 5 Β aeth iii 6 ; Β verse Ix. 1, 4- 
Ovgii 5 (6). 

ITie selection of readings given below the text will indicate fairly, I 
believe, the extent of early variations, but it will not supersede the use of 
a full critical apparatus. 

(iii) Cursives : iii Cur- 

Nearly three hundred (Scrivener, InlrotL 264 ff.) are 

known more or leas completely, including 17 (Ood. 

Oolb. etec. xi, = 33 Goep.), 37 (Cod. Leiceetr. esse, xiv), 

47 (Cod. Bodl. 883C. xi), which have been collated by 

Dr Tregelles for his edition of the Greek Testament 

The Ma 11 (Acts 9 Stephens «?') of the Cambridge University Library MS. it. 
(Kk. vx 4) contains some remarkable and unique readings (compare Addit 
Note on 1 John ii 20). 

ϋ 8 vwb rovt wodat βότον. 

IO rb* άρχηγύρ rfjs σωτηρία* avrw. 

18 h eT (add. yap I 1 m. t) whrowutv avrot voir «rfipafoji/potr δύναται 


iii 13 i£ ύμ»ρ rtf. 
iv. 4 cm. iv. 
v. 12 \6ymw (given by Stephens). 

The M8. is at present defecthre from vii 20 yryw&nt to xi 10 rove άμ. 

ζχ TEXT. 

1χονσα*> and again from xL 23 vwo 1-»» to the end. This mutilation la 
later than the time of Stephen*, who quotes from it on : 
ix. 3 rA άγια rw* ayimw. 

15 λάβωσα of κληρονόμοι. 
X. 6 Ιζήτησα* 
34 1\*u> lavroif . 
xlL 28 Xarp«vofif r. 
xiii 1$ ά»αφ4ρομ€ν. 

MS. 67•*. The surprising ooinddoneee of the correotions in 67 (67**) with M t gi?e 
a peculiar value to it• readings of 67** where M a is dofectire. It agrees 
with M t in two readings which are not found in any other Greek MS : 
L 3 am. ovrov. 
U. 9x«/>'*• 
See alio, L 2 ίσχάτου. 3 om. ήμΔ*. 1 1 aajMit ir. iii. 1 om. X/motuV. 4 
om. «L 6 it (?). 10 ravrg. xiL 2$ ουρανού. 26 σ«ίσ». xiii. 18 π*ιΰάμ4$α. 
On the other hand it is quoted as giving i. 7 ννινμα. iii. 14 wan-cent. 
17 om. ησσ. inf. It would be interesting to learn whether ail these 
corrections are in the same hand. 

The following readings are remarkable : 
r. 12 am. rlva (unique). 
tU. 4 am. oflror (D/). 
ix. 14 dyfou (D t * Latt). 

23 καθαρίζεται (D f * me). 
xL 4 om. cfau (unique). 

37 ίν μηλ. κα\ oiyt Jotr. 
xli. 18 am. και (*ocav/A.) D t *. 

See also It. 12; tLio; yii 17; ?iii. 4» ix. 9; x. 12,15; xi.5,26; xiL 15. 

The correotions appear to shew the eclectic judgment of one or more 
scholars; and suggest some interesting questions as to the texts of later 

a Vbb- 2. VBH8ION8. 


i Latin. L Latin: 

The Epistle is preserved entire in two Latin Texts. 

(a) The (a) The Old Latin. 

Old Latin. ' 

d (Cod. Clarom.), the Latin Version of D f ; of which 

# (Cod. Sangerm.) is a copy with a few corrections. 

The Greek text represented by d corresponds for the most part 
with D a (e.g. L 7; ii. 14; iv. 11, 16; vi. 10, 20; vii. if., 20; ix. 
(5)> 9• IO > 11. x8; χ. i, 3, 6, 7, 26, (33,) 38; xi. 23; xiL 22, 23, 26, 
29 ; xiii. 17); but in many places it differs from it (e.g. L 9; ii. 4, 

TEXT. xxi 

6, 8; iii i, 13; iv. ia, 13; v. 6, 7, n; vi 1, a, 18, 19; vii. 11, 13, 
37 ; viii 9 ; iz. 23 ; xi 13, $2 ; xiii a, ao). In some of these eases 
the difference may be due to errora in the transcription of D a (e.g. 
i 9; iii i, (13); iv. 12, 13; vi i, (18); viii. 9, Ao.); but elsewhere 
the difference points to a variation in a Greek text anterior to the 
archetype of D, (e#. ii. 4, 6, 8; v. 6, (7,) 11 ; vi a ; vii u, 37 ; ix. 
a 3 ; xi* 13) and even to a misreading of it (vi. 10 ; xiii a). 

The text of d has been given by Delarne [under Sabatier's 
name] in BibL Lai. Vers. Ant. in. (but far leas accurately than by 
Teschendorf in his edition of Cod. Clarom., 1852) with the variations 
of e, and a large collection of Patristic quotations ; but the genea- 
logy of the early Latin texts has still to be determined with the 
help of a fuller apparatus. 

Where it differs from the Vulgate d most frequently witnesses 
to an older Greek text (e.g. i ia ; ii. 4, 8 ; iii 9, 13 ; vi a, 7 ; viii. 
a, 11 ; ix. 11 ; x. 9; xi. 3), yet not always (e.g. i. 7 ; iii 17 ; vii 23 ; 
viii ia; ix. a; xi. 4). See also vi 17; vii ao; viii 10; ix. 10; 
x. a8, 38; xi 18, 3a; xii 3, a6. 

The Latin Torsions of the Epistle offer a subject for most instructive Latin quo- 
study, which has not yet been adequately dealt with. The earliest specimen utiont • 
is found in the quotation of vL 4—8 given by Tertullian {de Pudic ao). 
This is equally distinct from the Old Latin of d and e and from the 
Vulgate text (*.p. e. 4 participaverunt spiritual sanctum, e. 5 verbum 
Dei dulce, occidente jam »?o. e. 6 cum exciderint, reflgentes cruel in 
semetlpeoe, dedecoraotes. e. 7 humorem, peperit herbam. e. 8 exusti- 
onem). The next important specimen of the Old Latin is a quotation, of 
iii. 5— iv. 13 in Lucifer of Oagliari (f 371 a.d.) which agrees substantially 
with the texts of d and 0, the variations not being more than might be 
found in secondary copies of the same writing (de non convert, e. hasret. 
10). The quotations of Jerome, Augustine, Ambrose, Hilary ftc indicate 
the currency of a variety of texts in the 4th and 5th centuries, but these 
have not been classified. ' 

The text of d and e in this Epistle is singularly corrupt The scribe of The text 
d was evidently ignorant of Latin forma and words (i 4 facto, 7 angelus ; °* d ; 
ii 10 dicebat, per quo; iv. 15 habet ; v. 9 operantibus ; vi. 5 uirtutis futuri 
secuk, 15 petitus, 17 inmobilem nobilatis suss; vii. 25 acoendentes, 26 
aetaetis; x. 2 purgari [mundati], 27 horribis quidam execratio iudici, 
30 vindicas ; xL 5 inveniebamur, 28 ne que subastabat ; xii 3 pectoribus ; 
xHi 10 herore [edcre], 11 alium [animalium]. His deficiency becomes 
conspicuously manifest because he had to transcribe in this book a text 

W. H. f c 

xxii TEXT. 

which had already been corrected, and in many caeca he ha« confused 
together two reading• so aa to produce an unintelligible result (e.g. 1L 14 
similiter et ipse participes faotus est eorumdem passione ut per mortem 
mortem destrueret qui imperium... if. 2 sod non fuit prodo illis verbum 
auditus illos non tomperatos fidom auditorum; 12 scrutatur animi ot 
cogitationis et cogitationis cordis; v. 11 et laboriosa qua* interprotatio 
est ; vL 16 et omnique oontrovorsia eorum novissimiun in observationein ; 
riii. 1 a maliti» eorum et peccati illorum et injustis eorum; ix. 1 prior 
eius justitia coustitutionis cultura ; x. 2 nam neoessansent oflerri See 
also ii. 3, 6; iv. 16 ; τ. η ; vL 1, 7, 10 ; vii 19, 20 ; riii. 3 ; ix. 9 ; x. 2, 27, 
33,39;xi6,3i;xiL 1,25). 
of t\ The scribe of e seems to havo known a little Latin (be was ignorant of 

Greek) and he has corrected rightly some obvious blunders (ii. 12 pro (per) 
quo; iiL 18 introituros (-rus); v. 14 exercitatas (-tus) ; vi. 16 et omui (om. 
que); τϋ. 25 accedentes (accend•): 26 cadis (cselestis); 28 jurisjurandi 
(-ndo) ; viii. 7 secundus inquireretur (-das, -rere) ; x. 33 tauter (et alitor) &o.). 
Sometimes however his corrections are inadequate (eg. ix. 24 apparuit per 
$e for per $a) and sometimes they are wrong (eg. viii. 1 tedet for iedit) ; and 
he has left untouched the gravest corruptions (iv. 2, 13; vi. 5, 17; ix. 1, 8 f. 
&&), and many simple mistakes (ii. 9; iiL 10; v. 1; x. 2 &a). It is evi- 
dent that in this Epistle he had no other text to guide his work. 

In spite of the wretched form in which the version lias come down to 

us, it shews traces of freedom and vigour, and in particular it has often 

preserved the absolute participial constructions which are characteristic of 

the Epistle (eg. L 2 etiam fecit, 3 purificationo peccatorum facta, 14 qui 

mittuntur propter possessuros... n. 8 subjiciondo autein... ii. 18 ; v. 7 la- 

crimis oblatis ; vi. 11 relioto igitur initii Ohristi verbum (-0) ; x• 12 oblata 

hostia, 14 nos sanotincans; xi. 31 except» exploratoribus ; xii. 28 regno 

immobili suscepto). 

of Harl. The important Harleian MS. (B.M. Harl. 1772) contains many traces of 

'77* ; another early version, especially in the later chapters, as Griosbach (Symb. 

Grit. L 327) and Bentley before him noticed. Other MSS. also contain 

numerous old renderings, Among these one of the most interesting is 

of Bent- Bentley'e S (comp. Diet of Bible, Vulgate, p. 1 7 1 3), in the Library of Trinity 

ley's 8. College, Cambridge (Β. ία 5, «oc nc). This gives in agreement with d 

and e 

t I 7 ignem urentem. 

ii 3 in nobis. 

18 om. et (bis). 
iiL 16 omnes. 
viii. 10 in sensibus eorum. 
xiii. 17 om. non. 

It has also many (apparently) unique renderings : 
ii. 1 audimu*. 
1 1 et ex uno. 
vi. 16 majorem sibi 

TEXT. xxiii 

fi 17 ImmotabiHtatem ['Le. immutabUitaUm more Saxonico ' R. B.} 
vii. 25 ad <&m. 
▼ill• 5 monstratum. 
iz. 7 offerebat 

z. 13 de caHero, fratres, ezspectans [H, has In the mg. of It. 14 ΜΚφο^ 
and so CoL Hi 4. D f adds rffcX^o/ in Ιτ• ι ι, and 37 in zii. 14} 
zi 12 quae in ora est 

28 primogenita. 
zil. 5 fill! mei nolite. 

26 mouobat 
ziii 10 deeerrierani 

19 nt eelerins (/for/, nt quo). 
It agrees with Harl in 
L 12 amietom Innolnens eos (/fori inuoluee). 
z. 14 emandanit...uestram (se Bentl.). 
ziL 16 primitias suae. 
ziiL 18 habeamns. 

(b) The translation incorporated in the Vulgate appears to i&) The 
have been based upon a rendering originally distinct from that "^**° 
given by a\ from which it differs markedly in its general style no less 
than in particular renderings. It was in all probability not made 
by the author of the translation of St Paul's Epistles ; but this ques- 
tion requires a more complete examination than I hare been able to 
give to it The Greek text which it represents is much mixed. In very 
many cases it gives the oldest readings (e.g. i. 3 ; iii. i, 10; iv. 7 ; 
vi. 10; vii 21; viil 4, 12; ix. 9; x. 30, 34, 38; xi 11; xii. 18), 
but not unfrequently those which are later (e.g. i 12; v. 4; 
viiL 2, 11 ; ix. io, 11 ; xt 3 ; xii 28), and the best M8S. are often 
divided (e.g. ii 5, 14, 18). 

ϋ Syriac ii Syriae. 

(a) The version in the Syriac Vulgate (the PeekUo) is held to be Μ The 
the work of a distinct translator (Wiohelhaus, De vem. eimpl. 86), 
but the question requires to be examined in detail. The position 
which the Epistle occupies in the version (see § in.) is favourable to 
the belief that it was a separate work. The text of the Peshito in 
this Epistle is mixed. It contains many early readings (e.g. i. 2 ; 

▼• 3i 9; vi - 7» lo > vi5 • f 7> 23; ▼"*• "> «• " > *• 3°> 34» xi 4» 
32, 37; xii. 3, 7» 18)1 and many late readings (e.g. L 1,3, nj 


xxiv TEXT. 

ii 14; iii i, 9f.; vil 14, 21; viii 2,4; x. 34, 38; xi. 3, 4!; xii. 8; 
xiii 4). 

Many of the renderings are of interest (e.g. iL 9; iii. 8 ; iv. 
7 ; v. 7 t ; vL a, 4; vii 19, 26; x. 29, 33 ; xi. 17, 19, ao; xii 1 ; 
xiiL 16). 

Compare also the following passages: iL 13; iv. 8, 16; vii. a, 

11, ao; viii 9; x. 5, n, 17; xi ii l . 

to) The (6) The Hardean (Philoxenian) Syriac Version has now been 


made complete, the missing portion, xi. 28 to the end, being found 

in the Cambridge MS. Though the text represented by the 
Harclean version is generally of a later type than that represented 
by the Peshito where the two versions differ (e.g. i a, 3 ; viii. 4, 12 ; 
ix. io, 13, a8; x. 8, 30; xii. 3, 18), it preserves some earlier read- 
ings (e.g. i 5, 8; ii 14; v." 4; x. a, 9, a8, 30). In some doubtful 
eases the two versions represent different ancient readings (e.g. iii. 
13; iv. a; vii 4; ix. 10, 14; x. 11; xiii 15)*. 

The text of the missing portion has been printed by Prof. Bendy (The 
HarkUan Version of the Epistle to the Hebrew, chap, xi 28— xiii. 25, 
now edited/or the first time with Introduction and Notes on the version 
of the Epistle.... Cambridge, 1889). It contains the following variations 
from the text which I ha?o printed : 
xi 29 (&Οβησα*)+οΙ viol *UrpafL 

31 ή+ίπ(λβγομ4*η' •πάρρη. 

32 om. κα\ I*. 
Απλ. γαρ μ*. 

Β. re (or $coi Β.) «αϊ 2. καί 'L 
τω* + άλλων πρ. 
$4 στόμα. 
xii 3 fovroV or avroV. 

8 *Wo» iari col οΰχ vtoi 
1 1 πάσα 6V. 
l8 5pfi ψηλ. 
21 Μωνση^+γάρ. 

24 *βρο το rot *Α. 

25 wapatr. top Μ yfjs χρημ* 
28 ίχομ*». • .Xarpf voptp. 

aldovs κα\ cJXa/SWar. 
1 I have not thought it necessary to in the next page are not always giren 
quote all the renderings in the notes. expressly in the inner margin. 
• The readings referred to here and 

TEXT. χχν 

xiii 4*4». Κ 

6 +*αΐούφοβ. 

9 w* ραητήσα*τ€ t (probably). 
.. 15 toOvrov + ofo. 

18 πιποΐβαμιν. 

Ιχομιν 4ρ wwrtw (A connected). 

20 Ίησου9+Χρ*στί*. 

21 ontdyody. 
ip ύμΧ». 

om. τί* oUm». 
25 VApij*. 

iiL Egyptian. ill Sorpt- 

(a) Memphiiie (Coptic). The Epistle is contained entire in this (a) Ifem- 

early and important version. 

The Greek text which the version represents is of great 

excellence (e.g. i 2, 3, 8; ii 14; iii. i, 2, 9; iv. 12; v. 1; vii 4, 

23; Yin. 4, n ; ix. 2, 10, 11 ; x. 8, 15, 30, 34; xi. 3, 5, 11 ; xiL 18, 

20 ; xiii. 4); bnt it has an admixture of later readings (e.g. i 12 ; 

v. 10; τί. io, 16; vii. 21; viii 2, 12; x. x6, 38); and some readings 

which, though early, are certainly wrong (e.g. iL 6 ; ix. 14 ; x. 32 ; 

xiii 20). 

(() Thebaic (Sahidic). Of this version the following fragments lb) The- 

have been published : 

vii xi c( — 21 al&va. 

ix. 2 σκηψή IO Jitucc^mvo. 

ix. 24 ού γαρ-— 28 σωτηρία». 

Χ. 5 ^ — ΙΟ ίφάπα(. 

xi II «arret — 22 frtrcAam 

xii I roiyofxwv — 9 frcrpcro/icAx. 

1 8 οό γαρ — 27 σαληιό/Μνα. 

The value of the version may be seen by its renderings in the 

following passages : ix. io, 25, 26; xi. 11; xii 7, 18. 

(c) Baehmuric. The fragments of this version (quoted as JBg.) 9 (e) Bath- 

which was derived from the Thebaic, are 

v. 4 * Ααρών— 9 iyivtro. 

13 λογσν — vi 3 πονησομιτ. 

vi 8 — 11 ; 15 — vii. 5 ίντολι/ν (more or less mutilated). 

xxvi TEXT. 

vii 8 ατοθνήσκοντη — 13 ταύτα. 
1 6 ακατάλυτου — χ. 23 καθαρφ. 
The dependence of this version upon the Thebaic and the close 

agreement of the present text with that version in the passages 

which are found in both (yet see ix. 2, 4, xo) gives great value to 

its evidence where the Thebaic is defective (e.g. vii 4, 22, 23; 

viiL 1, 4, 11, 12; ix. ix, 13» 14; x. 4). Its agreement with Β 

and JEiK. in ix. 2, 4 is specially worthy of notice. 

The text of the Egyptian versions offers a singularly interesting 

field of study. It would be instructive to tabulate in detail their 

coincidences even in this single epistle with B, A and 0. 
Later The Epistle is found entire in the later versions, Armenian, 

J&thiopic, Slavonic It does not, however, seem to have been 

included in the Gothic; for the Epistle to Philemon is followed 

immediately by the Ealendar in the Ambrosian MS. A of the 

Epistles (E. Bernhardt, Vul/Ua oder die OoMacke -WW, s. xxiv. 

General The text of the Epistle is on the whole well preserved, but there 

of the text. *** *° me passages in which it is not unlikely that primitive errors 

have passed into all our existing copies; e.g. iv. 2 (Addit. note); 

xL 4 (Addit. note), 37; xii. 11; xiii 21; see also χ. χ (Addit. 

note). Some primitive errors have been corrected in later MSS. : 

vii. 1 ; xi 35. 

The following passages offer variations of considerable interest, 

and serve as instructive exercises on the principles of textual 

criticism: i 2, 8; ii 9 (Addit. note); iv. 2 (Addit note); vi 2, 3; 

ix. ix; x. 34; xi 13; xii 7. 

The general contrast between the early and later texts is well 

seen by an examination of the readings in: i. 2, 3, 12; ii. 1, 14; 

Hi. z, 9; v. 4; yi xo; vii. xx, 16; viii. 4, xx ; ix. x, 9, xo; xL 3, 

13; xii 15, 18, 20; xiii 9. 

TITLE. xxvii 


In the oldest MSS. (tfAB : is defective but it has the sub- The Title 
scription npoc eBp&ioyc) the title of the Epistle, like that of the other oldest 
Epistles to Churches, is simply npoc cBp&ioyc, * to Hebrews.' There M8S * 
is no title or colophon to the Epietle in D ff but it has a running . 
heading npoc eBpAioyc. 

The absence of title in D f is contrary to the usage of the MS. ; and it is 
also to be noticed that the colophon to the Epietle to Philemon (προς 
Φίλήμορα €π\ηρ*θη) gives no notice that any other Epietle is to follow, ae is 
done in other cases (e.g. npbs Τίτο» <π\ηρω$η, αρχ*ται προς Φιλήμονα). In 
fact the Epietle to Philemon ie followed by the Stichmnetry (Hist of 
Canon of iV. T. p. 563), and the Epistle to the Hebrews has been 
added by the Scribe ae an appendix to the archetype of the other 

The Egyptian versions (Memph. Theb.) have the same simple 
title : to the Hebrews. 

This title, as in other cases, was gradually enlarged. The Later 
Peshito Syriac and the New College MS. of the Harelean give men J*" 
the Epistle to Hie Hebrews: the Cambridge MS. of the Harelean 
Syriac gives in its title the Epistle to the Hebrews of Paul the 
Apostle, but in the subscription the Epistle is called simply tlie 
Epistle to the Hebrews. 

Later Greek MSS. give Πανλον ίπιστολή προς 'Εβραίους, as in the 
Epistle to the Romans &c, (P,), and, at greater length, τον αγίου και 
παν€νφήμου αποστόλου Παύλου Ιπιοτολη προς Εβραίους (L f ). Some- 
times historical statements are inwoven in the title : ίγράφη άπο 
'Ιταλίας θια Τιμοθέου ή προς Εβραίους επιστολή itcTtOtura ως 4ν πινάκι 
(Μ,); Παύλος απόστολο? Έβραίοις Tot8c συγγίνίσιν (f Scr). 

The title forms no part of the original document; but it The Title 
must have been given to the book at a very early date, when ^ ^ τ \γ 
it firet passed into public use as part of a collection of Apostolic da * e * 
letters. And it was rightly given in regard to the permanent 
relation which the book occupies to the whole message of the 
Gospel. For while the treatment of the subjects with which it 

xxviii TITLE. 

deala and the subjects themselves are of universal interest, the 
discussion is directed by special circumstances. The arguments 
and reflections in their whole form and spirit, even more than in 
special details, are addressed to 'Hebrews,' men, that is, whose 
hearts were filled with the thoughts, the hopes, the consolations, 
of the Old Covenant, such perhaps as, under another aspect, are 
described as ol U π€ριτομής (Acts x. 45 ; xi. 2 ; Gal. ii. 12 ; Col. 
iv. 11 ; Tit. i. 10). 

Tertullian has preserved an interesting notice of another name, 
which was given to the Epistle in North Africa, and which apparently 
dates from a time earlier than the formation of the collection of 
Apostolic Epistles. He quotes it definitely as Barnabm titvlus ad 
Hebrceos (de Pudic. 20) ; and there can be no reasonable doubt that 
the Epistle of Barnabas which is included in the African (Latin) 
Stichometry contained in the Cod. Clarom. (D,) refers to this book. 
There is not however the least evidence that it was ever called 'the 
Epistle to the Laodicenes ' (not iu Philastr. Uasr. 89 or Cod. Boern. 
GJ, or 'the Epistle to the Alexandrines ' (Can. Mural, fertur 
etiam ad Laudicenses [epistola], alia ad Alexandrinos, Pauli nomine 
finctee ad hsereseni Marcionis, et alia plura qua) in Catholicam 
eccleeiam recipi non potest) although it might be described as 
'directed to meet (προς τψ αφ€σιν) the teaching of Marcion.' 
(Comp. Hist. ο/Ν. T. Canon, p. 537.) 

Identified The identification of the Epistle of Barnabas of the Olaromontane 

with 'the Stichometry with the Epistle to the Hebrews was first suggested by 

Barnabas' Martianej (Jerome, Bibl. Div. Prolog, iv: Migne P. L. xxviii. 124), and 

in the Cla- maintained by Credner. Two books only can come into consideration, the 

romontane Apocryphal Letter of Barnabas and the Epistle to the Hebrews. These 

me try' are *° different iu length that when the question is one of measurement it 

is practically impossible to confuse them. In Cod. Sin. K, which contains 

both, the Epistle to tfte Hebrews occupies 40J columns and the Epistle of 

Barnabas 53 J columns ; and, to take another equivalent of the Epistle to 

the Hebrews, the Epistle to the Galatians, the Ephesians, and Titus 

together occupy 41 columns. It may then be fairly concluded that in 

any scheme of reckoning the Epistle to the Hebrews will give a number of 

lines (στίχοι) approximately equal to the combined numbers of the lines in 

these three Epistles, and that the Mines' in the Letter of Barnabas will be 

about a third more. Thus in the Greek numeration given by Martianay 

TITLE. xxix 

(lx.\ which is found in several MSS., the three Epistles give a total of 702 
(293 + 31 2 + 97) and the number assigned to Hebrews is 703. The numera- 
tion in the Claromontane list is different, but it leads to the same result : 
the three Epistles have a total sum of 865 (350+375 + 140), and the number 
assigned to 'the Epistle of Barnabas ' is 850. It would be difficult to add 
anything to the force of this correspondence. 

There is however another independent testimony to the relative length of 
the (apocryphal) Letter of Barnabas in the Stichometry of Nicephorus. In 
this the lines of the fourteen Epistles of 8t Paul are given only in a total 
sum: then the lines of Barnabas are reckoned as 1360, and the lines of the 
Apocalypse at 140a In other words, according to this calculation, which 
represents a different numeration from that given in the Claromontane 
Stichometry, the length in lines of the Epistle of Barnabas is a little 
lees than that of the Apocalypse. Now in the Claromontane list the 
line» of the Apocalypse are reckoned as 1200, and the lines of 'the 
Epistle of Barnabas' are 850. Taking then the proportion of the Hebrews 
to the apocryphal Barnabas in Cod. Sin., and assuming that the Claro- 
montane Barnabas is the Epistle to the Hebrews, the lines of the apocryphal 
Barnabas on this scale would be 1 1 50. Again the coincidence is practically 

The position of the Book in the Stichometry, after the Catholic Epistles 
and before the Revelation, the Acts of the Apostles and the Shepherd, 
Iiointe to the same conclusion ; nor would it be necessary in the case of the 
single letter of the supposed author to identify it further by the addition 
of the address. 

Little stress however can be laid on these details. The length of the 
apocryphal Barnabas absolutely excludes it ; and the exact agreement of 
the length of the book named with the Epistle to the Hebrews leaves no 
room for doubt as to their identification. 

Wherever the nature of the book is defined by early writers it is 
called an ' Epistle.' The description is substantially correct, though 
the construction of the writing is irregular. It opens without any 
address or salutation (comp. 1 John i. 1), but it closes with saluta- 
tions (xiii 24 f.). There are indeed personal references throughout, 
and in the course of the book there is a gradual transition from 
the form of an 'essay' to that of a 'letter': ii. 1 ; iii. 1, 12 ; iv. 1, 
14; v. 11 ; vi. 9; x. 19; xiii 7, 22 ff. 

The writer himself characterises his composition as λόγος irapa- 
κλησ€ως (xiii. 22 note) ; and the verb which he uses of his communi- 
cation (δια βραχίων άτέστ«λα I.e.), while it does not necessarily 
describe a letter (in Acts xxi. 25 the true reading is airccrrctXa/ici', 

xxx TITLE. 

and arurrcftcu in Acta xv. 20 ifl probably to enjoin), yet presupposes 
a direct personal address (arccrrcXXctv is used of the Epistle by 
Clem. Alex. op.'Euseb. //. E. vi. 14; comp. Clem. R. 1 Cor. 7, 47, 
[62]), though personal relationships are kept in the background till 
the end. 

The conjecture that the salutation at the opening of the Epistle has 
been removed cannot bo regarded as worthy of serious discussion. An 
'editor' who had mutilated the beginning of the book (to say no more) 
would not have left c. xiii. as it stands. 

It is of interest to notice the delicate shades of feeling marked by the 
transition from 'we* to 'ye' as the writer speaks of the hopes and trials and 
duties of Christians, *#. iii. 12, 13, 14; x. 22 ft, 25 f.; 36, 39; xii. i, 2, 3; 
8—12; 25, 28 f.; xiii. 5, 6; 9, 10; 15, 16. 

For the most part he identifies himself with those to whom he writes, 
unless there is some special point in the direct address : i. 2; ii. 1,3; 8 f. ; 
iii. 19; iv. 1 ff.; 11, 13 ft; vi. 1; 18 ff.; Til 26; viii 1; ix. 24; x. 10; xi. 


The place The places occupied by the Epistle in different authorities 

Epistle in indicate the variety of opinions which were entertained in early 

times as to its authorship. 

the oldest In the oldest Greek MSS. (((ABC) it comes immediately before 


MSS., t ne Pastoral Epistles following 2 These.; and this is the position 

which it generally occupies in MSS. of the Momphitic Version 

(Woide, App. Cod. Alex. N.T. p. 19 ; Lightfoot ap. Scrivener, Inirod. 

386 1, 390). This order is followed also by many later MSS. (H f P f 1 7 

&c.), and by many Greek Fathers, 
in the In Cod. Vol. Β there is important evidence that it occupied a 

n^mera- different position in an early collection of Pauline Epistles. In this 
tionofB, j£g there is a marginal numeration which shews that the whole 

collection of Pauline Epistles was divided, either in its archetype or 

in some earlier copy, into a series of sections numbered consecutively. 

In this collection the Epistle to the Hebrews came between the 

Epistles to the Galatians and to the Ephesians. 


The paragraphs in B, so far as they come under consideration here, 

NH* GaL v. 16, 
ΝΘ' Hebr. L 1. 

X — 

iii. 1. 

XA' — 

iv. 14. 

Xtf — 

Ti. 9 . 

xr — 

vii 19. 

ΕΔ' — 

ix. 11. 

The remainder of the Epistle 

accoonts for sections XE'- 






This arrangement preserved by Β approximates to that of the 
Thebaic and Bashmuric versions, in which the Epistle comes between 
2 Corinthians and Galatians (Zoega, CaL Codd. in Hue. Berg. 
pp. 1 86, 140; comp. Lightfoot αφ. Scrivener Ix. pp. 339, 404). 
Oasriodorus (Instii. 14) gives another arrangement of the same type, 
placing the epistle between Colossians and 1 Thessalonians. 

The order of the Books in a Latin ΜΘ. of St Paul's Epistles (glossed) 
in the Chapter Library at Westminster is worth quoting: Romans; 
1, 2 Corinth.; 1, 2 These.; 1, 2 Tim.; Gal., Eph., CoL, Phil., Hebr., Philm., 
Titus. The order is marked in the colophons, e.g. Explicit epistola ad 
Philippenses. Preefatio epistoto ad Hebneos; Explicit epistola ad 
HebraBOs. Incipit epistola ad Philemonem. 

In the Syriac versions the Epistle comes after the Pastoral in the 

Epistles and Philemon ; and this order, which was followed in the ^^ later 

mass of later Greek MSS. (K f L, &c), probably under Syrian in- Greek 

fluence, has passed into the ' Received text/ Compare Epiph. Hcer. 

xliL p. 373. 

The same order is found in Latin MSS. For in the West the in Latin 

Epistle did not originally form part of the collection of the writings 

of St Paul ; and other clear traces remain of the absence of the book 

from the Apostolic collection. Thus in Cod. Clarom. D t the Epistle, 

as has been seen, appears as an appendix to the Pauline Epistles, 

being separated from the Epistle to Philemon by the Stichoinetry. 

The archetype of this MS. and the original text from which the 

Qothio version was made, evidently contained only thirteen Epistles 

of St Paul. 


Another testimony to the collection of thirteen Epistles of St Paul is 
given by the remarkable Stichoinetry printed by Mommson from a MS. 
belonging to the Library of Sir T. Phillippe (Hermes, 1886, p. 146). 
Item indiculum novi testament! 
evangelia m£ Matheum vr π doo 
Marcus ver 00 doo 
Johannem vr ao dooo 
Luca vrinoco 
fiunt omnes versus χ 
eplae Pauli η xiii 
actus aplorum ver 111 do 
apocalipsis ver <x> dooo 
eplae Iohannis in. ur ooool 
una sola. 

eplae Petri n. ver. 000 
una sola. 

Thus at the earliest date at which we find a collection of St Paul's 
Epistles in circulation in the Church, the Epistle to the Hebrews 
was by some definitely included in his writings, occupying a place 
either among or at the close of the Epistles to Churches: by 
others it was treated as an appendix to them, being set after the 
private letters : with others again it found no place at all among the 
Apostolic writings. 


The The earliest direct notice of the Epistle, quoted by Euaebius 

oKjfenTent (P- E < vi * *4) fr° m Clement of Alexandria, states that it 'was 

th^th* written (by Paul) to Hebrews in the Hebrew language (i.e. the 

Epistle Aramaic dialect current in Palestine at the time, Acts xxii. 2) and 


written in translated (into Greek) by Luke.' (See § xi.) This statement 

was repeated from Eusebius (and Jerome who depended on him), 

as it appears, and not from Clement himself, by a series of later 

writers both in the East and West (Theodoret, Euthalius, John of 

Damascus, (Ecumenius, Theophylact» Primasius, Rabanus Maurus, 

Thomas Aquinas: see Bleek, 8 f.; Credner, Eird. 533), but there is 

not the least trace of any independent evidence in favour of the 


tradition, nor is it said that any one had ever seen the original 
Hebrew document The unsupported statement of Clement, which 
Origen discredit» by his silence, is thus the whole historical founda- 
tion for the belief that the Epistle was written in Hebrew. The 
opinion however was incorporated in the Glossa Ordinaria, and 
became the traditional opinion of the mediaeval Western Church. 
When Widmanstadt first published the Syriac text of the New 
Testament, he even argued that the text of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews was the original of St PauL The belief in a Hebrew 
original was maintained by one or two scholars in the last 
century (J. Hallet, J. D. Michaelis); and lately it has found a 
vigorous advocate in J. H. R. Biesenthal (Dae Trostschreiben d. 
Ap. Paulus an d. Hebraer, 1878; com p. Panek, Comnu in Ep. 
Prolcgg. § 2 ; 1882), who thinks that the Epistle was written in 
'the dialect of the Miahna, the language of the schools 1 in the 
apostolic age, into which he has again rendered the Greek. 

The words of Widmanstadt are : Ex quibus omnibus coniectunun non 
love capi posse arbitror, ct MathtoQ Euftgclium sua, ct Paula ad Uobncoe 
Epistolam sermone Syro, Ilebraici populi vulgari usu trito, ut a Iudeis 
passim omnibus intelligerentur, scripsisee, esq; in Syrorum Ecclesiis iam 
usq; a temporibus Apostolorum coservata fuisse (Nov. Test Syr. Prwf, 
a xxxxxx. 3, 1555). There is a small commentary based on the Syriac, 
published not many years afterwards, in which it is argued that : in Syro 
Paulo multa sunt qum non tantuni lucem adferunt obscurioribus sed etiam 
interpretum discussiones bellissinie componunt, ex grsecanicarum vocum 
ambiguitate prognatas (Enarratio Ep. ad Hebr. B. Pauli Apart, a Syro 
sermone in Latinum conversee, ex M. Galeni Vestcappellii prselectionibus 
concinnata opera ac studio Fr. Andreas Crocquetii...Duaci, 1578). 

The words of the Glossa Ordinaria are instructive as shewing how a 
statement grows precise by lapse of time: Hanc... epistolam ad Hebrseos 
conscriptam Hebraica lingua fertur apostolus misisse; cujus sensum et 
ordinem retinens Lucas evangelists post exceesum beati apostoli Pauli 
Grceco sermone composuit (Migne, P. L. cxiv. p. 643). 

Card. Caietan, writing in 1529, says that one of the two preliminary 
points which he must discuss is : * an haec epistola fuerit condita Hebraico 
sermone ut communiter supponitur.' He decides without hesitation against 
the common opinion. 

Not to dwell on the insufficiency of the statement of Clement, in χ η β 
the absence of all collateral external testimony, to justify the belief ^y^ 1 


worthy that the Epietle wae written in Hebrew, internal evidence appears 


opposed t° establish absolutely beyond question that the Greek text is 

internal original and not a translation from any form of Aramaic. The 

evidence of vocabulary, the style, the rhetorical characteristics of the work all 
language, •" ' 

and lead to the same conclusion. It is (for example) impossible to 

imagine any Aramaic phrase which could have suggested to a 
translator the opening clause of the Epistle, πολνμ€ρως και πολύτροπης; 
and similar difficulties offer themselves throughout the book in the 
free and masterly use of compound words which have no Aramaic 
equivalents (e.g. μ€τριοπαθ€Ϊν v. 2 ; €υπ€ρίστατος xii. 1). The 
structure of the periods is bold and complicated, and the arrange- 
ment of the words is often singularly expressive (e.g. ii. 9). Parono- 
masias (e.g. L 1 ; ii. 10; v. 8 ; vii. 23 f. ; ix. 28; x, 34, 38 £) are at 
least more likely to have been due to the writer than to have been 
introduced or imitated by a translator. But on the other hand stress 
must not be laid on a (falsely) assumed change in the meaning 
of διαθήκη in ix. 1 5 ffi, or the obviously fortuitous hexameter in the 
common text of xii. 13. 
of the A still more decisive proof that the Greek text is original lies in 

fromO™! the fact fchat the q u <>tations from the O. T. are all (except x. 30 ^Deut. 
xxxii. 35) taken from the lxx, even when the lxx differs from the 
Hebrew (e.g. ii. 7 παρ* αγγέλους; χ. 38 και idv υποστ€ίληται; xii. 5 f- 
μασηγοι). And arguments are based on peculiarities of the lxx, so 
that the quotations cannot have been first introduced in the transla- 
tion from Aramaic to Greek (e.g. x. 5 ff. σώμα κατηρτίσω ; xii. 26 £ 
No diffi- It may also be added that the passages in which difficulties in the 

interpret ^ ree ^ tex * are eupposed to be removed by the hypothesis of a false 
tation rendering of the original offer no solid support to the theory. 

by the hy- Scholars who allege them shew little agreement as to the difficulties 

or as to the solutions of them. Thus in the two lists given by 

Michaelis and Biesenthal, of eighteen and nineteen passages respec- 
tively, only four are identical (i. 2 ; vi. 19; ix. 17; χ. 1 ), and in these 
four the solutions are different 

The passages alleged by Michaelis (Bleek, i. p. 23 anm.) are i. 2 ; ii 1, 9; 


iii. 3 f. ; v. 13 ; vi. 14, 19; τη. 14 ; ix. 2—4, 14—17; *• 1 ; xi. ", 35 J **>• 
15, 18, 25 ; xiii. 9, 15. Those alleged by Bieeenthal are: i. 2 ; iL 3; iii. 13; 
iv. 12, 13 ; vi 19 ; vil 4, 5, 15, 27 ; yiii. 2 ; ix. 16 f. ; χ. χ, 1 1 ; xi. 26, 27 ; 
xiL 18. 


The letter is described in all existing copies as addressed ' to Aooording 

to the 
Hebrews ' ; and TertulJian, who assigned the authorship to Barnabas, earliest 

gave it the same destination (de Pudic. 20 Barnab» titulus ad ®™ enoe 

Hebrseos). There is, as has been already seen (§ m.), no evidence Epistle 

that it ever bore any other address. Though there is no reason to addressed 

suppose that the title is original, it expre sses at least the bel ief brews.' 

of those by τ-ηττη» fl "E ^ρ ϊα Ηη wnj* plA/*»d amnng t l ie apostolic 

Scri pture^ and describes truly the character of those for whom it 

was written, so far as their character can be determined from its 

general scope, as men who by birth and life were devoted to the 

institutions of Israel. 

The argument of von Soden (Jahrb. f. Protest. Theol 1884), who 
endeavours to shew that it was written to Gentiles, cannot be regarded as 
more than an ingenious paradox by any one who regards the general 
teaching of the Epistle in connexion with the forms of thought in the 
apostolic age. 

The term 'Εβραίος (or rather Εβραίο?) occurs in the N. T. in two senses Use in 

(a) of language: £ β ,Ν; Τ • 

Acts vi. Ι των 'Ελληνιστών npbs rovs 'Εβραίου*. brew,* 

(0) of descent : 

2 Cor. xi. 22 ΈβραΙοΙ ύσιν;..*\σραηΚάταΙ ίϊσιν;...σπ4ρμα * Αβραάμ 

Phil, ill 5 'Εβρ. 4ξ 'Εβραίων. 
The title properly describes ' the people from beyond the river Euphra- 
tes ' ; and is the national name of the race having regard to the divine call 
In this widest sense Ensebius speaks of Philo as 'Εβραίος: Η. Ε. ii. 4 το 
yivot άνίκαθ(Ρ 'Εβραίο? fa Comp. Η. E. iii. 4. 

The two other names by which Jews are styled in the Ν. T., 'Ιονόαίο* 
and Ίσραη\*ίτης 9 have each their distinct meaning. 

Ίοιώαΐο* is the name of the people as forming a religious commonwealth; '«feu?,' 
and is used of the people especially after the Return (1 Cor. L 22 ff. ; 
Apoc ii. 9). 

Hence in the Gospel of St John '.the Jews' (ol Ίονδαΐοι) is the common 


title for those who stood apart from Christ and represented the nation from 
the side of unbelief. 
4 Israelite.' Ισραηλίτης is the name of special privilege. 

John L 48 (47) ; Acts ii. 22 ; iii. 12 ; v. 35 ; xiii. 16 ; xxi. 28 ; Rom. ix. 
4 ; xL 1 ; 2 Cor. xi. 22. 

In connexion with ΊσραηΧύτης the phrases ol viol *\σραη\ (c xL 22 note), 
6 Xaot Ίσραηλ, * Ισραήλ (Rom. ix. 6\ ο 'Ισραήλ (John i. 31 note), 6 Ισραήλ 
τον $€ov (Gal vi. 16), must be studied. See also σνίρμα * Αβραάμ it 1 6 

In itself the title 'Hebrew 1 is not local but national. It 

describes a quality of race and not of dwelling. We have to inquire 

therefore whether the Epistle enables us to define this wide term 

more exactly. 

Traits of At once we find that the book contains numerous indications of 


Society * ne circumstances and character of those to whom it was written. 

addressed. Th ere fc no trace of any admixture of heathen converts among 

them; Tgr f fofli tl•^ ]«*t** ^nflh fl n any of the topics of heathen 

co ntroversy (not xiii. 9, see note). It is therefore scarcely possible 

that it could have been written to a mixed Church generally,f]gr_ to 

the Jew ish 8Qc tion__of «■ mi**^ nhiirnh In either case allusions to 

the relations of Jew and Gentile could scarcely have been avoided. 

They were a sm all body (v. 12), and they were addressed 
separately from 'their leaders' (xiii. 24). At the same time they 
were in a position to be generous, and for this trait they were and 
had been distinguished (vi. 10). 

Their special trials came through disappointment of their first 
expectations. They had failed to grow under the discipline of 
experience, and so had degenerated: v. 11 f. (νωθροί ycyoVarc) ; 
vi. 1 ; x. 25. 

The widening breach between the Church and the Synagogue 
rendered it necessary at last to make choice between them, and ' the 
Hebrews' were in danger of apostasy : ii. 1, 3 ; iii. 6, 12 ff. ; iv. 1, 
3, 11; vi. 6 ; x. 25, 29, 39. They had need therefore of effort and 
patience: iv. 14; vi. 11 f. ; x. 23, 36; xii. 1, 3 ff., 12 ff. 

In earlier days they had borne reproach and hardships: x. 32 ff.; 
still they 'had not yet resisted unto blood ' : xiL 3 ff. ; though some 
at least 'in bonds' claimed their sympathy and help : xiii. 3 ; and 


perhaps their former 'leaders' had suffered even to martyrdom: 
xiii. 7. 

From these individual traits it is clear that the letter is addressed General 
to a definite Society and not to * Hebrew 9 Christians generally. This thriow A 
is proved yet more directly by the feet that the writer hoped to JJJSe^ 
visit them (xiii 23) as ho had been with them before (xiii. 19). At *** Flrrt 
the same time, though he spoke of them as 'brethren' (Hi. 1 note) 
and 'beloved' (vL 9, note), he does not speak of them as 'children' 

The living picture of the character and position of this definite 
and marked Society will repay careful study (v. 11 & ; vi. 9 £L ; 
x. 32 ff. > xii 3 ff.) ; and whatever obscurity may hang over its local 
position, its spiritual features stand out with vivid clearness. We 
have in the Epistle to the Hebrews a picture of early Christian life 
such as is drawn in detail nowhere else (compare 3 John), and which 
etui, as we must see, .represents a necessary phase in the growth of 
the Church. The first enthusiasm and the first hope had, as we shall 
notice later, passed away. Believers began to reckon loss and gain. 
Some were inclined to overrate the loss ; and we learn elsewhere that I 
dark clouds hung over the olose of the apostolic age. Oomparef 
2 Tim. i. 15 ; Apoc. ii. iii. ; 2 Pet iiL 1 ff. ; 1 John ii. x8 ff. 

We might have expected it to be otherwise, and we do in fact 
unconsciously clothe the first centuries in light But in this Letter 
the reality of imperfection meets us ; and in the very sadness of the 
portraiture we feel with fresh foroe that Christianity is historical, 
entering into life and subject to the common influences of life. 

And more than this : we learn from this Epistle that the early 
difficulties of Churches were not dealt with tentatively, as if the , 
truth were the result of the free conflict of thought. The false view 
was met at once by the corresponding lesson. Error called out the 
decisive teaching but it had no part in creating it. 

The phase of feeling traced in the Epistle has been spoken of as The trial 
a necessary one in the development of Christian life. It is not *ώ 
difficult to see how this was so. Those who suffered in the trial were faeYttaWe • 
Jews ; and the narrative of the Acts shews plainly with what loyal 
W. H. 1 d 



devotion the first believers from among the Jews observed the Law. 
Even at a later date St Paul before the Sanbedrin claimed to be a 
true Jew. For a time this fellowship of the Church and Synagogue 
was allowed on both sides. Little by little the growth of the Gentile 
element in the Church excited the active hostility of the Jews 
against the whole body of Christians! es it troubled the Jewish 
converts themselves. This hostility could not fail to be intensified 
in Palestine by the spread of aggressive nationalism there shortly 
before the outbreak of the Jewish war (comp. Jos. de B. J. ii. 23, 
1 29 ffi ; iv. ι χ ff.) ; and it is not unlikely that the solemn cursing of the 
. heretics (Minim) in the Synagogues! which became an established 
custom after the fall of Jerusalem (Weber AlUynag. Thacl. 147 f.), 
may have begun from that time (comp. Just M. DiaL 16 and Otto's 
' note; Epiph. Ilasr. xxix. 9, i. p. 124). 
The Urns Meanwhile the Jewish converts had had ample time for realising 
slowly the true relations of Christianity and Judaism. Devotion to Levi- 
tical ritual was no longer innocent! if it obscured the characteristic 
teaching of the Gospel The position which rightly belonged to 
young and immature Christians was unsuited to those who ought to 
.have reached the fulness of truth (v. χ χ ff.). Men who won praise 
for their faith and constancy at the beginning of a generation which 
was emphatically a period of transition! might well deserve blame 
and stand in peril of apostesy! if at the end of it they simply 
remained where they had been at first When as yet the national 
unbelief of the Jews was undeclared! it was not possible to foresee 
that the coming of Christ would bring the overthrow of the old order. 
The approaching catastrophe was not realised in the earlier apostolic 
writings. In the Epistle to the Hebrews it is shewn to be imminent. 
In the Gospel and Epistles of St John it is, as it were, lost in the 
fulness of the life of the Church. ' 

The very remarkable account which Hegesippus has given of the death 
of James the Just (c 63 a.».), the brother of the Lord, preferred by Eusebius 
(H. B. n\ 23), supplies, with all its strange and exaggerated details! a com- 
mentary both on the Jewish feeling towards Christiana and on the Christian 
feeling towards Jews in Jerusalem about this time• 


We can see then generally what was the character of the body to Such a 

whom the letter was addressed. Where can we look for euch a naturally 

bodyt Some have found it in the 'Hebrew» Christians of Asia J^b^thJ 

Minor generally, or in some special congregation of Syria, AsiaP rie8 *jy 

Minor, Greece, Italy or Africa, and more particularly at Antioch Judaism 

or Rome or Alexandria. Lately the opinion that the letter was dominant, 

addressed to the Roman Church has found considerable favour. But 
the dominant conception of the Old Testament Institutions as cen- 
tering in sacrificial and priestly ordinances seems to be fatal to all 
these theories which are not supported by any direct evidence, for 
no conclusion can be fairly drawn as to the original destination of 
the Epistle from the fact that Clement of Rome was acquainted with 
it. Such a view, unlike that of the observance of special days or 
meats, must be generally dependent in a large measure upon local 
circumstances of a narrow range. It is possible indeed that special 
circumstances with which we are unacquainted may have influenced 
the feelings of a small society, and there was in fact a ' Synagogue 
of Hebrews' at Rome (Schttrer Gesch, d Jild. Pbi&ee....ii. 517 
συναγωγή Α2βρά»ν), but we naturally look, if there is nothing to 
determine our search otherwise, to some place where Judaism would 
present itself with practical force under this aspect 

In this way our choice is limited to Egypt, with the Temple 
at Leontopolis, and to Palestine, with the Temple at Jerusalem. 
Nowhere else would the images of sacrifice and intercession be 
constantly before the eye of a Jew. 

There is very little evidence to shew that the Temple at Leonto- not in 

Egypt, but 
polis exercised the same power over the Alexandrian Jews as that 

at Jerusalem exercised over the Palestinian Jews and the Jews 

generally. Even in Egypt the Temple at Jerusalem was recognised 

as the true centre of worship. Nor is there the least ground for 

thinking that any of the divergences in the Epistle from the details 

of the Temple ceremonial coincide with peculiarities in. the service 

at Leontopolis. On the contrary, the furniture of the Temple at In 

Jerusalem was more like that of the Tabernacle, which is described 

in the Epistle, than was that of the Egyptian Temple. But on the 



other hand it ia certain that the kind of feeling which the Epistle is 

designed to meet must have been powerful at Jerusalem and in its 

neighbourhood. The close connexion of the early Church with the 

Temple, the splendour and venerable majesty of the ritual, could not 

fail to make the thought of severance from Judaism most grievous 

to those who had hitherto been able to share in its noblest services 

according to the custom of their youth. 

The Nor is it a serious objection to this conclusion that the Temple 

worship k nowhere mentioned in the Epistle and that the ritual details are 

thoritative t ^ ose °^ ^ θ Tabernacle and not those of the second Temple. The 

embodi• readers were influenced by the actual form in which the Mosaic 

ment of ' 

the Mosaic ordinances were embodied. The writer, perhaps from his external 

oircumstances or more probably in order to lay his reasoning on its 

deepest foundation, goes back to the first institution of the system. 

He shews how the original design of the priestly ritual of the Law, 

and therefore of necessity of all partial and specific embodiments 

of it, was satisfied by Christ The Temple service, with all its 

peculiarities, finally drew its sanotion from the Law. The ritual of 

the Tabernacle was the divine type of which the ritual of the Temple 

was the authoritative representation. And according to the popular 

tradition it was believed that 'the tabernacle' and its furniture, 

which had been removed by Jeremiah from the first Temple before 

its destruction, would in due time be restored (a Mace ii 4 ff. and 

Grimm's notes). 

though it And further it must be added that the Temple, like the Kingdom 

Was S 

religious with which it was coordinate, was spiritually a sign of retrogression. 

eion? 1 ** waa An eQ deavour to give fixity to that which was essentially 

provisional. And thus the writer of the Epistle, by going back 

to the fundamental legislation, significantly indicates that the Mosaic 

Law first found accomplishment in Christ and not in that outward 

Levitical system in which it seemed superficially to receive its perfect 


The It is then most reasonable from general considerations to find the 

Society of 

* Hebrews' Society to whom the letter was addressed in Jerusalem, or in the 

probably neighbourhood of Jerusalem. 


In accordance with this view it may be added that Eusebius *t or near 

speaks on another authority (l( ίγγράφων) of the Church of Jerusalem ealem. 

up to the time of the revolt under Hadrian as having ' been wholly 

composed of Hebrews 9 (σνν€στάναι την πασαν ΙκκΧησίαν i( Εβραίων 

ιπστων HJS. iv. 5; comp. vi. 14). Up to the same date all the 

bishops were c of the circumcision' (£&). 

So also in the Clementine Homilies (xi. 35) ' James that is called 
brother of the Lord ' is said to be ' entrusted with the administration 
of the Church of the Hebrews in Jerusalem' (ircirtoTcv/tfro? iv 
*ΐ€ρσνσαλημ την Εβραίων ouVciv Ικκλησίαν), and 'the letter of Clement' 
prefixed to the same work is addressed to 'James the Lord and 
bishop of bishops, who administers the holy Church of Hebrews in 
Jerusalem ' (δίήτοντι την iv Ί*ρονσα\ήμ. αγίαν Εβραίων ΙκκΧησίαν). 

It may therefore be fairly concluded that when the title *γ>ο$ 
'Εβραίους was added to the Epistle, it was an expression of the belief 
that the letter was addressed to the Church of Jerusalem or some 
sister Church in Palestine dependent upon it 

In this restricted sense the title might perhaps be original, though this 
supposition is, as has been seen, otherwise unlikely. Compare the title το 
Kaff Εβραίους ruayytKiov. 

The conclusion which has been reached is not beyond doubt, The 
but it satisfies the conditions of the problem most simply. mU8t 
It is indeed possible that exceptional circumstances, which it is ^Srtain 
impossible for us now to determine, may have given occasion to the 
letter. It is, for example, quite conceivable, as has been already 
admitted, that a society of ' Hebrews ' at Rome may have been led 
to develop the sacrificial theory of Judaism and to insist upon it and 
so to call out ' the word of exhortation.' Such conjectures, however, 
need not detain us. It is well to recognise how little we can determine 
by the help of the data at present available. That which is beyond 
doubt, that which indeed alone concerns us, is the spiritual character 
of the readers of the Epistle. This we can definitely grasp wherever 
it may have been developed. And it is unquestionable that it 
would be likely — most likely — to be developed in Palestine. 

W. Grimm has discussed in considerable detail (Ze%Uchr\fi 


/! wisaemcJ^ Theol. 1870, 19 ff.) the claims of Rome, Jerusalem, and 
Alexandria to be considered as the place to which the Epistle was 
directed. He decides against all, and suggests Jamnia. It is better 
however to acquiesce in simply recognising the conditions which 
the place must satisfy. 


The The date of the Epistle is fixed within narrow limits by its 


written contents. A generation of Christians had already passed away (xiii. 

the out- ™ 7 > "' 3)' Th ere na d been space for great changes in religious 

«U^t* °{ h ' βθ '* η β ( χ • 3 2 )> an< * * or religious growth (v. 11 f.). 

war. On the other hand the Levitical service is spoken of as still 

continued (viii. 4 f. ; ix. 6, 9 ; x. 1 ffi ; xiii 10 ffi ) ; and, even if the 

references to its present continuance could be explained away (corap. 

Just Decl. 117 ; Orig. c. CeU. v. 25), it is inconceivable that such a 

national calamity as the Jewish war should bo unnoticed if it had 

already broken out, and still more, if it had been decided. Indeed 

the prospect of exclusion from the privileges of the old service is the 

very essence of the trial of ' the Hebrews ' ; and the severity of the 

trial k in itself a decisive proof of the influence which the Temple 

ritual exercised at the time. 

The letter may then be placed in the critical interval between 

a.d. 64, the government of Geasius Floras, and 67, the commencement 

of the Jewish War, and most probably just before the breaking of 

the storm in the latter year, as the writer speaks of the visible signs 

of the approach of ' the day ' (x. 25 ; comp. viii. 13 fyyite αφανισμού) ; 

and indicates the likelihood of severer trials for the Church (xii. 4 

οΰιτω, xiii. 13 f.). 

In order to place the Epistle in its historical setting it may bo added 
that Nero was in Greece at the time, endeaTouring to enter into the old 
spirit of Greek art; Apollonius of Tyana was teaching at Rome. The Are 
at Rome, which first brought the Christians into popular notice, took place 
in a. d. 64, and St Paul was martyred in the next year. 

DATE. xliii 

This general conclusion can hardly be questioned if the significance The de- 


of the Fall of Jerusalem is realised. That catastrophe was notofJeru- 

relieved, as the Babylonian overthrow had been, by any promise of mne | 

restoration. To the Christians it was the fulfilment of the Lord's }^eted 

final judgment, the sign of His coming. No event in such a^bad 

connexion could mark more distinctly the close of the old Dispensa- 
tion; and no one who sympathised with the best hopes of Israel 
could have failed to leave some trace of the effect of the visitation 
in his argument, when the tragic event was not only fresh in his 
memory but also had a close connexion with his theme. 

The theories which assign the Epistle to a later date, after the 
persecution of Domitian, or in the time of Trajan, seem to be 
utterly irreconcilable with the conditions and scope of the writing. 


Tradition is silent as to the place from which the Epistle was The place 
written. No independent authority can be given to the subscription uncertain, 
which is found in Α Ιγράφη am» 'Ρω/ωρ. This, as in the case of 
similar subscriptions to the other Epistles, appears to have been a 
deduction from words in the Epistle itself (xiii. 23 f.). And so it 
is given in the words of the text and enlarged in later MSS.: e.g. 
P f , άγραφη απο Ιταλίας. Κ,, ΙγρΛφη aw6 Ίταλ/α* Sea Τψοθίου. Η,, 
Πανλον αποστόλου iwurrokrj προς Εβραίους ίγρόφη αιτο Ιταλίας tea 
Τιμοθέου. Nor again is there anything in the Epistle itself which 
leads to a definite conclusion. No argument can be drawn from 
the mention of the release of Timothy (xiii. 23), for nothing is 
known of the event to whioh reference is made; and the phrase 
ασπάζονται νμ*ς ol aire της *1ταλίας (xiii. 34), whioh seems at first 
sight to promise more, gives no certain result. For the words 
admit grammatically of two opposite renderings. They may de- 
scribe Italian Christians in their own country, or Italian Christians 
in a foreign land. The first sense is given by the translation (which 
is certainly possible), 'those in Italy send salutations from Italy,' 


where the preposition is conformed to the idea of the verb '(oomp. 
Luke xi. 13 ό πατήρ i J£ ουρανού όωσβι. Math. xxiv. 17 ipcu τά U 
τής οΙκίας. OoL iv. 16 τήν Ik Aaoouccaic [Ιιτιστολην] with Bp light- 
foot's note) ; and more simply by the translation * those who belong 
to Italy/ the Italian Christiana (oomp. Acts x. 23 τώ> «το τη* 
Ίόππη*. xii. 1 rw ά*Ό τγ« Ικκλφτάβ. xvii. 13 ol άιτο της θεσσαλονί- 
κη* Ιουδαίοι) ; and in this sense a close parallel has been pointed out 
in PeeucL-Ign. ad Her, 8 ασπάζονται σι ot ΙιησκοιπΗ...καί «-aires ol aVo 
Φιλ^ππι* Jf Χοιστφ Jflcv <ca2 ararrciXu σοι. But it is difficult to 
understand how any one could give the salutations of the Italian 
Christians generally (as distinguished from ol euro 'Ρω /up, or the like) ; 
so that it appears on the whole to be more natural to adopt the 
second rendering ('the Christians from Italy '), and to suppose 
that the writer is speaking of a small group of friends from Italy, 
who were with him at the time. So far the words seem to favour 
a place of writing in Asia, Syria, or Egypt. In any case, however, 
it is impossible to lay stress upon a clause which evidently had a 
particular and special sense for those to whom the message was sent 
The place of writing must then be left in complete uncertainty. 
Plausible conjectures unsupported by evidence cannot remove our 
ignorance even if they satisfy our ouriosity. 


The language of the Epistle is both in vocabulary and style 
purer and more vigorous than that of any other book of the N.T. 
i. Vooabu- *• The vocabulary is singularly copious. It includes a large number 
jJ3eSe. of words which are not found elsewhere in the apostolio writings, 
very many which occur in this book only among the Greek Scriptures, 
and some which are not quoted from any other independent source. 
Even when allowance is made for the requirements of the peculiar 
topics with which the. writer deals, the number of peculiar words is 
still remarkable. In the Pastoral Epistles however the proportion is 
still greater. 


Dr Thayer reckons the same number of peculiar words (168) in the 
Pastoral Epistles and the Epistle to the Hebrews, but the latter is the 
longer in about the proportion of 21 to 15. 

The following words are not quoted from any source independent of the («) Pecu- 
Epistle: άγηκάλόγν** (vil 3)» αίματεκχυσία (ix. 22); ίκτρομος (xii. 21 liarworde • 
inarg.) ; ευπερίστατος (xii. 1) ; θεατρίζει» (χ. 33 ; ίκθεατρίζειν in Polyb.) ; 
μισθαποδοτης (xi. 6) and μισθαποδοσία (ii. 2 ; x. 35 ; xi. 26) for the Classical 
μισθοδστης and μισθοδοσία; πρόσχυσις (xi. 28); σνγκακουχεΐν (xi. 25); 
τελειωτης (xii. 2). 

The list of classical words which are found in the Epistle and in no (&) Words 
other part of the Greek Scriptures is large: άκλιής (x. 23); άκροθίνιον (yj 1 ^ 
(vii. 4) ; αλυσιτελής (xiii. 1 7) ; άμήτωρ, άπάτωρ (vii. 3) ; άναλογίζεσθαι (xii. 3) ; on i y f 
άνασταυρουν (vi, 6) ; άνταγωνίζεσθαι (xii. 4); διόρθωση (ix. ίο); (κδοχη (χ. 27); theGreek 
εκλανθανει» (xii 5); ίνυβρίζειν (χ. 29); ίπεισαγωγη (vii. 19); f ύαρ4στως ®° rip * 
(xii. 28); κατάδηλος (vii. 15); κατασκιάζειν (ix. 5); όγκο* (xii. 1); iropairXijatW 
(it. 14); συμπαθειν (iv. 15; X. 34) ; συνεπιμαρτνρην (ii. 4); τομω*τερος (iv. 12); 
aretcfc* (xiii 1 7). 

Other words peculiar to the Epistle among Biblical writings belong to 
the later stage of Greek Literature : 

άθετησις (vii. 18; ix. 26); αβλησις (χ. 32); όκοτάλντοΓ (vii. 16); αμετάθετος 
(vi. 17 f.); απαράβατος (vii. 24); άφορα» (xii. 2); δυσιρμήνε υτος (v. Ii); cvirotta 
(xiii 16); καταγωνίζεσθαι (xi. 33); Acvtrucor (vii. Ii); μεσιτεύειν (vi. 17); 
μττριοπαΒειν (v. 2) ; πολυμερως, iroXurpoirof (i. i) ; σαββατισμός (iv. 9) ; 
τραχηλίζει» (iv. 1 3) ; τνμπανίζειρ (xL 35); Λτοστολι} (χ. 39). 

A very large number of words used by good Greek authors and fouud (e) Words 
also in the lxx. are found in this Epistle only in the New Testament : ™ und m 
atytos (-twf ,) αισθητήρων, αίτιος, ανακαινίζει», αναρίθμητος, άντικαταστηναι, nge ^ ^ ' 
«fcrripor, αποβλέπει», αρμός (ApoCT.), αφανής, αφανισμός, άφομοιοΰν (Apocr.), this Book 
βοτάνη, γεν^αλογειν, γεωργεα* (Apocr.), γνόφος, δαμαλις, δεκάτη, δίος (Apocr.), ° η, £ of 
δέρμα, δημιουργός (ApOCT•), διάταγμα (Apocr.), Αιιμ* *ιρ , too* ισθαι, δοκιμασία, 
jyyvos (Apocr.), ίκβαίνει», Ζλεγχος, έξις (Apocr.), ίπίλείπει», cViraoircu', ftroff, 
cvaptoTctr, ευλάβεια, ευλαβεϊσθαι, θεράπων, θύελλα, θυμιατηριον, Ιερωσυνη, 
ίκετηρως, κακουχία*, καρτερειν, καταναλίσκεα», κατάσκοπος, καυσις, μερισμός, 
μετάάεσις, μετέπειτα (Apocr.), μυελός, νέφος, νόθος (ApOCT.), νομοθετεϊν, νωθρός 
(Apocr.), όμοιστης, πανηγυρις, παραδειγματίζειν, παραπίπτειν, παραρρειν, πείρα, 
πηγννναι, πρίζιιν (πρίειν), προβλίπειν, πρόδρομος (Apocr.), προσαγορεύει» 
(Apocr.), πρίσφατος, στάμνος, σνναπολλυναι, συνδεΐν, τιμωρία, τράγος, τρίμηνος, 
φαντάζει», φοβερός, χαρακτηρ (Apocr.)• 

The non-classical words found in the lxx. which are found only in this 
Epistle in the Ν. T. are comparatively few : 

άγνόημα, αίνεσις, απαύγασμα (ApOCT.), δεκατονν, ίγκαινίζειν, εμπαιγμός, 
θίλησις, λειτουργικός, μηλωτή, όλιθρενειν, ορκωμοσία, παραπικραίνει», πρώτο- 

A study of the lists of words in these three different classes will 
illustrate the freedom and power with which the author of the 


Epistle dealt with the resources of the Greek language. His love 
for compound words is characteristic of the period at which he wrote, 
but their number is largely in excess of the average of their occur- 
rence in the Ν. T. 

Seyffarth has calculated that there are in the Epistle to the Romans 
478 ' Yocabula composita et decomposite* and in the Epistle to the Hebrews 
534 (De sp. ad Hebr. indole, § 40, 1821. This Essay contains good 
materials, but they require careful sifting). 

Words The number of words found in the Epistle which have a peculiar 

with a 

peculiar Biblical sense is comparatively small. Some are derived from the 

™ ω1 Greek translation of the books of the Hebrew Canon (e.g. αγάπη, 
αγγιλος, άϊκλφός, aliv, άναφίρα,ν, ο διάβολος, ιλαστηριον, καθορίζων, 
κληρονομά? «fee., Xcirovpyco' &C, μακροθυμία, όμολογ€ΐν, watScia, π€ψάζ€ΐν, 
πιστι?, πρωτότοκος, σάρκινος, φωτίζ€ΐν, χάρις), some from the Apocrypha 
(e.g. Ικβασις, κοινός, κόσμος, κτίσις), some owe their characteristic 
force to Christian influences (απόστολος, κοσμικός). 

The absence of some words (e.g. πληρούν, cvayycAtov, οΙκο8ομ€ΐν, 
μνστήριον, σνν) is remarkable. 

ii. Style. ii. The style is even more characteristic of a practised scholar 

than the vocabulary. It would be difficult to find anywhere 
passages more exact and pregnant in expression than i. 1 — 4; ii. 
14 — 18; viL 26 — 28; xii. 18 — 24. The language, the order, the 
rhythm, the parenthetical involutions, all contribute to the total 
effect The writing shews everywhere traces of effort and care. In 
many respects it is not nnlike that of the Book of Wisdom, but it 
is nowhere marred by the restless striving after effect which not 
unfrequently injures the beauty of that masterpiece of Alexandrine 
Greek. The calculated force of the periods is sharply distinguished 
from the impetuous eloquence of St Paul. The author is never 
carried away by his thoughts. He has seen and measured all that 
he desires to convey to his readers before he begins to write. In 
writing he has, like an artist, simply to give life to the model which 
he has already completely fashioned. This is true even of the 
noblest rhetorical passages, such as c. xi. Each element, which 
seems at first sight to offer itself spontaneously, will be found to 


have been carefully adjusted to its place, and to offer in subtle 
details results of deep thought, so expressed as to leave the 
simplicity and freshness of the whole perfectly unimpaired. For 
this reason there is perhaps no Book of Scripture in which the 
student may hope more confidently to enter into the mind of the 
author if he yields himself with absolute trust to his words. No 
Book represents with equal clearness the mature conclusions of 
human reflection. 

The contrast of the Style of the Epistle to that df 8t Paul may be Contrast 

noticed m the passages which are quoted as echoes of 8t PauPs language : ™*h &f 

style of 
ii ία Comp. Rom. xL 36. St Paul 

IB. 6. V.2. 

xL 12. ir. ία 

The richer fulness of expression is seen in corresponding phrases : e.g. 
OoL til 1, compared with α xii 2 (note). 

The writer does not use St Paul's rhetorical forms rl ofot rt yap ι &V 
ipti rtr..., μ% yfeoiro, Spa ofl», oifo Ματ* (Oredner JBinL & 547). On the 
other hand we notice the peculiar phrases, mk firot clircir, cfc rb θιιριβά, 
Tka&o» {owrairf r, and the particle $6*r. 

Soyflarth has rightly called attention to the relative frequency of the 
uso of participial constructions in the Epistle : Octogies atque quater in... 
epistola habes participia actira, centies et septiee participia passiva et 
media, atque sopties genitivos absolutes... In epistola.. .ad Romanos maltum 
twolixiori nonngies ropori constructionom quam dicttnt partidpialom activam, 
riiimloquadrageelo* tanttim coti*tructloitom partlciplnlom passiram atquo 
medium, noc tainon ullibi genitivos absolutes. Docies tantum Paulus 
apostolus, qnatitttm vidi, in omnibus opistolis suis utitur gonitivis absolutis 
plorumqno contra regulas a grammaticis soriptas...(<fc ep. ad Hebr. indole 

Some correspondences with the Epistles of 8t Paul to the Romans (in 
addition to those gfren above) and Corinthians (1) which have been 
collected (Holtsmann Eitd. 315 1) deserve to be quoted, if only to shew the 
difference of style in the Epistle to the Hebrews : vi. 12 f. (Rom. iv. 13, 20); 
x. 38 (Rom. L 17); xii 14 (Rom. xii. 18; χίτ. 19); xiii. 1 (Rom. xii. 10); 
id. 2 (Rom. xii. 13); id. 9 (Rom. χίτ. 3 f.); ii. 4 (1 Oor. xiL 4, 7— -n); id 8 
(1 Cor. xv. 27); id 10(1 Cor. viiL 6); id 14 (1 Cor. xv. 26); til 7—19; 
xiL 18—25 (1 Cor. x. 1— 11) ; v. 12 (1 Cor. iii. 2); v. 14 (1 Cor. ii. 6); vL 3 
(1 Cor. xvL 7); ix. 26 (1 Cor. x. 11); x. 33 (1 Cor. iv. 9); xiii. 10 (1 Cor. x. 
14—21); id. 20 (1 Cor. viL is i xiv. 33). Besom. 

The eloso resemblance of the language of the Epistle to that of 8t Luke blanoe 
was noticed by Clement of Alexandria (op. Euseb. H. & vl 14.. Λουκά* ° f *he 
[φησΙ*\>.μ*βιρμχρκΰσα*τα Acdovrat rott Ί&λησι*• b*6w top tdrbv χρωτα ^ fa^of 
*νρίσκ*σ6αί κατά τηρ ίρμηριία» ταύτη* τ# τηψ fnterokrjs «αϊ twv ηράξίωρ — the St Lake. 


form of expression Is remarkable), and hit criticism was repeated by later 
writers. The significance of the coincidences may have been overrated, but 
no impartial student can mil to be struck by the frequent use of words 
cha r acte r istic of St Luke among the writers of the N.T. «4. ouyuyirvpcafa 

(iL 6), αρχηγέ (it ίο), l$*r (iL Ι7λ Μσκ*σ6* (ϋ 17), μίτοχο* (iiL l), 
wtpuulUr&tu aeons, (τ. 2), cMcm (tL 7), «orooV vyffi» (ri 18), «arpc^Px^f (viL 4) 
fir re *αιτ«λά (rii. 25), age Mr (is. 22), <Wr«por (x. 8), »αρο£νσ/*ο* (x. 24), 
vvapfa (x. 34), άαστώτί»? rvyxlaw» (xi. 35), Ζντρομος (xiL 2l), «nftcvrof 
(xii. 28), ol tfyo^oi (xiil 7^ <ba*«pctr (xiiL 7). 

Imagery The imagery of the Epistle is drawn from many sources. Some 

Epistle. °' the figures which are touched more or leas in detail are singularly 
vivid and expressive: iv. 12 (the word η sword); vi 7 £ (the land 
fruitful for good or evil); vi 19 (hope the anchor) ; xL 13 (the vision 
of the distant shore) ; xii. 1 (the amphitheatre) ; 8 ff. (the discipline 
of life). A whole picture often lies in single words: iL 1 (wapa- 
pwS/icr); iv. a (σν¥Κ€κ*ρασ μένος -evt); 9 (σαββατισμός) ; 13 (τιτραχη• 
λισ /Uyo); v. s (π€ρίκ€ΐται άσβίν€να.ν ί οοιηρ. χ. 1 1 «•φκλώ'); vL χ 
φ€ρωμ*θα); 6 (άκασταυροΰκτ^) ; viii. 5 (σκιά, comp. ix. 23 £; x. ι 9 "); 
13 (yqymcrKo^) ; χ. 2θ (08ος {<*"*); 33 (θ**τριζ6μΛνοι) ; xii. 23 (wamf- 
yiyuf). Compare also i. 3; ii. 9, 15; iii. 2; v. 12 f.; x. 22, 27; 
xii. 13. 


The general progress of thought in the Epistle is dear; but* at 
the same time, in a writing so lnauy-sidod, whore subjeote arc 
naturally foreshadowed and recalled, differences of opinion must 
arise as to the exact divisions of the argument The following 
arrangement gives at least an intelligible view of the main relations 
of the different parts of the Book. 

The Theme or ran Epistle; The Finality or Christianity : 
L 1 — 4. 

I. Tub Superiority of thr Son, the Mediator or the 

mxw Revelation, to Angels : L 5— T iL 18. 
II.' Moses, Joshua, Jesus, the Founders or thr Old 
Economy and or thk New : iiL> iv. . 

THE PLAN. X ]i x 

ΠΙ. The High-priesthood of Christ, universal and sove- 
reign (Mblohixrdrk) : ▼. — vii. 

IV. The Fulfilment of Christy priestly Work ; viii. i— 
z. i& 

V. The Appropriation and vital Application of the 
Truths laid down: x. 19— xii. 
A personal Epilogue : ziii. 
These chief divisions can be followed a little more in detail : 
The Theme of the Epistle : The Finality of Christianity : 
L 1 — 4. 

L iFh* contra* of the Old Revelation and the New in method, 

timet persons (w. 1, »). 
it The nature and the work of the Son, in regard to His 

Divine Personality and to the Incarnation («. 3). 
iii. TransUion to the detaUed development of fa 
I. The Superiority of the Son, the Mediator of the 
new Revelation, to Angels : i. 5 — ii. 18. 
i. The testimony of Scripture (L 5 — 14). 
ii. The peril of neglecting the new revelation through the Son 

(H. 1-4). 
iii. The fulfilment of the divine destiny of man in the Son of 
man (Jesus) through suffering (it 5 — 18). 

II. Hoses, Joshua, Jesus, the Founders of the Old 
Economy and of the New : iii., iv. 
i. Moses and Jesus : the servant and the Son (iii. 1 — 6). 

(1) A general view of the dignity of Jesus (1, a). 

(2) Moses represents a house : Jesus the framer of 

U (3. 4). 

(3) Moses a servant : Jesus a son (5, 6). 

ii The promise and the people under the Old and the New 
Dispensations (iii. 7 — iv. 13). 
(1) Faith the condition of blessing (iii. 7 — 19). 
(a) The promise remaining (iv. 1 — 13). 


iii. Transition to the doctrine oft)* High-priesthood, running 
ii. 17, 1 8 (iv. 14 — 16). 

REIGN (Mrlohizbdbk) : v. — vii. 
i The characteristics of a High-priest (sympathy and divine 

appointment) fulfilled in Christ (v. 1 — 10). 
ii. Progress tlurough patient effort tlio condition of the know- 
ledge ofCltristian mysteries (v. 11 — vi), 
iii. The characteristics of Christ, as absolute High-priest, 
shadowed fort?* by Melchizedek (King-priest) (vii.). 

IV. Thb Fulfilment or Christ's priestly Work: viii. 1 — 
x. 18. 

i. A general view of the scene and the conditions ofChrisfs. 
High-priestly work (c viii.). 
(1) The new Sanctuary (viii. 1—6). 
(a) The New Covenant (7 — 13). 
il The Old Service and the New: tlie Atonement qf the Law 
and the Atonement of Christ (e. ix.). 

(1) The Sanotuary and Priests under the Old 

Covenant (ix. 1 — 10)1 
(a) The High-priestly Atonement under the New 
Covenant (11 — a8). 
iii The Old Sacrifices and lAs New : the abiding efficacy of 
Chrises one Sacrifice (a x. 1— 18). 
A summary of reassurance. 

V. Tub Appropriation and vital Application op tub 
Truths laid down; x. 19— xii. ao. 

i. • The privileges, perils, encouragements of the Hebrews 

(x. 19—39). 
ii. The past triumphs of Faiui (xi). 

iii. The general application of tlte lessons of the past to the 
present season qf trial (xii.)• 
A personal Epilogue : xiii. 
Detailed and specific instructions. Close. 


~ One feature in this plan will strike the student The central 
portion of each of the first three divisions is mainly occupied with 
solemn warnings ; while the last division is a most grave and earnest 
exposition of the duties which follow from the confession of Christ's 
Priestly work. The writer is unwilling, even in the development of 
the Truth, to allow the loftiest conception of the Qospel to appear 
to be a theory only. It is for him intensely practical ; and the note 
of entire and reverential awe closes his description of the privileges 
of Christians (xii. 28 f.). 


The Epistle to the Hebrews is one of three Books in the Ν. T. Books of 
specially addressed to those who wire Jews by descent, the other specially 
two being the Gospel according to St Matthew and the Epistle of fa je^f 
8t James (James i. ι τοις δωλκα φνλα&). To these however 1 Peter, Christ, 
probably addressed to those who had passed through Judaism to 
Christianity, may be added (1 Pet. i. 1 fcXcKroif ναρπώημοις Sccunro- 
pas ΠόΊτον...). 

Each of these books is marked by a characteristic view of the 
Faith. St Matthew, according to general consent, gives the lineaments 
of the Davidio Ring. In St James we have the power of ' a perfect 
law ' (James i. 25 ; ii. 8) : in St Peter the accomplishment of pro- 
phecy (1 Peter L 10 — 12) : in the Epistle to the Hebrews the efficacy 
of an eternal priesthood (Hebr. vii. 23 if.). 

This general connexion indicates the true position of the Epistle, The 
which is that of a final development of the teaching of ' the three,' fothe 
and not of a special application of the teaching of St Paul. It is, so ^JjJJJ 

to speak, most truly intelligible as the last voice of the apostles of expression 

of the 

the circumcision and not as a peculiar utterance of the apostle of the teaching 

of* the 

Gentiles (Gal. ii. 9 f.). The apostles of the circumcision regarded Three•' 

Judaism naturally with sympathy and even with affection, for it 
was that through which they had been led little by little to see the 
meaning of the Gospel. The Apostle of the Gentiles, with all his 


love for his countrymen and all hie reverence for the work wrought 
through the old Covenant, no lees naturally regarded Judaism, as 
it was, as a system which had made him a persecutor of the Faith. 
For St Paul the Law is a code of moral ordinances : for the writer 
of the Epistle to the Hebrews it is a scheme of typical provisions 
for atonement For the one it is a crushing burden : for the other 
it is a welcome if imperfect source of consolation. And it is in 
virtue of this general interpretation of the spirit of the Levitical 
system that the unknown apostle to whom we owe the Epistle to 
the Hebrews was fitted to fulfil for the Church the part which 
was providentially committed to him. 

Two We must indeed regard the Law under these two distinct aspects, 

miantary * n or ^ er tnat we ma y ^ u ^7 appreciate its character and its office. 
**P*** °f We must, that is, regard it on the one side as a body of command- 
ments imposed upon man's obedience ; and we must regard it on the 
other side as a system of ritual provided 'by God's mercy. The one 
view is, as has been remarked, characteristic of St Paul, and the other 
of the author of the Epistle. Each when carefully studied reveals the 
failure of the Law to satisfy man's needs, and so shews its necessary 
tranaitoriness. As a legal code it tended to bondage, and was in- 
capable of fulfilment, and so brought a deep knowledge of sin (Rom. 
iii. 20 hriyvwm αμαρτίας). As an institution for the removal of 
sin, it was designed only to deal with ceremonial defilement, and 
was therefore essentially insufficient (Hebr. x. 3 f.). Thus the 
Epistle to the Hebrews completes the teaching of St Paul on the 
imperfection of the Law, St Paul from the subjective side shews 
that the individual can be brought near to God only by personal 
faith and not by any outward works : the author of the Epistle from 
the objective side shews that purification cannot be gained by any 
sacrifices 'of bulls and goats' but only through the offering of the 
Blood of Christ. 
General The difference between St Paul and the writer of the Epistle in 

between^ *** e * r v * ew °* tne ^* w mav ** P re8ente ^ "* another light. St Paul 
8 *<f Jh* regards the Law mainly in relation to the requirements of man's 
Epietle. discipline : his fellow-apostle in relation to the fulfilment of God's 


counsel. For St Paul the Law was an episode, intercalated, as it were, 
in the course of revelation (Rom. v. 20 παρ€ΐσηλθ(ν) : for the writer 
of the Epistle it was a shadow of the realities to which the promise 
pointed. It is closely connected with this fundamental distinctness 
of the point of vision of the two teachers that St Paul dwells with 
dominant interest on the individual aspect of the Gospel, the writer 
of the Epistle on its social aspect : for the one the supreme contrast 
is between flesh and spirit, for the other between the image and the 
reality, the imperfect and the perfect: for the one Christ is the 
direct object of personal faith, for the other the fulfiller of the destiny 
of man. 

But this difference, however real and intelligible, does not issue 
in any opposition between the two writers. Both views are com- 
pletely satisfied by the Incarnation ; and each writer recognises the ! 
truth which the other develops. In the Epistle to the Ephesians 
St Paul gives the widest possible expression to the social lessons of 
the Faith; and the writer to the Hebrews emphasises with the 
most touching solemnity the significance of personal responsibility 
(e.g. c. vi.). At the same time the writer to the Hebrews suggests 
the unity, the harmonious unfolding, of the divine plan, in a way 
which is foreign to the mode of thought of him who was suddenly 
changed from a persecutor to an apostle. His eyes rest on one 
heavenly archetype made known to men as they could bear the sight 
in various degrees. He presupposes a divine ideal of the phenomenal 
world and of outward worship. This, he argues, was shadowed 
forth in the Mosaic system ; and found its perfect embodiment under 
the conditions of earth in the Christian Church. He looks therefore 
with deep sympathy upon the devotion with which the Hebrews 
had regarded the provisions made by the Law for dealing with the 
power and guilt of sin. He enters into their feelings, and points 
out how Christ satisfied them by His Person and His work. 

It is not difficult to see how the circumstances in which the The writer 
' Hebrews ' were placed gave a peculiar importance to the thought of E p i B tie 
priestly atonement with which they had been familiar. ^ ηθ the douWe 
Hebrews were necessarily distressed by two main trials. They had die- 
w. H. 1 e 


appoint• met with a double disappointment. They were disappointed at the 

ment of 

the nature of Christianity. They were disappointed specially as to the 

ω t J ew attitude of Israel towards it. 

ι The i. The early expectations of a triumphant Return of Christ had 

Christ. not been fulfilled. His sufferings were not (as some at least had hoped) 
a mere transient phase of His work, quickly forgotten in the glory 
which followed. The difficulties therefore which the apostles met at 
the first preaching recorded in the Acts had to be met in a new form. 
The apostles had shewn that the Death of Christ was no obstacle to 
His Messiahahip in view of His Resurrection and implied Return 
(Acts ii., iii., v.). It had to be shewn now that suffering was 
essential to His work. A suffering Messiah had to be accepted in 
His earthly reproach (xiii. 13; comp. 1 Cor. i. 23), while the prospect 
of visible triumph was withdrawn from view. 

α The 2. This was one trial. There was another also not less grievous. 

Israel! 6 ° I* uecame more and more clear that the Jews as a people would 
not receive Jesus as the Christ. Their national unbelief, apart 
from all direct persecution, brought with it a growing alienation of 
the Synagogue from the Church. It was more and more difficult to 
hold to both. The right of participation in the ministrations of 
the Temple was in process of time necessarily withdrawn from 
Christians if they held their faith, and they were forced to look 
elsewhere for that which might supply their place. 

These trials from the point of sight of a Jewish Christian were 
most real. He could not but ask, Was there to be no Kingdom 
for Israel f Had God cast away His people ! Were Christians to 
be deprived of the manifold consolations of sacrificial worship and 
priestly atonement! And we must at least in some degree under- 
stand their bearing before we can enter into the spirit of the Epistle. 

The sense To this end it is necessary to realise distinctly the sharp contrast 

of these r 

die- between the early popular expectations of what Christianity should 

meats em- b°> especially among Jewish converts, and what it proved to be. 
the**' 86 * ^ n< * '* * 8 nece88ai 7 *!*> t° realise the incompleteness with which 
argument the significance of the Lord's sufferings was at first apprehended. 
Epistle. When these points are placed in proper relief then the importance 


and the power of the argument in the Epistle to the Hebrews 
become evident For the writer shews that the difficulty which 
arises from the sufferings of the Son of man (Jesus) includes the 
answer to the difficulty which was felt in exclusion from the 
Templa The humiliation of Christ a little below the angels, over 
whom in essence He is supreme, gives efficacy to His continuous 
intercession based upon the atonement, and is for men a pledge of 
His unfailing sympathy. Faith in Him therefore made the outward 
consolations of the Temple wholly superfluous. At the same time 
this apprehension of Christ's redemptive and priestly work . made 
it evident that those who clung to an external system, such as 
that of the Law, could not truly embrace the Gospel. The 
Judaism which was not in due time taken up and transfigured by 
the Gospel of necessity became antagonistic to it He who remained 
a Jew outwardly could not but miss in the end the message of 
Christ, just as the Christian, who understands his position, is 
itially independent of every support of the old Covenant 

By emphasising these thoughts the writer of the Epistle shews The 
the essential transitoriness of the Law. But he recognises no less wor k f 
clearly its positive teachings. This also belonged to his office. Jadaism 
For Judaism proclaimed most impressively three fundamental facts 
with which it dealt provisionally ; and a sympathetic intelligence of 
that to which it witnessed and of that which it offered leads to the 
true understanding of Christianity as the divine accomplishment of 
the education of the world. 

Judaism affirmed that the destiny of humanity is the attainment 
of likeness to God, an end to be reached under the actual conditions 
of life only through restrictions and painful effort The holiness of 
God, to which man has to be conformed, is on the one side love 
and on the other side righteousness. 

Judaism again affirmed that man as he is cannot at his own 
pleasure or in his own right draw near to God. The ceremonial law 
in all its parts deepened the consciousness of sin. 

And yet again Judaism affirmed that it was the good pleasure 
of God to enter into Covenant with man, of which external institu- 



tione were the abiding sign and seal, a testimony at onee and a 
fulfilled The writer of the Epistle shews from the position of the believing 

Jew how the revelation of the Son of God deals with these facto 
finally. 'Jesus, the Son of God* (iv. 14; conip. Acts ix. 20), fulfilled 
the destiny of man, Himself true man, by bringing humanity to the 
throne of heaven. He fulfilled this destiny through suffering and 
death, bearing Himself the last consequences of sin and overcoming 
death through death. And yet more, He communicates through all 
time the virtue of His life to those who come to God through and in 
The place Under this aspect the significant emphasis which the writer lays 
Judaic' upon the ρηβ -Judaio form of Revelation becomes fully intelligible. 
Ifevela- rpj ie Qogpej^ ω ^ e presents it, is the fulfilment of the purpose of crea- 
tion and not only of the Mosaic system. Melchizedek is a more 
prominent figure in his treatment of the Ο. T. than Abraham. Thus 
the work of Judaism is made to appear as a stage in the advance 
, towards a wider work which could not be achieved without a prepara- 
\ tory discipline. So regarded the provisions of the Law can be seen 
in their full meaning, and by the help of their typical teaching a 
suffering Messiah can be acknowledged in His Majesty by the true 

The God of Abraham and the God of Moses is, in other words, ( a 

living God.' His revelation of Himself answers to the progress of 

life (iii 12). His worship is realised in a personal revelation (ix. 14). 

His action corresponds with an individual judgment (x. 31). His 

reward lies in the manifestation of His Presenco (xii. 22 if.). 

The We can now see more clearly than before how the general aim of 

teaching the writer to present Christianity as the absolute revelation of God, 

Edi tie *^ θ &D *°l u * e satisfaction of man's needs, was furthered by his desire 

comes to deal with the peculiar trials of the Hebrews who felt keenly not 

from its * 

special only the shame and sufferings of the Messiah, but their own shame 

and sufferings from national hostility. These trials in met served 

as an occasion for developing the new thoughts which the Book adds to 

the apostolic presentation of the Truth. They placed in a clear light 


the need which men have for a continuous assurance of present help 
in the actual difficulties of life. And so the opportunity was given 
in the order of Providence for developing the truth of Christ's High- 
priestly work, towards which the aboriginal religion, represented by 
Melchuedek, and the Mosaic system, had both pointed. For while 
the writer labours to establish the absolute Majesty of the new 
dispensation in comparison with the old, he does so especially by 
connecting its power with the self-sacrifice of Christ That which 
seemed to be the weakness of the Gospel is revealed upon a closer 
vision to be its strength. In proportion as men can feel what Christ 
is (such is the writer's argument) they can feel also how His death 
and His advocacy more than supply the place of all sacrifices and 
priestly intercessions, how they lay open the victory of humanity in 
the Son of man over sin and death. In other words, under this light 
the Death of Christ becomes intelligible in itself without regard to 
the thought of a Return. The sense of His present priestly action 
gains a new force. The paradox of a suffering Messiah is disclosed 
in its own glory. 

Through such a view of Christ's work, illuminated in the fuller 
view of His Person, the Hebrew believer, in short, found his dis- 
appointments unexpectedly transformed. He recognised the majesty 
of Christ's spiritual triumph. He perceived the divine significance 
of Christ's sufferings, and through that he perceived also the interpre- 
tation of the sufferings of men. Thus the immediate purpose of the 
writer was fulfilled; and that which was an answer to the difficulties 
of the Hebrew Christian has been made the endowment of the whole 
Church. For in this Epistle we have what is found in no other 
Book of the Ν. T., that which may be called a philosophy of religion, 
of worship, of priesthood, centred in the Person of Christ. The 
form of the doctrine is determined by the Ο. T. foundations, but the 
doctrine itself is essentially new. In the light of the Gospel the 
whole teaching of the Ο. T. is seen to be a prophecy, unquestionable 
in the breadth and fulness of its scope. 

But while the thoughts of the absolute value of Christ's sufferings Diffl- 


and of the application of their virtue to men are brought out with which 


remain prevailing force, it is not argued that all difficulty is removed from 

borne. ^ present proepeet of Christianity. There are still, the writer 

implies, difficulties in the state of things which we see. We cannot 

escape from them. But enough oan be discerned to enable men to 

wait patiently for the appointed end. There is a triumph to ooine ; 

and, in looking forward to this, Christians occupy the position which 

the Saints have always occupied, the position of faith, of faith 

under trials. The heroic records of c. xi. lead up to the practical 

charge of c. xii. ι ff. 

Meanwhile the writer calls upon his readers to make their choice 

boldly. Judaism was becoming, if it had not already become, 

anti-Christian. It must be given up (xiii. 13). It was 'near 

vanishing away' (viii. 13). It was no longer debated whether 

a Gentile Church could stand beside the Jewish Church, as in the 

first period of conflict in the apostolic age ; or whether a Jewish 

Church should stand beside the Gentile Church, as in the next period. 

The Christian Church must be one and independent. And thus the 

Epistle is a monument of the last crisis of conflict out of which the 

Catholic Church rose. 

The Old This view is the more impressive from the prominence whioh is 


not di§- assigned in the Epistle to the Old Testament, both to the writings 

paraged. aji ^ ^ ^ ^titrations which it hallows. There is not the least 
tendency towards disparagement of the one or the other. 

From first to last it is maintained that God spoke to the father* in 
the prophets. The message through the Son takes up and crowns all 
that had gone before. In each respect the New is the consumma- 
tion of the Old. It offers a more perfect and absolute Revelation, 
carrying with it a more perfect and absolute Mediation, and estab- 
lishing a more perfect and absolute Covenant, embodying finally the 
connexion of God and man. There is nothing in the Old which is 
not taken up and transfigured in the New. 

For it is assumed throughout the Epistle that all visible 
theocratic institutions answer to a divine antitype (archetype). They 
are (so to speak) a translation into a particular dialect of eternal 
truths : a representation under special conditions of an absolute ideal 


In some sense, which we can feel rather than define, the eternal 
is declared to lie beneath the temporal (xii. 27). In virtue of this 
truth the work of Christ and the hope of the Christian are both 
described under Jewish imagery, without the least admixture of the 
Diillenarian extravagances which gained currency in the second 
century. There is for the believer a priestly consecration (x. 22 
note), an altar (xiii. 10 note), a sabbath-rest (iv. 9). 

It follows therefore that in studying the Levitical ritual we must 
recognise that there is a true correspondence of the seen with the 
unseen, a correspondence which extends to the fulness of life, and not 
simply a correspondence of a world of ideas (κόσμο? νσητός), as Philo 
supposed, to a world of phenomena. 

The same principle holds still under the Christian dispensation. 
We see the reality but only in figures (e.g. Apoc. xxi. 16). Judaism 
was the shadow, and Christianity is the substance; yet both are 
regarded under the conditions of earth. But the figures have an 
abiding significance. There is a heavenly city in the spiritual 
world, an organised body of rational beings; 'a congregation' 
(ΙκκΚησία) which answers to the full enjoyment of the privileges of 
social life : xi. 10 (ή του* flc/x. Ιχ. πο\ι%) ; xi. 16 ; xii. 22 f. (comp. 
viiL 1 1 ; xiii. 14 ; and Addit. Note on xi 10). There is also a 
heavenly sanctuary there, which was the pattern of the earthly, to 
confirm the eternal duty and joy of worship : viiL 2, 5. 

In this aspect the Epistle fulfils a universal work. It is 
addressed to Hebrews, and meets, as we have seen, their peculiar 
difficulties, but at the same time it deals with the largest views of 
the Faith. This it does not by digression or contrast. It discloses 
the catholicity of the Gospel by the simple interpretation of its 
scope. It does not insist on the fact as anything new or strange. 
It does not dwell on 'the breaking down of the middle wall of 
partition' (Eph. ii. 14), or on 'the mystery which in other ages 
was not made knowu...that the Gentiles are... fellow-partakers of 
the promise in Christ Jesus' (Eph. iii. 4 if. ; Rom. xvi. 25 f.). The 
equality of men as men in the sight of God is implied in the 
declaration which is made of the Person and the Work of Christ. 


Faith is the condition of a divine fellowship, and that is essentially 
universal. The truth that there is no difference between Jew and 
Gentile has passed beyond the stage of keen controversy. It is 
acknowledged in the conception which has been gained of the 
Relation Viewed in this light, the Epistle to the Hebrews forms a comple- 

Epietle to ment to the Gospel of St John. Both Books assume the universality of 
Gogpel of Christianity as the one religion of humanity, without special argument 
St John, (co,,^ j onn j # I2 j j^ffo re gard «the Jews' — the men who clung to 
that which was transitory as if it were absolute and eternal — as 
enemies of Christ. Both recognise completely the provisional office 
of the Old Dispensation (John iv. 22 ff.). But they do this from 
different sides. The Epistle to the Hebrews enables us to see how 
Christianity is the absolute fulfilment of the idea of the positive insti- 
tutions of the Law through which it was the good pleasure of God 
to discipline men, while the Fourth Gospel shews us in the Word 
become flesh the absolute fulfilment of the idea of creation which 
underlies the whole of the Old Testament 

It is also not without interest that the foundation of the 
characteristic teaching of the Epistle to the Hebrews on the 
High-priesthood of Christ is found in the Lord's words preserved 
by St John more distinctly than in the other Gospels, though the 
Evangelist himself does not develop the truth. Thus, in the 
discourse which defines the nature of the new Society in relation to 
its Head (John χ. 1 — 21), the Lord reveals His victory through 
death : He shews Himself in a figure as Victim at once and Priest 
(w. 17 f.). Elsewhere He proclaims that He will draw all men to 
Himself when He is lifted up from the earth* (xii. 32 U την γης), that 
His removal from the limitations of our present bodily existence is the 
condition of Hie spiritual gift (xvi. 7), that He hallows His people in 
Himself (c. xvii.). Compare Matt. xx. 28 ; Luke xxii. 37. 

In these revelations we have the thoughts which are wrought 
into a concrete whole in the Epistle to the Hebrews under the 
imagery of the Levitical system. But it will be noticed that the 
teaching which St John has preserved offers the final form of the 


Truth. St John's theory (if we may so speak) of the work of 
Christ is less developed in detail than that which is found in the 
Epistles of St Paul and in the Epistle to the Hebrews; but his 
revelation of Christ's Person is more complete He concentrates 
our attention, as it were, upon Him, Son of Ood and Son of man, 
and leaves us in the contemplation of facts which we can only 
understand in part 

One further observation must still be made. The style of the The 
Book is characteristically Hellenistic, perhaps we may say, as far as ffelle- 
our scanty evidence goes, Alexandrine; but the teaching itself is, ^via Sit 

like that of St John, characteristically Palestinian. This is shewn *>*••}»- 

J man in 

not only by the teaching on details, on the heavenly Jerusalem, and teaching, 
the heavenly Sanctuary, on Satan as the king of death, on angels, 
on the two ages (comp. Riehm, Lehrbegriff 88. 248, 65a ft), but 
still more by its whole form. The writer holds firmly to the true 
historical sense of the ancient history and the ancient legislation. 
Jewish ordinances are not for him, as for Philo, symbols of tran- 
scendental ideas, but elements in a preparatory discipline for a 
divine manifestation upon earth. Christ is High-priest not as the 
eternal Word, but as the Incarnate Son who has lived and suffered 
and conquered as true man. At the same time the Apostle teaches 
us to recognise the divine method in the education of the world. He 
shews how Ood has used (and, as we are led to conclude, how He 
uses still) transitory institutions to awaken, to develop, to chasten, 
our thoughts of spiritual things. The Epistle is, to sum up all 
most briefly, the seal of the divine significance of all life. The 
interpretation, given in its salient points, of the record of the Ο. T., 
and of the training of Israel, is a prophetic light for the interpreta- 
tion of the history of mankind. 



The In discussing the history of any one of the writings of the New 

taoeg of Testament it is necessary to bear in mind the narrow range of the 
EpUiUin *°* η *7 remains of the earliest Christian literature, and the little 
°f τΕΤ*** βοορβ which they offer for definite references to particular Books. It 
might perhaps have been expected that the arguments of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews would have given it prominence in the first 
controversies of the Church, but this does not appear to have been 
the case. Traces of its use ooour indeed in the oldest Christian 
writing outside the Canon, the letter written by Clement of Rome 
to the Corinthians, but it is not referred to by name till the second 
half of the second oentury. There can be no doubt that Clement 
was familiar with its contents. He not only uses its language 
(ad Cor. 17, 36), but imitates its form in suoh a way (ad Cor. 9, 12, 
45) as to shew that he had the text before him ; but the adaptations 
of words and thoughts are made silently, without any mark of 
quotation or any indication of the author from whom they are 
borrowed (oomp. Euseb. Η. E. iii. 38; Hier. de vir. til. 15). The 
fact that the Book was known at Rome at this early date U of 
.importance, because it was at Rome that the Paulino authorship 
was most consistently denied and for the longest period. In 
this connexion it is of interest that there are several coincidences 
of expression with the Epistle in the Shepherd of Hernias, which 
seem to be sufficient to shew that Hermas also was acquainted 
with it 

A comparison of the parallel passages leaves no doubt that Olomout 
imitated the earlier text of the Epistle. This seems to be clear if (&?.) 
Clement's references to Noah and llahab are set by the side of Hebr. zL 7, 


ad Cor. 9 Νώ« πιστάς tvptdtU dta rijr λβιτονργίας αντον παλιγγιησία* 
κόσμψ ίκηρν$* 9 καϊ diiamat di' αντον ο δισνότης rA uatkSotrra ip όμο^οία ζάα 


ad Cor. 12 dia πίστιν καϊ φιλο&νίαν *σωθη *Ρααβ ή πόρνη 

The parallel with Hebr. i. 3 Γ. makes it impoesible to suppose that both 
writers are borrowing illustrations from some common source: 

ad Cor. 56 or &v απαύγασμα rrjs μ€γάΧωσννης αντον τοσούτψ μιΐζων *στ\ν 
αγγίΚων δοφ &ίαφορωτ*ρο* ϋνομα κ*κΚηρονόμηκ*¥- γίγραπται γαρ οΰτως- 6 
wouip rovr ayyAovr αυτού πηνματα... 

The most striking parallels with Hernias are Vu. ii. 3, 2 : Hebr. iii. 12 ; 
Sim. I 1 f.: Hebr. zi. 13 ft; xiii. 14. 

The other evidence which can be alleged to shew that the Epistle Supposed 
waa known by the earliest Christian writers is less clear. Polycarp m p i y . 
gives the Lord the title of «High-priest' (c. 12 pontifex), a title ^.* nd 
which is peculiar to the Epistle among the apostolic writings, but it 
is not possible to conclude certainly that he derived it directly from 
the Book. So again when Justin Martyr speaks of Christ as 
'apostle' (ApoL i. 12, 63: Hebr. Hi. 1) and applies Ps. ex. to Him 
(Dial. 96, 113), he may be using thoughts which had become current 
among Christians, though these correspondences with characteristic 
features of the Epistle are more worthy of consideration because 
Justin has also several coincidences with its language (viii. 7 f., Dial. 
34; ix. 13 f., Dial. 13; xii. 18 f., Dial. 67). 

On the other hand the Epistle was not included among the Not 
apostolic writings received by Marcion ; nor does it find any place as St 
in the Muratorian Canon (com p. p. xxviii.), while by this catalogue ^J^on* 
it is distinctly excluded from the Epistles of St Paul (septeni scribit ?Λ Can - 

Hier. Pratf. in Ep. ad TiU Licet non sint digni fide qui fidem primam 
irritam fecerunt, Marcionem loquor et Basilidem et omnes htereticos qui 
Vetus laniant Testamentum : tamen eos aliqua ex parte ferremus si saltern 
in Novo continerent manus suas...Ut enim de ceteris epistolis taceam, do 
quibus quidquid contrarium suo dogmati viderant eraeeruiit, nomiullas 
integras repudiandas crediderunt, ad Timotheum videlicet utramque, ad 
Hebrssos, et ad Titum. The last clause evidently refers to Marcion 
personally. Tertullian charges Marcion with the arbitrary rejection of the 
Pastoral Epistles, but he is naturally silent on his rejection of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews on which he agreed with him (adv. Marc. v. 21). 

Towards the close of the second century there is evidence of a Opinions 

as to the 
knowledge of the Epistle in Alexandria, North Africa, Italy and the Epistle at 

West of Europe. From the time of Pantamus it was held at tbe end of 









Alexandria to be, at least indirectly, the work of St Paul and of 
canonical authority; and this opinion, supported in different forms 
by Clement and Origen, came to be generally received among the 
Eastern Greek Churches in the third century. ' 

The Epistle is quoted as St Paul's by Dionysius of Alexandria (Euseb. 
H.E. vi. 41), by Theognostus, head of the Catechetical School (Routh, ReU. 
Sacr. iii. 409 : Hebr. vi. 4 ; Athan. Ep. ad Serap. iv. 9 ff. [Migne, P.O. xxvi. 
650 f.]), by Peter of Alexandria (Routh, ReU. Sacr. iv. 35) and by the Synod 
of Antioch c 264 a.d. (Routh, ReU. Sacr. iii. 299). It seems to have been 
used by Pinytus, Bp of Qnossus in Crete (Euseb. HE. iv. 23: Hebr. v. 12— 14), 
and by Theophilus of Antioch {ad Autol. ii. 25: Hebr. v. 12; xii. 9). 
Methodius also was certainly acquainted with the Epistle (Gone. iv. 1, 
Hebr. i. i; id. v. 7, Hebr. xi. 10; de Resurr. 5, Hebr. xiL 5), though he 
does not quote it as St Paul's (the supposed reference to Hebr. xi in Conv. 
v. 7 κατά τον απόστολο* is doubtful). It is quoted as Scripture in the first 
of the Letters to Virgins which bear the name of Clement (Ep. ad Virg. 
L 6: Migne, P.O. i. 391); and it is referred to in the Testaments of the xii. 
Patriarchs (Test. Levi §18: Hebr. vii. 22 ffi). 

About the same time a Latin translation of the Epistle found a 
limited public recognition in North Africa, but not as a work of 
St Paul. So Tertnllian speaks of it as being ' more widely received 
among the Churches than the Shepherd' (de Pudic. 20 utique receptior 
apud ecclesias illo apocrypho Pastore moechorum). Cyprian however 
never quotes it, and, by repeating the statement peculiar to Western 
writers that St Paul 'wrote to seven churches' (de exhort, mart. 11), 
he also implicitly denies its Pauline authorship. 

In Italy and Western Europe the Epistle was not held to be 
St Paul's and by consequence, as it seems, it was not held to be 
canonical. Hippolytus (Lagardo pp. 64, 89, 11 8, 149) and Irenams 
(Euseb. Η. E. v. 26) were acquainted with it> but they held that it 
1 was not Paul's' (Steph. Gobar ap. Phot Cod. 232); and if Irenasus 
had held it to be authoritative Scripture, he could hardly have railed 
to use it freely in his Book * against heresies.' Caius also reckoned 
only thirteen Epistles of St Paul (Euseb. U. E. vi. 20; Hier. de vir. 
ill. 59); and Eusebius, where he mentions the fact, adds that the 
opinion was 'still held by some Romans.' 

Phot Cod. 232 (Migne, P.O. ciii. 1103); Stephen Gobar (vi. cent) states 
on Ιππόλυτος καϊ Είρηναιας τηΗ προς 'Εβραίους ατιστολην Παύλου ουκ iwivov 


thai φασι»...ΤΙιο statement as to Hippolytus is confirmed by a reference 
which Photine elsewhere makes to Hippolytus himself: Cod. 121 (P. G. 
ciiL 403) Xcyci dc 8k\a τ4 τίνα της άκριβίίας Xcuro/icra κα\ οτι ή προς 'Εβραίους 
επιστολή ουκ fori row αποστόλου Παύλου. With regard to Irenaeus there is 
no direct confirmation. Eusebius (l.c.) simply says that he quoted ( phrases 
from the Epistle to the Hebrews and the so-called Wisdom of Solomon ' in 
his Book of * Various Discussions.' The connexion shews that, if he had 
quoted it as St Paul's, Eusebius would have noted the fact. Stephen Gobar 
may hare interpreted the silence of Iremeus in his quotations, or something 
in the form of it, as a practical denial of the Pauline authorship. So 
Jerome paraphrases the words of Eusebius as to Caius (/.<?.) την προς 
'Εβραίους μη συναριθμήσας ταϊς λοιπού by decimam quariam quaefertur ad 
Hebraeo* dicit non exits e$$e. 

The coincidences with the language of the Epistle, which are quoted 
from Irenseus, would at the most prove no more than that he was 
acquainted with the Book, which is established by other evidence (ii. 30, 9 : 
Hebr. i. 3). 

The Epistle is not quoted by Novatian, or Arnobius (yet see ii. 65: 
Hebr. ix. 6), or Lactantius, who however seems to have been acquainted 
with it (In$t. iv. 20 : Hebr. viii. 7 ff.; iv. 14: Hebr. Hi. 3 ff. ; v. 5 f. ; vii. 21 ; 
corop. Lardner, Credibility, lxv. § 6, 4, 14 ff.). They did not therefore, we 
may conclude, recognise its canonical authority. 

Victorious of Pettau repeats the familiar Western clause that 'Paul 
recognises seven churches ' (Routh, ReU. Sacr. iii. 459). 

It is impossible to decide certainly whether the Epistle formed a Syria. 
part of the earliest Syriac Version. The position which it holds in 
the Peshito at present shews at least that it was not regarded strictly 
as one of St Paul's Epistles but as an appendix to the collection. In 
accordance with this view it is called simply the 'Epistle to the 
Hebrews,' and not» after the usage in the other Epistles, ( the Epistle 
of Paul to the Hebrews.' 

It is instructive to notice that in the Cambridge MS. of the (later) 
Harclean Version the title given is 'The Epistle to the Hebrews, of 
Paul the Apostle.' The Oxford (New Coll.) MS. of the same Version, 
which White published, has only c The Epistle to the Hebrews,' comp. 
p. xxviL 

This meagre account' indicates all the independent external Three 
evidence which has been preserved by tradition as to the origin of M to the 
the Epistle. Later writers simply combine and repeat in various 0l ^ en ^ 
ways the views which it represents. To speak summarily, when the 


book first appears in general circulation three distinct opinions about 

it had already obtained local currency. At Alexandria the Greek 

Epistle was held to be not directly but mediately St Paul's, as 

either a free translation of his words or a reproduction of his 

thoughts. In North Africa it was known to some extent as the 

work of Barnabas and acknowledged as a secondary authority. At 

Rome and in Western Europe it was not included in the collection 

of the Epistles of St Paul and had no apostolic weight 

In order to decide between these conflicting judgments, and 

to account for their partial acceptance, it is necessary to examine 

the evidence more in detail. 

The The testimony of Alexandria is the earliest and the most 


of Alex- explicit. It has been preserved by Eusebius from lost writings of 

an na. dement and Origen. Clement, he writes (//. £. vi. 14), says in his 
outlines (Ύνοτιπτωσικ) 'that the Epistle is Paul's, and that it wan 
written to Hebrews in the Hebrew language, and that Luke 
translated it with zealous care and published it to the Greeks; 
whence it ih that tho sumo complexion of stylo is found in tho trans- 
lation of this Epistle and in the Acts. [Further] that the [ordinary] 
phrase ' Paul an Apostle ' was not placed at the head of the Epistle 
for good reason; for, he says, in writing to Hebrews who had 
formed a prejudice against him and viewed him with suspicion, he 
was wise not to repel them at the beginning by setting his name 
there.' The last clause only is quoted in Clement's own words, but 
there can be no doubt that Eusebius has given correctly the 
substance of what he said, as far as it goes, but much is left 
undetermined which it would be important to know. There is 
nothing to indicate the source of Clement's statement, or how far it 
was the common opinion of the Alexandrine Church at the time, or 
whether the hypothesis of a Hebrew original was framed to explain 
the peculiarities of the un-Pauline style. In part this deficiency 
may be supplied by another quotation from Clement in regard to the 
Epistle which Eusebius makes in the same place. 'The blessed 

Ραντλ- presbyter [Pant&nus ί] used to say : since the Lord was sent to the 
Hebrews, as being the Apostle of the Almighty, Paul through 


modesty, as was natural since he had been sent to the Gentiles, does 
not style himself apostle of the Hebrews, both for the sake of the 
honour due to the Lord, and because it was a work of supererogation 
for him to write to the Hebrews, since he was herald and apostle of 
the Gentiles.' It appears then that the exceptional character of the 
Epistle had attracted attention at Alexandria in the generation before 
Clement, and that an explanation was offered of one at least of its 
peculiarities. It is possible therefore, though not likely, that Clement 
derived from his master the idea of a Hebrew original. At any rate 
the idea was compatible with what he had learnt from Panttenus as 
to the authorship of the Greek text. 

The whole passage of Eusebius (//. R vi 14) deserves to be quoted at 
length: τηρ προς 'Εβραίους ftc ίπιστολήν Παύλου μ*ν tlvai φησιν [iv ταις 
Ύποτυπωσισι] γ*γράφθαι ftc Έβραιοις Έβραϊιφ φωνή- Αουκαν ftf φιλοτίμως 
αύτην μ*θ€ρμην*ύσαντα ίκοουναι τοις Έλλ^σ•* ' όθεν τον αυτόν χρώτα εύρίσκ«σθαι 
κατά την ίρμηνείαν ταύτης Tt της επιστολής καϊ των ΤΙραξ*ων μη προγψγραφθαι 
ftf το 'Παύλο* απόστολος* εικότως • ''Εβραίοις γαρ,' φησιν, Ίπιστίλλων, πρόλπψιν 
ιϊληφόσι κατ αύτου και ύποπτιύουσιν αύτον, συνετώς πάνυ ουκ iv αρχή 
απίστρεφεν αυτούς το όνομα θεις? Έ,Ιτα ύποβάς ε'πιλεγει '*Hfti/ ftf", ως 6 μακάριος 
ϊλεγε πρεσβύτερο*, in* ι α κύριος απόστολος ων του παντοκράτορος απεστάλη 
προς 'Εβραίους, ft*a μετριότητα ο Παύλο?, ως αν είς τα, ϊάνη απεσταλμένος, ουκ 
εγγράφει «αυτόν 'Εβραίων άπόστολον dta τι τήν προς τον κύριον τιμήν, ftia 
τε το ε'κ περιουσίας και τοις Έβραίοις Ιπιστίλλειν ίθνων κήρυκα οντά καϊ 

There is no direct evidence to identify Pantsenus with 'the blessed 
elder/ for Clement appears to have derived his information from more than 
one of his generation (comp. Euseb. H. B. v. n), but the identification 
appears to be natural from the position which Pan tonus occupied (comp. 
Η.Ε.Ύ. 11; vi. 13). 

The use of ή&η in the second (verbal) quotation from Clement seems to 
imply that Clement is meeting a difficulty which was freshly urged in his 
own time. It had been, he seems to say, adequately met before. 

If Pantfenns had spoken of a Hebrew original it is most likely that 
Clement would have noticed the fact The argument from style may 
naturally mark a second stage in the controversy as to the authorship of the 

The judgment of Origen is quoted by Eusebius (Η. Σ. vi. 25) in Obigsk. 
his own words• After remarking that every one competent to judge 
of language must admit that the style of the Epistle to the Hebrews 
is not that of St Paul, and also that every one conversant with the 


apostle's teaching must agree that the thoughts are marvellous and 

in no way inferior to his acknowledged writings, Origen, he tells us, 

after a while continued, 'If I were to express my own opinion I 

' should say that the thoughts are the thoughts of the apostle, but 

c the language and the composition that of one who recalled from 

'memory and, as it were, made notes of what was said by his 

' master. If therefore any Church holds this Epistle as Paul's, let 

' it be approved for this also [as for holding unquestioned truths], for 

1 it was not without reason that the men of old time have handed 

' it down as Paul's [that is, aa substantially expressing hie thoughts]. 

' But who wrote the Epistle God only knows certainly. The account 

'that has reached us is twofold; some say that Clement, who 

' became bishop of the Romans, wrote the Epistle, others that Luke 

' wrote it, who wrote the Gospel and the Acts. But on this I will 

* say no more.' 

The This testimony is of the highest value as supplementary to and 


of the in part explaining that of Clement. Origen does not refer to any 

of Origen' 'Hebrew' original. It is not possible then that this hypothesis 

to that of formed part of the ancient tradition. It was a suggestion which 
Clement. r 

Origen did not think it worth while to discuss. He was aware 

that some Churches did not receive the Epistle as St Paul's. 

In the strictest sense of authorship he agreed with them. At 

the same time he held that in a true sense it could be regarded 

as St Paul's, as embodying thoughts in every way worthy of 


The result Thus Clement and Origen, both familiar with the details of the 

testimony tuition of 'the men of old time' to whom they refer, agree in 

of Alex- regarding the Greek Epistle as St Paul's only in a secondary sense. 

Clement regards it as a free translation of a ' Hebrew ' original, so 

made by St Luke as to shew the characteristics of his style : Origen 

regards it as a scholar's reproduction of his master's teaching. Each 

view must have been consistent with what was generally received ; 

and this can only have been that the Epistle rightly had a place 

among the apostolic letters though its immediate authorship was 

uncertain. The practice of Clement and Origen is an application 


of this judgment Both use the Epistle as St Paul's without any 
qualification because it was naturally connected with the collection 
of his letters; and Origen goes so far as to say that he was 
prepared to shew that 'the Epistle was Paul's' in reply to those 
'who rejected it as not written by Paul' (Ep. ad Afric. 9); and 
in another passage, preserved indeed only in a Latin translation, 
he speaks of ' fourteen Epistles of St Paul ' (Horn, in Job. viL). 
The judgment of Origen must be given in the original (Euseb. Η. E. 

Tl i 5) •. 

ότι 6 χαρακτήρ της λίξ*ως της πρ6ς 'Εβραίους επιστολής ουκ Ζχίΐ τό eV λόγω 
tbUwrucbr του αποστόλου, άμολογησαντος iavrbv Ιδιωτην thai τψ λόγω, τοντ4στι 
τ§ φράσιι, αλλ' ftrrw ή ίπιστολη σννθίσιι της λ*£*ω* (λληνικωτϊρα, πάς 6 
ιπιστόμψνος Kpivuv φράσεων (&L φράσιως) διαφοράς ομολογήσαι aV. πάλιν τβ 
ad 6τ* τα νοήματα της επιστολής θαυμάσια ίστι καί ου dcirrcpa των αποστολικό* 
γράμματα**, «αϊ τοντο αν συμφησαι thai άληθίς πας 6 προσ4χων rj αναγνώσω 
τβ αποστολική. 

τούτοις μ*6* trtpa ιπιφίρα λίγων 

1yo\ θ€ αποφαινόμενος ιΐποιμ αν οτι τα μ*ν νοήματα του αποστόλου *στ\ν ή 
δί φράσις κα\ ή σύνθισις απομνημονιύσαντος τίνος [τα αποστολικά και ωσπβρψί 
σχολιογραφησαντος nror] τά *1ρημ*να ύπο του διδάσκαλου, c? τ« otiv εκκλησία 
*χ*ι ταύτην την ίπιστολήν ως Παύλου, αντί; *ύδοκιμ*ίτω καί «VI τούτω, ου γαρ 
fucjj ol αρχαίοι ανδρός ως Παύλου αυτήν παραδιδωκασι* τις hi 6 γρλψας την 
αηστολήν, το μ*ν άληθίς θεός οϊδ*ν, ή 8c *1ς ήμας φθασασα Ιστορία ύπο τίνων μίν 
λεγόντων οτι Κλήμης 6 γενόμενος Μσκοπος 'Ρωμαίων ϊγραψε την ίπιστολήν, 
ύπο τίνων δ* οτι Αουκας 6 γράψας το tvayyfktov κάϊ τάς Πράξεις, 

άλλα ταύτα μεν ω*δε 4χ4τω. 

The sense of the ambiguous phrase τίς 6 γράψας τήν 4πιστολήν (Rom. 
χτί. 22) is fixed by the context beyond all reasonable doubt. The 4 writ- 
ing' included all that is described under 'expression' {φράσις) and 
'composition' {σύνθ*σις). In this sense, on the ground that the Epistle 
shewed correspondences of style with their acknowledged compositions, 
some held that Clement and some that 8t Luke ' wrote ' it 

The Homily from which this passage was taken was written after a.d. 
245. The Epistle to Africanus was written A.D. 240. We may therefore 
rightly conclude that we have in the quotation Origen's mature and final 
judgment from a critical point of sight Practically he might still use it 
ss 8t Paul's in the sense which he explains. 

Looking back over the records of the first three centuries Eusebius The judg- 

expreesed the judgment to which the facts pointed plainly with all EuesBius. 

their apparent discrepancies. In different places he ranks the 

Epistle among ' the acknowledged ' (iii. 25), and the ' controverted ' 

Books (vL 13). He held himself that it was originally written in 

' Hebrew,' and that Clement of Rome (rather than St Luke) had 

W. H. f / 



translated it, on the ground of its likeness to Clement's own Letter 
both in style and subject-matter (iii. 38). He used the Greek text 
as St Paul's habitually ; and reckoned his Epistles as fourteen (Β. E. 
iii. 3), though he noticed that 'some rejected the Epistle to the 
Hebrews on the ground that it was controverted (amXiyco-0ai) 
by the Roman Church as not being Paul's.' At the same time he 
justified his own decision by the plea that it was reasonable 'on 
the ground of its antiquity that it should be reckoned with the 
other writings of the Apostle' (Η. E. iii 38). Such a statement 
would be inconsistent with the idea that he held it to be St Paul's 
in the same sense as the other Epistles. He held it to be canonical 
Scripture and Pauline, so to speak, for ecclesiastical use. Eusebius 
in other words, like Origen, was chiefly concerned to maintain the 
canonicity of the Epistle, and he upheld its ultimate Pauline 
authorship as connected with its apostolic authority. 

The following are the passages in which Eusebius states the facts as to 
the Epistle in his own words. 

//. E. iii. 3 row Ac Πανλον πρόδηλοι και σαφ*ϊς al ο^κατίσσαρις JtrurroXal. 
οτι yc μην τινις ήθίτήκασι την προς Εβραίους, προς της 'Ρωμαίων ίκκλησως ως 
μή Παύλου οΖσαν αυτήν άντι\<γ*σθαι φήσανης 9 ου δίκαιον ayvociv. και τα π*ρ\ 
ταύτης di τοις προ ημών *1μημ*να κατά καιρόν παραθήσομαι. 

Η. Ε. ϋί. 37 [Κλ^Μ 1 ?*] σαφέστατα παρίστησιν οτι μη viov υπάρχει το 
σύγγραμμα* IvBcv ιΐκότως 1bo£tv αύτο τοις λοιποϊς €γκαταλ<χθήναι γραμμασι 
του αποστόλου' Έβραίοις γαρ δια της πατρίου γλώττης ίγγραφως ωμιληκότος 
του Παύλου, ol μίν τ6ν ίύαγγίλιστήν Αουκαν ol dc τον Κλήμ*ντα τούτον αύτο» 
ίρμηνιυσαι λίγουσι την γραφήν. ο και μάλλον <ϊη αν άληθίς, τψ τον αμοιον της 
φρασ*ως χαρακτήρα την τ€ του Κλήμίντοί ίπιστολήν και την προς 'Εβραίους 
άποσώζΜίν. κα\ τψ μή πόρρω τα iv ίκατίροις τοις συγγραμμασι νοήματα 

Theodoret (Pratf. in Ερ. ad Hebr.) exaggerates, when he says of 
Eusebius, ούτος του $€ΐοτάτου Πανλον τήν&€ τήν ίπιστολην ώμο\όγησ*ν Ααι 
κάί τους παλαιούς απαντάς ταύτην π*ρ\ αύτης 1φησ§ν ίσχηκίναι τήν οοζαν. 

It will be evident from the facts which have been given how 
slender is the historical evidence for the Pauline authorship of the 
Epistle when it is traced to the source. The unqualified statements 
ship of the £ j a t er writers simply reproduce the testimony of Clement or Origen 
text. as interpreted by their practice. But it is not clear that any one 

among the earliest witnesses attributed the Greek text to St Paul. 
It is certain that neither Clement nor Origen did so, though they 


for the 


used the Epistle as his without reserve. What they were concerned 
to affirm for the book was Pauline, or, we may say more correctly, 
apostolic authority. 

Viewed in thie light the testimony of Alexandria is not irrecon- The East 
cilable with the testimony of the West The difference between pr^g 
the two springs from the different estimate which they made of the JJUjjJj 
two elements of the problem, canonicity (apostolicity) and author- troths, 
ship. The Alexandrines emphasised the thought of canonicity and, 
assured of the canonicity of the Epistle, placed it in connexion with 
St Paul. The Western fathers emphasised the thought of authorship 
and, believing that the Epistle was not properly St Paul's, denied its 
canonical authority. The former were wrong in affirming Pauline 
authorship as the condition of canonicity. The latter were wrong in 
denying the canonicity of a book of which St Paul was not re- 
cognised as the author. Experience has shewn us how to unite 
the positive conclusions on both sides. We have been enabled to 
acknowledge that the canonical authority of the Epistle is indepen- 
dent of its Pauline authorship. The spiritual insight of the East 
can be joined with the historical witness of the West. And if we 
hold that the judgment of the Spirit makes itself felt through the 
consciousness of the Christian Society, no Book of the Bible is more 
completely recognised by universal consent as giving a divine view 
of the facts of the Gospel, full of lessons for all time, than the 
Epistle to the Hebrews. 

In deciding the question of the authorship of the Epistle the uniform 
testimony of the Roman Church, in which the Epistle was known from the 
earliest times, is of decisive importance. If St Fad had written it, it is difficult 
to understand how Clement could have been unacquainted with the met, 
and how it should have boon persistently denied or disregarded by all the 
later writers of the Church, so far as we know, for more than two centuries. 
On the other hand, if the Epistle was added as an appendix to St Paul's 
Epistles in an Eastern collection of apostolic writings made about the 
same time as Mardou's, it is easy to see, from the example of the Syriac 
Versions, how naturally St Paul's name would be extended to it, and then 
how various explanations would offer themselves to account for its peculiari- 
ties. For the distinct theories of Clement and Origen shew that these 
were no part of an original tradition. 


The judg. The practical judgment of Alexandria found formal expression 
Athama- *n a Festal Epistle of Athanasius (a.d. 367), Among the books 
bius, and f ^ e q\& an( j j$ ew Testaments which he reckons as 'held canoni- 
cal and divine/ he enumerates * fourteen Epistles of the Apostle 
Paul 9 in the order of the oldest MSB. ( c ... a These., Hebrews, 
1 Timothy... 9 ). And from his time this reckoning of the 'fourteen 
Epistles 9 became universal among Greek writers; but there is no 
reason to suppose that either he or the other fathers who followed 
him wished to go beyond the testimony of Clement and Origen and 

of tho The Epistle is used without reserve as a writing of St Paul's by 

F^th^T* Alexander of Alexandria in writing to Arius (Tbeodor. H. E. L 4; Socr. 
H. B. I 6\ and there is no reason for thinking that on this point Arius 
differed from the other teachers of Alexandria. At a later time some 
Arians denied the Pauline authorship of the Book while still they used it 
(Epiph, liar. lxix. 14; comp. Theodoret, Prof, ad Eptit.). The Epistle is 
also quoted as St Paul's (not to mention lesser nanios) by Didynius (cfe Trin. 
L p. 23; Migne, P. Q. xxxix. 307), Isidore of Polonium (Epp. Lib. i. 7 ; 94, 
Hobr. iv. 13), Cyril of Alexandria (d* odor, in tpir. el ver. ii. p. 58; Migne, 
P. Q. lxviil 226) and other Alexandrine fathers ; by Cyril of Jerusalem 
(Cat. iv. 36 rag Παύλου dtKariaaapat arunroXaV, by Jacob of Nisibis and 
Ephrem Syrus (Bleok, Einl § 39) ; by tho Cappadocian fathers Basil (ado. 
Eunom. L 14; iv. 2) and the two Gregories, Gregory of Nyssa {In Ckmti 
Ruurr. ii. ; Migne, P. O. xlvl 639) and Gregory of Noxiauxus (fiUa Μ Παύλου 
τίσσαρήτ iwurroXai, Migne, P. O. xxxviL 474); by Epiphanius (Haw. lxxri. 
p. 941 Ir T€a<rapc<r*aidtKa iwicrokaU rov αγίου αποστόλου Πανλον. Comp. 
Haw. xlii p. 373), and by the representatives of the Church of Antiooh, 
Theodore of Mopsuestia (Kihn Theodor v. Moptue$Ha 61 it) and Ghrysos- 
tom (Prof, in Com.)* 

The later From the fourth century the canonical authority of the Epistle 


of the came to be recognised in the West, and in part» as a consequence, its 

Church 1 Pauline authorship. Fathers, like Hilary, who were familiar with . 

Jbbomi, Qreefc writers naturally adopted little by little their mode of 

tike. speaking of it. Still the influence of the old belief remained ; and 

Jerome shews that the judgment which Eusebius notes in hie time 

still survived unchanged : 'The custom of the Latins' he says 'does 

not receive it among the canonical Scriptures as St PuulV (Ep. ad 

DarcL 129). And while he himself rightly maintained its canonical 

authority and used it freely, he was ever scrupulously careful to 


indicate in hie quotations that be did not by so doing decide the 
question of its authorship. Augustine adopted the same general 
view as Jerome, and under his influence lists of Books for use in 
Church were authorised at three African Councils, at Hippo in 393, 
and at Carthage in 397 and 419. In all of these the Epistle to 
the Hebrews was included ; and henceforward, while the doubts as 
to the authorship of the Epistle were noticed from time to time, the 
canonical authority of the Book was not again called in question in 
the West till the time of the Reformation. The Catalogue of the 
second Council of Carthage was transcribed in a letter of Innocent I 
to Exsuperius, and became part of the Law of the Roman Church. 

The language of the decrees of the African Councils preserves a signi- 
ficant trace of the transition from the earlier view in the West to that 
which finally prevailed. In the Council of Hippo and the first Council of 
Carthage the enumeration runs : Pauli Ap. Epietolas xiiu : eiuedem ad 
Hebron* una. In the second Council of Carthage the two clauses are 
combined : Epiit. Pauli Ap. numero adv. 

The Epistle is used as St Paul's among others by Hilary (De TVin. 
iv. 1 1), Lucifer (De non eonv. c. Acer., Migne, P. L. xiii. 782)» Victorinus Afer 
(e. Ar. it 3), Pacianus (Bp. ill 13), Faustinus (De Trin. ii. 13), Ambrose 
{De Sp. S. iii. 8, 51), Pelagius (Comm. in Rom. i. 17), Rufinus (Comm. in 
Symb. Apost. 36, Pauli apostoli epistohe quatuordocim). - 

On tho othor hand it is not used by Phrobadius, Optatus, Zono, Vincent 
of Lorins, Orceins. Philastrius notices that it was not read in Churches 
(Ilwr. 88)» or, at least, only somotimos (Ifmr. 89, intordttm). 

The language of Joromo is full of interest, and in several places it is 
easy to see the influence of the Greek or Latin work which he has before 
him. He repeats the familiar Western saying that 'St Paul wrote to seven 
Churches,' adding that 'vory many rejected the Epistle to the Hebrews,' 
which would have givon an eighth (Bp. ad Paul. 53 (103) §8; de virr. UL 
5). He notices the Western custom and tradition which questioned its 
authority and denied its Pauline authorship (Bp. ad Btang. 73 (126) § 4; 
ad Dard. 129 § 3; Comm. in Matt, xxvi. 8, 9; in Λ. vi. 2; viii. 16 f.). He 
discusses the common objections to tho Pauline authorship (de virr. ill 
c. 5 ; Comm. in Gal. i. 1), and notices one which he probably owed to 
Origen (Bp. ad Afri. 9), that the Epistle contained references to 
Apocryphal Books (Comm. in /«. vL 9 ft). In many places he uses the 
Epistle as 8t Paul's without any reserve (Comm. in 1$. v. 24; vii. 14); 
and again he speaks of 'the writer of the Epistle whoever he was,' 'the 
Apostle Paul or whoever wrote the Epistle' (Comm. in Amoe viii. 7, 8; 
in Jerem. xxxi. 31 f.). 

The language of Augustine is equally uncertain. At one time he leaves 


the question of tiie cauonicity of the Epistle uuoertaiii (Inchoat. Expo*. Ep. 
ad Rom. g u). At another time be incline• to accept it on the authority 
of 'the Eastern Churches' (do poet. mor. $t romi$$. I 27, 50). And in 
common use he quotes it in the same way as the other Epistles of St Paul, 
though less frequently (Sorm. lv. 5 eYc.). 

It ie needless to follow in detail the statements of later writers. 
A few interesting traces of old doubts survive. The Epistle was 
wanting in the archetype of D t and probably in the archetype of F t 
and G, (see pp. xvi. t XxviL). Some Commentators deal only with 
thirteen Epistles of St Paul (Hilary of Home, Migne P. L. xviL 
pp. 45 ff. ; Pelagiue, P. L. xxx. pp. 645 ff. ; oomp. Cassiod. do imt. 
dw. Uu. iv. 8), though Hilary and Pelagiue speak of the Epistle to 
the Hebrews elsewhere as a book of the Apostle. But the notices 
as to the authorship of the Book are for the most part simple 
repetitions of sentences of Jerome. Here and there a writer of 
exceptional power uses his materials with independence, but without 
real knowledge. Thomas Aquinas, for example, marshals the objec- 
tions to the Pauline authorship and the answers to them in a true 
scholastic form, and decides in favour of the Pauline authorship 
on the ground of ancient authority and because ' Jerome receives it 
among the Epistles of Paul' 

As the contrary has been lately stated, it may be well to say that Leo 
the Great quotes the Epistle as St Paul's (Sorm. xlir. § 2 ; oomp. Sorm. iii. 
(ii.) 1 ; xxir. (xxiii.) 6 ; lxviii. (lxvi.) 3 ; Ixix. (Ixvii.) 2 ; [Ep. lxv. § 1 ij. He 
quotes it indoed, as fileek justly observed, comparatively rarely. 

Various At the revival of Greek learning in Europe, when 'the Gram- 

at the marians ' ventured to reopen questions of Biblical criticism, the 
2jJ5!eend atttnor8 *"P Η"*» υ* Ρ***• * αθ Authority of the Epietle was called in 

in later question. On this, as on other similar subjects, Qard. Oaietan 
times. ^ 

[Th. de Vio] spoke with unusual freedom. Erasmus, with fuller 

knowledge, expressed his doubts 'not as to the authority but as 

to the author of the Epistle, doubts' he adds characteristically 

1 which would remain till he saw a distinct judgment of the Church 

upon the point.' Luther denied the Pauline authorship of the 

Book without hesitation, and, referring to the earlier traditions, 

conjectured that it was more likely to have been written by Apollos 


(comp. Bleek, 249 n.). Calvin, while maintaining the full apo- 
stolical authority of the Epistle, professed that he 'could not be 
brought to think that it was St Paul's.' He thought that it might 
be a work of St Luke or of Clement Beza also held that it was 
written by a disciple of St Paul. At first he inclined to adopt 
Luther's conjecture as to the authorship, but this opinion he after- 
wards withdrew silently. 

The judgment of Card. Caietan is worth noticing more in detail, for 
eren Bleek had not seen his Commentary. He first quotes the statements 
of Jerome at some length, and concludes from these that St Paul cannot 
be confidently held to be the author of the Epistle. He then goes on to 
argue that doubt as to the authorship of the Book involves doubt as to its 
authority. This doubt as to the authority of the Epistle he justifies by 
reference to what he regards as false arguments in i. 5 b, ix. 1 5 ff. He 
regards ii. 3 as inconsistent with a belief in the Pauline authorship, but 
adds, that following common custom he, like Jerome, will call it St Paul's. 

He explains the stress which he lays on the evidence of Jerome by a 
significant sentence: quos [libros] ille canonicos tradidit, canonicos 
habemus ; et quos ille a canonicis discreuit, extra canonem habemus. 

The Colophon of the Commentary is interesting. Caiette die 1 Junii 
m.d.xxix. Commentariorum Tliomro de Vio, Caiotaui Cardinalis sancti 
Xisti in omnes genuinas epistolas Pauli et earn quce ad Hebneos inscribi- 
tur, Finis. 

The review of the historical evidence as to the authorship of the Internal 
Epistle will have shewn sufficiently that there was no clear or eT1 eDce; 
uniform tradition on the subject in the early Church. Obvious 
circumstances are adequate to explain why the names of St Paul, 
and St Luke, of Barnabas, and Clement were connected with it; 
and in no case is the external testimony of such a character as to 
justify the belief that it was derived from a tradition contemporary 
in origin with the Book. It remains therefore to consider how far 
internal testimony helps towards the solution of the question. 

The direct evidence furnished by the Epistle is slight, though direot, 
there is not the least indication that the author wished to conceal 
his personality. He was intimately acquainted with those to whom 
he writes : vi. 9 f . ; x. 34 (τοις &€σμά>ι? σνν€παθησατ€) ; xiii. 7 ; xiii. 
19 {Ινα τάχαον αποκατασταθώ νμΐν), but the last clause does not 
necessarily imply that he belonged to their society, or that he was 


in confinement. He speaks of Timothy as a common friend : xiii. 
23 (yiKoxTKcrc τον α&€λφον ημών Τ. άπολ*λυμίνον... compare note on 
the passage), and there is no reason to question the identity of this 
Timothy with the companion of St Paul. He places himself in the 
second generation of believers, as one who had received the Gospel 
from those who heard the Lord (ii. 3). 

This last statement has been justly held to be a most grave 
(or indeed fatal) objection to the Pauline authorship. It is not 
possible to reconcile it without unnatural violence with St Paul's 
jealous assertion of his immediate discipleship to Christ (contrast 
Gal. i. 1 ; 11 f.). On the other hand these few notices might all 
apply equally well to St Luke or Barnabas or Clement 
indirect. The language and the teaching of the Epistle offer materials 

for comparison with writings of the four authors suggested by 
tradition. With St Luke the comparison is practically confined to 
the language: with Barnabas, if we assume that his letter is 
authentic, Clement and St Paul, it embraces both language and 
Com- It has been already seen that the earliest scholars who apeak of 

with the Epistle notice its likeness in style to the writings of St Luke ; 

τ ΌΚΒ ' and when every allowance has been made for coincidences which 
consist in forms of expression which are found also in the lxx. or in 
other writers of the N. T. y or in late Greek generally, the likeness is 
unquestionably remarkable. No one can work independently at 
the Epistle without observing it (comp. p. xlvii.). But it is not 
possible to establish any sure conclusion on such a resemblance. 
The author of the Epistle may have been familiar with the 
writings of St Luke themselves, or he may have been in close 
connexion with the Evangelist or with those whose language was 
moulded by his influence. In any case the likeness of vocabulary 
and expression is not greater than that which exists between 1 Peter 
and the Epistles of St Paul. If indeed it were credible that the 
Epistle was originally written in ' Hebrew, 1 then the external and 
internal evidence combined would justify the belief that the Greek 
text is due to St Luke. If that opinion is out of the question, the 


historical evidence for St Lake's connexion with the Epistle is 

either destroyed or greatly weakened, and the internal evidence 

gives no valid result 

The superficial resemblanees between the Epistle and the Letter with 

of Clement, both in vocabulary and form, are very striking. It 

would be easy to draw up a list of parallelisms in words and manner 

sufficient to justify the judgment of Eusebius (oomp. pp. IxiL, lxx.). 

Rut these parallelisms are more than counterbalanced by differences 

in both respects. Clement has an unusually large number of peculiar 

words; and his heaping together of coordinate clauses (as i, 3, so, 

35. 3*> 45. 55λ n » frequent doxologies (ao, 38, 43, 45, 50, 58, 59), 

and to a certain extent (oomp. p. 476) his method of quotation, 

sharply distinguish his writing from the Epistle to the Hebrews. 

Moreover a closer examination of the parallelisms with the Epistle 

makes it dear that they are due to a use of it» like the use which is 

made of Epistles of St Paul (e.g. 0. 49). And, what is of far 

greater moment» the wide difference between the two works in 

range of thought, in dogmatic depth, in prophetic insight, makes it 

impossible to suppose that the Epistle to the Corinthians could have 

been written after the Epistle to the Hebrews by the same writer. 

Clemont is omontially recopttvo and imitative Ho combines but he 

does not create. Even if the external ovidence for connecting him 

with the Epistle were greater than it is, the internal evidence would 

be incompatible with any other connexion than that of a simple 

translator (comp. Lightfoot, Clement L 101 f.). 

Some differences in style between the Epistle and the writings with 

St Paui*. 
of St Paul have been already noticed. A more detailed inquiry 

shews that these cannot be adequately explained by differences of 

subject or of circumstances. They characterise two men, and not 

only two moods or two discussions. The student will feel the 

subtle force of the contrast if he compares the Epistle to the 

Hebrews with the Epistle to the Ephesians, to which it has the 

closest affinity. But it is as difficult to represent the contrast 

by an enumeration of details as it is to analyse an effect 

It must be felt for a right appreciation of its force. So it is 


also with the dogmatic differences between the writer end St 

There is unquestionably a eenee in which Origan is right in 
saying that 'the thoughts' of the Epistle are the thoughts of 
St Paul. The writer shews the same broad conception of the 
universality of the Gospel as the Apostle of the Gentiles, the same 
grasp of the age-long purpose of God wrought out through Israel, 
the same trust in the atoning work of Christ, and in His present 
sovereignty. He speaks with the same conscious mastery of the 
Divine Counsel. But he approaches each topio from a different side. 
He looks at all as from within Israel, and not as from without 
He speaks as one who step by step had read the fulfilment of the 
Old Covenant in the New without any rude crisis of awakening 
or any sharp struggle with traditional errors. His Judaism has 
been all along the Judaism of the prophets and not of the 
Pharisees, of the O. T. and not of the schools (comp. § x.). 
with The differences between the Epistle and the Epistle which bears 

' the name of Barnabas involve a contrast of principles and will be 
considered separately (see § xii.). 

We are left then with a negative conclusion. The Epistle 
cannot be the work of St Paul, and still less the work of Clement 
It may have been written by St Luke. It may have been written 
by Barnabas, if the ' Epistle of Barnabas ' is apocryphal. The scanty 
evidence which is accessible to us supports no more definite judg- 
Luther's One conjecture, however, remains to be noticed, not indeed for 

that the **■ own intrineio worth, but because it has found favour with 
Epistle many scholars. Luther, as we have seen, with characteristic ori- 
written by ginality conjectured that it was the work of Apollos. The sole 
ground for the conjecture is the brief description of Apollos which 
is found in the N. T. ( Acts xviii. 34 ff. ; 1 Cor. i. 12; iii. 4 ff). 
But the utmost which can be deduced from these notices is that 
Apollos, so far as we know, might have written the Epistle; 
just as what we know of Silas is consistent with the belief that 
he wrote it, and has even suggested it But on the other hand it is 


to be remembered that tbere is not the least evidence that Apollos 
wrote anything, or that he was the only man or the only Alexan- 
drian in the Apostolic age who was 'learned... and mighty in the 
Scriptures,' or that he possessed these qualifications more than 
others among his contemporaries, or that, in the connexion in which 
they are noticed, they suggest the presence of the peculiar power 
which is shewn in the Epistle. The wide acceptance of the con- 
jecture as a fact is only explicable by our natural unwillingness to 
frankly confess our ignorance on a matter which excites our interest. 

And yet in this case the• confession of ignorance is really the The 

confirmation of an inspiriting faith. We acknowledge the divine moue 

authority of the Epistle, self-attested and ratified by the illuminated ^Sness * 

consciousness of tho Christian Society : we measure what would to . . e . 

have been our loss if it had not been included in our Bible : and we* wealth 

' of the 

confess that the wealth of spiritual power was so great in the early Apostolic 

Church that he who was empowered to commit to writing this view 

of the fulness of the Truth has not by that conspicuous service even 
left his name for the grateful reverence of later ages. It was enough 
that the faith and the love were there to minister to the Lord 
(Matt. xxvL 13). 

In the course of the last century the authorship of the Epistle 
has been debated with exhaustive thoroughness. Bleek's Introduction 
to his Commentary is a treasury of materials, arranged and used 
with scrupulous fairness. It would be difficult to make any im- 
portant additions to his view of the external facts. All the recent 
Commentaries discuss the question more or less fully. It will be 
enough to refer to some representative writers who advocate the 
claims of particular men to the authorship. The case for St Paul is 
maintained, with various modifications, by Ebrard, Hofmann, Bies- 
entlial, Kay : for St Luke, by Delitzsch : for Apollos by Alford, 
Kurtz, Farrar : for Barnabas by Gran, Renan, Zahn : for 
St Mark by E. S. Lowndes (comp. Holtzmanu, EinL 318 f.). 



Two Two Epistles, as has been already noticed, were circulated in the 


boie the third century under the name of Barnabas. Both were for some 

Barnabas ** me on tne ver g 6 °f *^ β Oanon of the Ν. T., and at last, a century 

l?.^ e later, one was by common consent included in it and the other 
third ' J 

century, excluded. Both deal with a question which was of momentous 
importance at the close of the apostolic age, and the manner in 
which they respectively deal with it illuminates the idea of inspira- 
tion, and reveals a little of the divine action in the life of the 

Both The question arose of necessity from the progress of the Faith. 

question As the Gentile churches grew in importance, Christians could not 

?mport n * ^ut ω ^ k° w they were to regard the Scriptures and the institutions 

ance in f Judaism t 

the first 

age. The destruction of Jerusalem forced this inquiry upon believers 

with a fresh power. There was an apparent chasm opened in the 

line of divine revelation. All that had been held sacred for centuries 

was swept away, and yet the books of the Old Testament, which 

appeared to find an outward embodiment in the Jewish services, 

were still the authoritative Bible of Christians. 

What was Could the Old Testament be thus kept f And if so, how were 

relation of Christians to explain the contradiction between the hallowing of 

ianityto *^ e ^tinge, and the apparent neglect of their contents) The 

the Old ordinances of the Law had not been formally abrogated : what then 

ment? were the limits of their obligation) In what sense could writings, 

in which the ordinances were laid down, still be regarded as inspired 

by the Spirit of God, if the ordinances themselves were set aside f 

A little reflection will shew that the difficulties, involved in these 

questions which the early Christians had to face, were very real and 

very urgent. The pregnant thoughts of the Epistle to the Hebrews — 

all that is contained in the words πολνμ€ρως και πολντρόπως ιταλοί 


ό θ*σς λάλησα? τοις πατράσιν Ιν τοίς προφήταις — have indeed passed so 

completely into our estimate of the method of the divine education 

of 'the nations' and of 'the people, 1 that some effort is required now 

in order that we may feel the elements of the problem with which 

they deal But we can realise the situation by removing this book 

from the New Testament, and substituting in imagination the 

Epistle of Barnabas for it. 

Two opposite solutions of the difficulties obtained partial cur- Two 

rency. It was said on the one side that the Old Testament must goiutione 

be surrendered : that Judaism and Christianity were essentially rep f* ; , 

antagonistic : that Christ really came to abolish the work of an Mansion, 

opposing power: that the separation of the Gospel from the Law 

and the Prophets must be final and complete. This view, represented 

in its most formidable shape by Marcion, was opposed to the whole 

spirit of the apostolic teaching and to the instinct of the Christian 

Society. It isolated Christianity from the fulness of human life, 

and it is needless to dwell upon it. 

On the other side it was said, as in the Epistle of Barnabas, that Barnabas. 
God had spoken only one message and made one Covenant, and that 
message, that Covenant, was the Gospel ; but that the message had 
been misunderstood from the first by the Jews to whom it was 
addressed, and that the Covenant in consequence had not been 
carried into effect till Christ came (Barn. iv. 6). 

This view is not in its essence less unhistorical than the other, or 
less fatal to a right apprehension of the conditions and course of the 
divine revelation. But it had a certain attractiveness from the 
symbolic interpretation of Scripture which it involved, and it 
seemed to guard in some sense the continuity of God's dealing 
with men. So it was that* if the Epistle to the Hebrews had not 
already provided help before the crisis of the trial came, and 
silently directed the current of Christian thought into the true 
channel, it would be hard to say how great the peril and loss would 
have been for later time. 

For the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Epistle of Barnabas Contrast 


present a complete and instructive contrast in their treatment of the Barnabas 


and the Old Testament Scriptures and of the Mosaic institutions. Both 
to the agree in regarding these as ordained by God, and instinct with 
a^to*** spiritual truth, but their agreement extends no farther either in 
principles or in method. 

(a) the (a) Barnabas sets forth what he holds to be the spiritual 

of the Old meaning of the Old Testament without principle or self-restraint. 

ment'and H° * 8 satisfied if he can give an edifying meaning to the letter in 
any way. He offers his explanations to all ; and in the main deals 
with trivial details (e.g. c. ix., the explanation of IHT). 

The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews on the other hand 
exercises a careful reserve. He recognises a due relation between 
the scholar and his lesson ; and the examples by which he illustrates 
hie leading thoughts are all of representative force : the idea of rest 
(the Sabbath-rest, the rest of Canaan, the rest of Christ) : the idea 
of priesthood (the priest of men, the priest of the chosen people) : the 
idea of access to Cod (the High-priest in the Holy of holies, Christ 
seated on the right-hand of God). 

The one example which the two Epistles have in common, the 
rest of God after creation, offers a characteristic contrast. In the 
Epistle to the Hebrews it suggests the thought of the spiritual 
destiny of man : in Barnabas it supplies a chronological measure of 
the duration of the world (Heb. iv.; Barn. xv.). 

(b) the (0) Barnabas again treats the Mosaic legislation as having only 

institu- a symbolic meaning. It had no historical, no disciplinary value what- 
ever. The outward embodiment of the enigmatic ordinances was 
a pernicious delusion. As a mere fleshly observance circumcision 
was the work of an evil power (Barn. ix. 4) But the evil power 
apparently gave a wrong interpretation to the command on which it 
was based and did not originate the command (comp. Just M. Dial 


In the Epistle to the Hebrews on the other hand the Mosaic 
system is treated as a salutary discipline, suited for the training of 
those to whom it was given, fashioned after a heavenly pattern (vii. 
5 ; x. 1), preparatory and not final, and yet possessing throughout 
an educational value. The Levitical sacrifices, for example, were 



fitted to keep alive in the Jews a sense of sin and to lead thought 
forward to some true deliverance from ite power. The priesthood, 
again, and high-priesthood suggested thoughts which they did not 
satisfy, and exactly in proportion as they were felt to be divine 
institutions, they sustained the hope of some complete satisfaction. 
The purpose of God is indeed fulfilled from the first, though to us I 
the fulfilment is shewn in fragments. Hence the writer of the ! 
Epistle to the Hebrews goes beyond the Law, and in the gentile I 
Melchisedek finds the fullest type of the King-priest to come. 

(e) There is another point of resemblance and contrast between (c) The 
the Epistle of Barnabas and the Epistle to the Hebrews which 
specially deserves to be noticed. Barnabas (c. xvi) dwells on the 
perils and the failures of the external Law fashioned under the later 
Temple into a shape which affected permanence. In this he marks * 

a real declension in the development of Judaism. The Temple, like 
the Kingdom, waa a falling away from tho divine ideal. The writer 
of the Ejnetlo to tho Hebrews recognises tho same fact, but ho places 
the original divine order apart from the results of man's weakness. 
He goes back to the Tabernacle for all his illustrations, in which 
the transitoriness of the whole system was clearly signified. 

In a word, in the Epistle of Barnabas there is no sense of the Summary. 
continuity of the divine discipline of men, of an education of the 
world corresponding to the growth of humanity : no recognition of 
the importance of outward circumstances, of rules and observances, 
as factors in religious life: no acknowledgment of a relation of 
proportion between spiritual lessons and a people's capacity. It is 
an illustration of the same fundamental fault that we find in the 
Epistle not only a complete rejection of the letter of the Levitical 
system, but also an imperfect and inadequate view of Christian 

On the other hand we have in Hebr. i. ι — 4 a view of the 
unfolding and infolding of the divine counsel in creation of infinite 
fulness. The end is there seen to be the true consummation of the 
beginning. We discern that one message is conveyed by the 
different modes of God's communication to His people: that one 


Voice speaks through many envoys; that at last the spoken word is 
gathered up and fulfilled in the present Son. 

We have not yet mastered all the teaching of the pregnant words; 
yet even now we can perceive how the thoughts which they convey 
characterise the whole Epistle : how they arose naturally out of the 
circumstances of the early Church; and, by comparison with the 
Epistle of Barnabas, how far they transcended the oommon 
judgment of the time. Under this aspect the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, by its composition and its history, throws light upon the 
ideas of Inspiration and a Canon of Scripture. On the one side we 
see how the Spirit of Ood uses special powers, tendencies and 
conditions, things personal and things social, for the expression of 
a particular aspect of the Truth ; and on the other side we see how 
the enlightened consciousness of the Church was in due time led to 
recognise that teaching as authoritative which was at first least in 
harmony with prevailing forms of thought 

ΠΡΟΣ εβραίους 

W. Η• 1 

ΠΡΟΣ εβραίους 

ηοΑΥΜβρωο και πολγτροπωο πάλαι ό 

060* λάλησα* τοί* πατράσιν ip τοΐ* ιτροφηταί* *4π 

npoceBpAioyc HAB me. HrrpoceBptiOYCerr ictoXh Μ,. 

ΗπροοβΒρΑΐογοβπιστολΗΠΑγλογ Γ. 

InmoDuonoR (L 1—4)1 The first 
paragraph of the Bpistle give• a sum- 
mary view of Its main subject» the 
finality of the absolute Revelation 
m Christ as contrasted with the pre- 
paratory revelation under the Old 

The whole is bound together in one 
unbroken grammatical construction, 
but the subject is changed in its 
course. In tho first two verses God is 
the subject : in the last two the Son ; 
and the fourth verse introduces a 
special thought which is treated in 
detail in the remainder of the chapter. 

Thus for purposes of interpretation 
the paragraph may be divided into 
three parts. 

i. The contrast of the Old Revela- 
tion and the New: w. 1, 2. 

ii. The nature and the work of 
the Son: v. 3. 

Hi. Transition to the detailed 
development of the argument: v. 4. 

It will be noticed that the Lord is 
regarded even in this brief introduc- 
tory statement in His threefold office 
as rropbet (God spake in Hie Son), 
Priest {having made purification of 
sins\ and King (He eat down\ 

i. The contrast of the Old Revela- 
tion and the New (1, 2). 

The contrast between the Old Reve- 
lation and the New is marked in three 
particulars. There is a contrast (a) in 
the method, and (5) in the time, and 
(c) in the agents of the two revelations. 

(a) The earlier teaching was con- 
veyed in successive portions and in 
varying fashions according to the 
needs and capacities of those who 
received it : on the other hand the 
revelation in Him who was Son was 
necessarily complete in itself (comp. 
John i. 14, 18). 

(0) The former revelation was given 
of old time, in the infancy and growth 
of the world : the Christian revelation 
at the end of these days, on the very 
verge of the new order which of ne- 
cessity it ushered in. 

(c) The messengers in whom Qod 
spoke before, were the long line of 
prophets raised up from age to age 
since the world began (Luke i. 70 ; 
Acts iii. 21): the Messenger of the 
new dispensation was God's own Son. 

The first contrast is left formally 
\ncomp\ofo (having... spoken in many 
parts and in many modes. ..spake). 
The two latter are expressed definitely 
(of old time to the fathers, at the end 
of these days to us—in the prophets, in 
Him Who is Son) ; and in the original, 

I — 2 


P. ι 

after the first clause, word anawers to 
word with emphatic correspondence : 
πολνμιρως καΧ πολντρόπως (ι) ιτάλ« 
(2) 6 fobs Χαλήσαί (3) τοϊί πατράσι* 
(4) A* roif προφήται* ($): no corre- 
sponding clause (Γ) Ar* ίσχάτον των 
ήμιρων τούτω* {ϊ) {\αλησ*ν (3') ι)/*» 

The consideration of these contrasts 
places the relation of Christianity to all 
that had gone before in a clear light 
That which is communicated in parts, 
sections, fragments, must of necessity 
be imperfect ; and so also a represen- 
tation which is made in many modes 
cannot be other than provisional The 
supreme element of unity is wanting 
in each case. But the Revelation in 
Christ, the Bon, is perfect both in sub- 
stance and in form. The Incarnation 
and the Ascension include absolutely 
all that is wrought out elowly and ap- 
propriated little by little in the ex- 
perience of later life. The charac- 
teristics which before marked the 
revelation itself now mark tho human 
apprehension of the final revelation. 

The Incarnation, in other words, 
is the central point of all Life ; and 
just as all previous discipline led up 

to it πολνμιρως κάί πολντροπως, SO all 
later experience is the appointed 
method by which its teaching is pro- 
gressively mastered πολυμιρωοαύ nokv- 
τρονως. All that we can learn of the 
constitution of man, of the constitu- 
tion of nature, of the 'laws' of history 
must, from the nature of the case, 
illustrate its meaning for us (comp. 
1 Cor. xiii. 9 £). 

These thoughts find their complete 
justification in tho two clauses which 
describe tho relation to the order of 
the world of Him in Whom Qod spoke 
to us. Qod appointed Him heir of 
all tilings, and through Him He made 
the world. The Son as Heir aud 
Creator speaks with perfect know- 
ledge and absolute sympathy. 

But while the revelations of the 
Old and the New Covenants are thus 
sharply distinguished, God is the One 

Author of both. He spoke in old 
time, and He spoke in the last time. 
In the former case His speaking was 
upon earth and in the latter case 
from heaven (c. xil 2$ note), but in 
both cases the words are alike His 
words. Not one word therefore can 
pose away, though such as were frag- 
mentary, prospective, typical, required 
to be fulfilled by Christ's Presence 
(Matt v. 1 8). In revelation and iu 
the record of revelation all parts 
have a divine work but not the same 
work nor (as we speak) an equal work. 

1 Qod having of old time spoken to 
the fathers in tfie propfiets in many 
parte and in many modes •spake 
to us at the end of these days in His 
Son, whom He appointed heir of all 
things, through whom He also made 
Vie world. 

1. Tho order of the first words in 
tho original text, by which tho two 
adverbs (πολνμιρνς καί ποΚυτροπως) 
come first, to which nothing after- 
wards directly answers (Hoeing in 
many parts and in many modes of 
old time spoken... \ servos at once 
to fix attention on the variety and 
therefore on the imperfection of the 
earlier revelations, and also to keep 
a perfect correspondence in the mem- 
bers which follow («-όλοι, ίπ ίσχάτου 
των ημ*ρων τούτων — λάΚήσας, *λαλη- 
σ*ν — τοις ηατρασιν, ήμιν — cV τοις προ- 
φήταις, 4ν νίψ). 

At the same time the two main 
divisions of the revelation are con- 
nected as forming one great whole : 
Qod liaving spoken... spake... (6 fobs 
λαλήσας...ίλάλψτ*¥). It is not simply 
that tho Author of tho earlier revela- 
tion is affirmed to havo boon also tho 
Author of the later {Qod who spake. . . 
spake... ό tois πατράσι* λάλησα? $tbs 
ίλόλησίΡ or Qod spake. . .and spake. . .) ; 
but the earlier revelation is treated 
as the preparation for, the foundation 
of, the latter (Qod having spoken... 

πο\νμ*ρω$ *a\ wokvrpowvt] mi many 
parts and m many manners, Vulg. 



muUifariam muUieque modi*. Syr. 
Pen. in all part* and in ail manner* 
(8yr. HcL in many part*... \ 

The variety of the former revelation 
extended both to its enbetanco and 
to its form. Tho groat drama of 
Israel's discipline was divided into 
separate acts; and in each act dif- 
ferent modes were employed by 
God for bringing home to His 
people varions aspects of truth. 
Thus tho 'many parts' of tho pre- 
paratory training for Christianity may 
be symbolised (though they are 
not absolutely coincident with them) 
by the periods of the patriarchs, of 
Moses, of the theocracy, of tho king- 
dom, of the captivity, of the hier- 
archy, as Israel was enabled to as- 
similate the lessons provided pro- 
videntially in the national life of 
Egypt, Canaan, Persia, Greece. And 
the many 'modes 9 of revelation are 
shadowed forth in the enactment of 
typical ordinances, in declarations of 
* the word of the Lord,' in symbolic 
actions, in interpretations of tho cir- 
cumstances of national prosperity and 
distress. And further it must bo 
noticed that the modes in which God 
spoko in the prophots to tho people 
wore largely influenced by the modes 
in which God spoke to the prophets 
themselves 'face to face/ by visions, 
by Urim and Thummim (comp. Num. 
χϋ 6, 8). These corresponded in the 
divine order with the characters of the 
messengers themselves which became 
part of their message. 

The general sense is well given by 
Theodorot: το μίντοι πολυμ*ρως rat 
παντοοαπα* olicovoptat σημαίνα, το bi 
πολυτρόπων των Btlmv οπτασιών το 
λάφορο*, Χλλωΐ γαρ Λφθη τψ 'Αβραάμ 
κλΪ άλλβκ τφ Μωϋση.,.τό μίντοι ιτολν- 
μ*ρω* «el mow αΐνίττιται bri των 
προφητών ΐκαοτοτ μιρικήν τίνα οίκονο- 
μίαν Λ*χ«ρ/£€Τθ, ο bi τούτων 6Vof, ο 
ο^σπότηψ λ4γω Χριστοί, ου μίαν τίνα 
φκονομησ* xptiaVf αλλά το παν ivavBpm- 
πησας κατωρΰωσ*. 

The adverbs are not rare in late 

Greek: for πολυμ*ρω§ see Pint M. 
537 η ; Jos. AnU. viii. 3, 9; and for 
πολυτρόπων Philo, ii. S 1 2 M.; Max. Tyr. 
vii. 2. noXvficpip is used of Wisdom 
in Wisd. vii. 22. Tho two corre- 
sponding adjectives occur together in 
Max. Tyt. ml. 7 s There are, he says, 
two instruments for understanding, 
τον μ*ν όπλου bv καλοΰμιν νουν, του Μ 
voucCkov καΧ πολυμερούς καΧ πολυτρόπου 
αί αϊσθψτ€ΐς καλούμα*. For similar 
combinations βοο Philo de vit Mo*. 
i. § 20 (ii. 99 Μ.) (ποΧυτροπψ κα\ πολύ- 
σχιδνί); d$ decal. § 17 (li 194 M.) (iro- 
λύτροποι καΧ iroXvttoVcr) ; qui* rer. div. 
hatr. § 58 (i. 514 M.) (πολλούς καΐ iro- 

Clement of Alexandria in a remark- 
able passage (Strom, vi 7, § 58, p. 
769) uses the phrase of the action of 
the Word, Wisdom, the firstborn Son : 
ovror Jaw ό των γ*νπτων απόντων 
bMaitaXot> ο σύμβουλος του 6Vov τον 
τα πάντα προτγνωκότος' ό ftf &*ωθ*ν ίκ 
πρώτης καταβολής κόσμου πολυτρόπων 
κα\ πολυμ*ρω* πτπαίδιυκίν τ* καί τ€- 
λ«οϊ. Comp. Strom, i. 4» 27» Ρ• 33» 
f Ικότως τοινυν S απόστολος πολυποΐκιλον 
Λρηκ<ν τ^ν σοφία* του θ(ου, πολυμτοως 
καΧ πολυτρόπων bib τίχνης, σιά επιστή- 
μης, bib πίστιως, bib προφψνίας, τήν 
iavrrjt ίν&ικνυμ*νην ΰνναμυ* tit την 
ήμίτίρα* tvtaytafa*... 

πάλαι] of old time (Vulg. dim) and 
not simply formerly (πρότ§ρον c. iv. 6; 
x. 32). The word is rare in N.T. and 
always describee something completed 
in the past. Here the thought is or the 
ancientteachings now long since sealed. 
ό 6tbt λαλήσας... ΛάλφΓ* r. . .] There 
is but one final Source of all Truth. 
The unity of the Revealer is the 
pledge and ground of the unity of the 
Revelation, however it may be com- 
municated; and His revelation of 
Himself is spontaneous. He 'speaks* 
in familiar intercourse. The word 
XaX9iv is frequently used in the Epistle 
of divine communications : ii. 2, 3 ; 
Hi. 5; iv. 8; v. 5; xi. 18; xii. 25. 
Compare John ix. 29; xvL 13. This 
usage is not found in St Paul (yet 


έσχατου των ήμ£ρών τούτων έλάλησβν ημΐν iv υίφ, 

* έσχατου ΚΑΒΡ,Μ, (vg) me: έσχατων Γ syrr. 

see Rom. iiL 19 ; 2 Cor. xiiL 3), but it 
Si common in St Luke (Act•). 

The Vulgate rendering loquene (Old 
Lat locutus)...locutus est exhibits a 
characteristic defect of the version in 
the rendering of participle» (compare 
v. ipurgathnem fattens; v. 14 missi), 

rot* πάτρα**] This absolute title 
the fathers ocean again John vti. 22 ; 
Rom.ix. 5 ; zt. 8 (in Act• iiL 22 it is a 
fake reading). Compare Ecchia. xliv. 
Πατέρων ύμνος. . 

Mora commonly wo And 'our (pour) 
fathers 9 : Act• ill- 13, 25 ; v. 30; viL 
11 Ac; 1 Cor. x. 1. The absolute 
term• mark• the relation of 'the 
lathers' to the whole Church. 

iv rot* «pj ui ΙΛ• prophet» (Vulg. 
tit prophetis\ not simply through 
them using them as His instruments 
(c. ii 2, 3), but m Mm (c. iv. 7) as 
the quickening power of their life. 
In whatever way Qod made Him- 
self known to them, they were His 
messengers, inspired by His Spirit, 
not in their words only but as men; 
and however the divine will was com- 
municated to them they interpreted 
it to the people : compare Matt x. 
20 ; 2 Cor. ziiL 3. (Ipse in cordibus 
coram dixit quidquid illi fores vol 
dictis vel fasti* locuti sunt homini- 
bus. Herv) Conversely the prophet 
speaks 'in Christ' as united vitally 
with Him: 2 Cor. iL 17 5 xii. 19. 

Cf. Philo de pram, et pom. 9 (ii. 
417 Μ.) έρμηνςυς yap έστιν ο προφήτης 
hbob\v νπηχουντος τά Χικτέα ταυ θιου. 

The title 'prophet' is used in the 
widest sense as it is applied to 
Abraham (Gen. xx. j\ to Moses (Dent 
xxxiv. 10; comp. xviiL 18), to David 
(Acts iL 3θλ and generally to those 
inspired by God: Ps. cv. 15. Com- 
pare Acts iiL 21 των αγίων απ αΙωνος 
αυτού προφητών. Luke L 7a The 
prophets, according to a familiar Rab- 
binic saying, prophesied only of the 

days of the Messiah (Sabb. 63 a; 
Wunsche, Altsyn. TheoL s. 355)1 
Comp. Philo quis rer. div. harr. § 52 
(L 510 f.M.X 

2. At έσχατου των ήμ. τ.] at the 
end of these days: Vulg. novissime 
diebus istis, O.L. t» novissimis diebus 

The phrase is moulded on a lxx 
rendering of the Ο. T. phrase ΓΗφ$| 
Dnp;0 'in the latter days; tV ίσχάτου 
των 4μ*ρω* (Gon. xlix. 1 : Num. xxiv. 
14; Jor. xxiiL 20 v. 1. Ισχάτων; xlix. 
39 [xxv. 18]; comp. Deut iv. 30 ; xxxL 
29), which is used generally of the 
times of Messiah (Is. iL 2 ; Dan. x. 14 
and notes). 

Startiug from this general concep- 
tion Jewish teachers distinguished 'a 
present age,' 'this age' (nm D^y» β 
οίων ovror, ο νυν καιρός) from ' that age,' 
'the age to come' (ion ϋ*>\ν,όμΙΧΧων 
αΙων 9 6 οίων ίκιΐνος, 6 οίων 6 4ρχόμ*νος). 

Between 'the present age' of imper- 
fection and conflict and trial and ' the 
age to come' of the perfect reign of 
God they placed 'the days of Messiah/ 
which they sometimes reckoned in 
the former, sometimes in the latter, 
and sometimes as distinct from both. 
They were however commonly agreed 
that the passage from one age to the 
other would be through a period of 
iutouso sorrow and anguish, 'the 
travail-pains' of the new birth (tan 
ΠΦΟΠ, <ttim Matt xxiv. 8). 

The apostolic writers, ftilly oon- 
scious of the spiritual crisis through 
which they were passing, speak of 
their own time as the 'last days' 
(Acts ii. 17; James v. 3: comp. 2 
Tim. iiL 1); the 'last hour' (1 John iL 
18); 'the end of the times' (1 Pet L 
20 άτ* έσχατου τω» χρόνων ι in 2 Pet 
iiL 3 the true reading is cV εσχάτων 
των ήμ.)•, 'the lust time' (Judo 18 Ar* 
έσχατου χρόνου). 



ov *θηκ€Ρ κ\ηρονόμον πάντων, Ζι ου και έποίηατβν τους 

hnl. τ. alQrat KABD, # M, (vg) 

Thus tho full phrmae in this place 
emphasises two distinct thoughts, the 
thought of the coming close of the 
existing order (Ar εσχάτου eU the end), 
and also the thought of the contrast 
between the present and the future 
order (tw* ήμ*ρ*ρ rovrmp 0/ theee day* 
as contrasted with ' those days'). 

Αάλτσητ ι)/ά»] jpoA* fo Mf— the 
members of the Christian Church : x. 
26; xiii. 1 (so Theophylact: ipowoui 
ml ίζισοί voir μαθηταϊψ κα\ avrovt «el 
imnov\ The word was not directly 
addressed to tho writer: ii. 3. The 
mission of Christ is here regarded as 
complete. It is true in one sense that 
He told His disciples the full mes- 
sage which He had received (John xy. 
15X if in another sense He had, when 
He left them, yet many thing* to $ay 
(xvi. I2)l This contrast between the 
divine, absolute, aspect of Christ's 
work, and its p rogr ess ive appropria- 
tion by men, occurs throughout Scrip- 
ture. Compare CoL ill 1 ft*., 5. 

h νίφ] The absence of the article 
Axes attention upon the nature and 
not upon tho personality of tho 
Mediator of the new revelation. God 
spake to us in one who has this 
character that He is Son. The sense 
might be given by the rendering in a 
Son, if the phrase could be limited to 
this meaning (' One who is Son 0; but 
'a 8on' is ambiguous. 800 v. 5; 
HL 6; v. 8; vii. 28. Compare John 
v. 27 note ; x. 12 ; Rom. i. 4. 

The absence of the article is made 
more conspicuous by its occurrence 
in the corresponding phrase. 'The 
prophets 9 are spoken of as a definite, 
known, body, fulfilling a particular 
office. The sense would lose as much 
by the omission of the article in 
this case (A> προφήτης 'in men who 
were prophets') as it would lose here 
by the insertion (A> τψ νίγ in the Son 

It is instructive to notice how com- 

syr vg: r. a/, iwol. Γ syr hi. 

pletely the exact force of the original 
was missed by the later Greek Fathers. 
Even Chrysostom says: το iv vtf &1Λ 
του vlov φψτΐ) and GScumenius repeats 
the words. 

The new revelation is a continua- 
tion of the old so far as God is the 
author of both. It is wholly new 
and separate in character so far as 
Christ is the Mediator of it 

Herveius notices tho difference be- 
twoon the Presence of God in the 
prophets and in His Son : In pro- 
phetis fuit Dens secundum inhabi- 
tationem gratia) et revelationem vo- 
luntatis sapientite suae, in FiHo au- 
tem omnino totus manebat...utpote 
cui sapientia Dei personaliter erat 

lv ίθηκ9*..Λι oZ tuu ίποίησ**...] The 
office of the Son as the final revealer 
of the win of God is illustrated by 
His relation to God in regard to the 
world, in and through which the reve- 
lation comes to men. He is at once 
Creator and Heir of all things. The 
end answers to the beginning. Through 
Him God called into being the tem- 
poral order of things, and He is heir 
of their last issue. All things were 
created 'in Him' and 'unto Him' 
(Col. I. 15, 16, h «frf Ικτίσθη, §lt 
aoro9 fa -ισηιι). The universal heir- 
ship of Christ is illustrated by, if not 
bnsod upon, His croative activity. 

ίθηκιν κληρορόμορ ir.] Vulg. quem 

ean*tituit(0. h.poiuit) heredem unt- 
tttrtortffn. Even that which under one 
aspect appears as a necessary conse- 
quence is referred to the immediate 
will of God (tape *). For the use of 
τίβημι see Rom. iv. 17 (Gen. xvit 5); 
1 Tim. iL 7; 2 Tim. L 11. There is 
nothing to determine the 'time' of 
this divine appointment It belongs 
to the eternal order. Yet see Ps.iL 
8; Matt xxviiL 18 (Μ6η). We 'who 
see but part' may fix our attention 
on incoptivo fulfilments. 




κληρονόμο*] The thought of son- 
ship passes naturally into that of heir- 
ship : GaL iv. 7 ; compare Bom. viiL 

The word heir marka the original 
purpose of Creation. The dominion 
originally promised to Adam (Gen. L 
28 ; compare Ps. ?iiL) was gained by 
Christ Audso f m regard to the diviuo 
economy, the promise made to Abra- 
ham (compare RoulW. 13 ; GaL ill 39) 
and renewed to the divine King (Ps. 
ii. 8), which was symbolised by the 'in- 
heritance' of Canaan (Ex. xxiii. 30), 
became absolutely fulfilled in Christ 
The image of 'heirship' which is 
based apparently on the second Psalm 
(Ps. ii 8) is recognised in the Gospels 
(Matt xxL 38 and parallels) where 
the contrast between 'the servants' 
(prophets) and 'the Son' U also 

At the same time, it must be care- 
rally noticed that the usage cannot be 
pressed in all directions. The term 
is used in relation to the possession, 
as marking the fulness of right, resting 
upon a personal connexion, and not, 
as implying a iiaiwiug away and a suc- 
cession, in relation to a present pos- 
sessor (oomp. GaL iv. 1 6 κληρονόμος... 
κύριος warrmp 4p). The heir as such 
vindicates his title to what he holds. 
Compare Additional Note on vi. 12. 

The heirship of 'the Son' was 
realised by the Son Incarnate (0. 4) 
through His humanity: κληρονόμος 
yap πάττωρ & δβσπότης Χρίστος ονχ ως 
Μς dkTC ως άνθρωπος (Theod.) ; but 
the writer speaks of ' the Son ' simply 
as Son as being heir. In such lan- 
guage we can see the indication of 
the truth which is expressed by the 
statement that the Incarnation is in 
essence independent of the Fall, 
though conditioned by it as to its 

πάπων] The purpose of God ex- 
tended far beyond the hope of Israel; 
oiWri γαρ μι pit κυρίου ο % 1ακωβ (Deut 
xxxii. 9),αλλΛ πωτβς (Theophlct). Νοη 

jam portio Domini tantum Jacob et 
portio ejus Israel, sed omnes omnino 
nationes (Atto Vera). 

6i ov κα\ ΙποΙψτβρ r. al] This order, 
which is certainly correct, throws the 
emphasis on the feet of creation, which 
answers to the appointment of the 
Son as heir («αί Aroint*, compare vi. 
7; vii. 25X The creation does in- 
deed involve the consummation of 
things. The 'Protevangelium' is Gen. 
L 26f. 

tow aimpas] the world, Vulg. taenia. 
The phrase of αίωκς has boou inter- 
preted to mean 

(1) ' Periods of time/ and especially 
'this ago' and 'the age to come,' as 
though thesense were that God created 
through the Son— Who is supra- 
temporal— all time and times. 

(2) The successive emanations from 
the divine Being, as in the Gnostic 
theologies; or the orders of finite 
being. Oomp. Const. Apost. viiL 12 
ό 6V αύτον [τον υΐον] ποιησας τά χιρον 
βίμ κα\ τα σιραφϊμ, αΐ&ράς τ* και 

(3) The sum of the 'periods of 
timo' iududiug all that is manifested 
in and through them, litis souse 
appears first in Bodes, iil 11, an- 
swering to the correspondiug use of 
tfy\V which is first found there. The 
plural Dial? is found with this mean- 
ing in later Jewish writers, «.?. 
Bdmwnx Oomp. Wisd. xiii. 9. 

There can be little doubt that 
this is the right sense here (couip, 
xL 3 noto). The universe may be 
regarded eitlier in its actual constitu- 
tion as a whole (β κόσμος), or as an 
order which exists through time de- 
veloped in successive stages. There 
are obvious reasons why the latter 
mode of representation should be 
adopted here. 

The difference between 6 οίων — the 
age— one part of the whole develop- 
ment» and of al*m — the ages— the 
sum of all the parts, is well illustrated 
by the divine title 'the King of the 



«got' ι Tim. L 17 (6 βασιλεύς rwr 
Mm*; Tobit xiii. 6, 10; Henoch 
p. 86 Dfllm. ό β. wnvrmv t*v al; 
Eeclns. xxxvi. 22 (19) 6 θ*ος rmv atepmr ; 
Henoch p. 83). In this aspect 'the 
Ring of the ages' is contrasted with 
' the rulers of this age' (of Αρχοντας του 
almvot τούτου ι Cor. ii. 6* 8). Compare 
παντοκράτωρ (ApOC i. 8 &C.) with 
κοσμοκράτωρ (Eph. vi. 1 2l 

The Rabbinic nse of D?to is very 
wide. Thus they speak of the 'Macro- 
cosm/ the universe, as Snarl D^iy, 
and of the 'Microcosm/ man, as 

jiopn dVw. 

There is a very fine saying in Aboth 
I v. ' R. Jacob said This world is like a 
Ycstibnlo boforo the world to como: 
prepare thyself in the vestibule that 
thou mayest enter into the fostival- 

csr. rovr alcovas) The order of finite 
being even when it is regarded under 
the form of gradual development is 
spoken ofas'nmde' by a supra-temporal 
act 'All creation is one act at 

πάντων... τους αΐ&ρας) all thing*.., 
the world.. Μ single things regarded 
in their separate being : the cycles of 
universal life. 

For the fact of creation through 
the Son see John i 3, 10; 1 Cor. viii. 
6(W); CoLi. 16 (*V). 

Philo speaks of the Logo$ as 'the 
instrument through which the world 
was made : ινρήσας οίτυον μ*ρ αντον (sc 
τοΟ κόσμου) top α\ο» υφ* ου yiyowtv" υ\η¥ 
Be re τίσσαρα στοιχήα ίξ άψσννικράθη' 
Ipynvov b* λόγου $€θΰ Μ οδ κατ*• 
νκΛυόσθη* της W κατασκευής αϊτία* τήρ 
άγ α θό ι ητη τον δημιουργού (d$ Cher. 

35; i• 162 Μ.)ι Comp. de monarch. 
iifi5(il.22sM.);l iV .a«v.iii.§3i(L 
106 Μ.). 

The first passage is singularly in- 
structive as bringing out the difference 
between the Christian and Fhilonic 
conception of the divine action. Comp. 
Rom. xi. 36 (fit, but, cir) ; 1 Cor. viii. 
6 (<*£, tit, duf). The preposition υπό 

is not, I believe, used in connexion 
with creation in the N.T. 

ii The Nature and work of the 

The Nature and work of the Son 
is presented in regard to (1) His 
divine Personality and (2) the Incarna- 

(1) In Himself the Son is presented 
in His essential Nature, as the mani- 
festation of the divine attributes (oir- 
αύγασμα της δόξης), and He embodies 
personally the divine essence (χαρακτηρ 
της υπόστασης). In connexion with 
this view of His Nature, His work is 
to bear all things to their true end 
(φίρων τΑ πάντα). 

(2) Tliis genoral view of His work 
loads to the view of His work as In- 
carnate in a world marred by sin. 
In regard to this He is the One 
absolute Redeemer (καθαρ. των άμ. 
ποιησάμβνος) and the Sovereign re- 
presentative of glorified humanity 
(ΜΑ iV bt(u} της μ*γ. h νψ.). 

3 Who, being the effulgence of Hie 
glory and the expression of His 
essence, and so bearing all things by 
the word of His power •, after He had 
Himself made purification of sins, 
sat down on the right hand of the 
Majesty <m high. 

3. Tho description of the Nature 
and Work of the Son of God in relation 
to the Father (spake in, appointed, 
made) given in the seoond verse is 
completed by a description of His 
Nature and Work in regard to Him- 

The description begins with that 
which is otornaL The participles 
'being/ ' bearing ' describe tho abso- 
lute and not simply the present 
essence and action of the Son. Com- 
pare John i. 18; (iii. 13); Col 1. 15, 
17. The &* in particular guards 
against the idea of mere 'adoption ' in 
the Sonship, and affirms the perma- 
nence of the divine essence of the 
Son during His historic work. 

At the same time the divine being 
of the Son can be represented to men 



P. 3 

αιώνα** s os ων απαύγασμα της $όξη* και χαρακτηρ τη* 

only under human figures. Since this 
ie so, the infinite truth must be sug- 
gested by a combination of comple- 
mentary images such as are given here 
in απαύγασμα SOid χαρακτηρ. The first 
image (απαύγασμα) brings out the con- 
ception of the source (πηγή) of the 
Son's Being, and of His unbroken 
connexion with the Father, as re- 
vealing to man the fulness of His 

The second image (χαρακτηρ) em- 
phasises the true Personality of the 
Son as offering in Himself the perfect 
representation of the divine essence 
of the Father (John xiv. 9). 

Taken together the images suggest 
the thoughts presented by the theo- 
logical terms ' ooessential' (ομοούσιος) 
and ' only-begotten ' (μονογενής). 

The ' glory ' of Qod finds expression 
in the Son as its 'effulgence': the 
1 essence 1 of God finds expressioo in 
Him as its 'typo.' 

Noither figure can bo prossod to 
conclusions. The luminous imago 
may be said to have no substantive 
existence (τλ γαρ απαύγασμα, φασίν 
(the followers of Sabellius, Marcel- 
lus, Photinua), ίνυποστατον ούκ ίστι» 
<2λλ' iv Μρω 1 X €i το ttvat Chrysost. \\ The express image may be 
offored in a different substance. So it 
is that the first figure leaves unnoticed 
the Personality of the Son, and the 
second figure the essential equality of 
the Son with the Father. But that 
which the one figure lacks the other 
supplies. We cannot conceive of the 
luminous body apart from the luminous 
image; and we cannot identify the 
archetype and its expression. 

Under another aspect we observe 
that the Divine Manifestation is placed 
side by side with the Divine Essence. 
It is in Christ that the Revelation is 
seen (Απαύγασμα). It is in Christ 
that the Essence is made intelligibly 
distinct for man (χαρακτηρ). 

The two truths are implied by the 

words of the Lord recorded in St 
John's Gospel v. 19, 30; xiv. 9. 

For the pre-exieteuce of the Son 
compare α viL 3 ; x. 5. 

It must farther bo noticed that in 
the description of the Being of the 
Son language is used which points to 
a certain oongruity in the Incarnation. 
This is the « propriety' of His Nature 
to perfectly reveal God. Through 
Him God reveals Himself outwardly. 

Under this aspect the clause which 
describes the action of the &οη—φ*ρω* 
τα πάντα τφ$ηματι της οννάμιως αυτού 
—gives in its most general form the 
truth expressed in the divine acts 

op ίθηκιν κληρονόμο* πάντων, oV οΰ κα\ 
ίποίησι* τους αΙώνας. 

απαύγασμα της δόξης] the effulgence 
of His glory, Vulg. splendor gtoriar 
(and so Latt uniformly). 

απαύγασμα] The verb άπανγαζω has 
two distinct meanings : 

1. To flash forth : radiate 

2. To flash back : rofloct 

The noun απαύγασμα, which is a 
characteristically Alexandrine word 
occurring in Wisdom (vii. 25)• and in 
Philo, may therefore mean either 

1. The effulgence ; or 

2. The reflection (refulgence). 
The use of the word by Philo is not 

decisive as to the sense to be chosen. 
• In one passage the sense ' efful- 
gence ' appears to be most natural : De 
eoneupise. § 11 (ii. 356 Μ.) το b* *V• 
φυσωμινον (Gen. U. 7) &ή\ον oSs alBtpiov 
ήν πνινμα κα\ ft οη r* alBtplov fwv• 
ματος κράττον, ατ* της μακάριας καΙ 
τρισμακαρίας φύσιως απαύγασμα. 

In two others the sense 'reflection ' 
is more appropriate : De op\f. mundi 
§ 5 1 (i. 35 Μ.) πας άνθρωπος κατά μίν ιήν 
διάνοια» οίκύωται θύω λσνφ, της μακα- 
ρΐας φύσιως Ικμαγύον η απόσπασμα 
J) απαύγασμα γ*γονως, κατά Μ την τον 
σώματος κατασκινήν απαντι τψ κοσμώ, 

DeplantaHone Now § 12 (L 337 Μ.) 
ro Μ άγΙασμα (Ex. XV. 17) ohv αγίων 
απαύγασμα, μίμημα άρχβτύπον, feci 




τα afcrotyrt• βαλα κα\ νόηση καλώ» 

Tho passage in Wisdom (vii. 25 f.) 
is capable of bearing either meaning. 
The threefold succession απαύγασμα, 
ίσοπτρορ, thcam, — effulgent* , mirror, 
image, no less than e. 25, appears to 
favour the sense of 'effulgence.' 
Otherwise ίσοπτρορ interrupts the 
order of thought 

In this postage the sense reflection 
is quite possible, but it appears to be 
less appropriate, as introducing a third 
undeAned notion of 'that which re- 
flects.' Moreover the truth suggested 
by 'reflection' is contained in χαρακ - 
rfo to which 'effulgence' offers a 
more oppressive complement; and 
the Greek Fathers with unanimity 
have adopted the sense effulgence 
according to the idea expressed in 
the Nicene Creed, Light of Light. 
8everal of their comments are of 
interest as bringing out different 
sides of tho image: Orig. in JoK 

XXXiL l8 οΚη$ μ /ipoZp οϊμαι της Οοξηΐ του 
Θ<ου αυτού απαύγασμα tlpai top vioV... 
φβάρςιρ ulrroi γ* άπο του απαύγασμα- 
rot τούτον της ο\ης δόξης μιρικα απαυ- 
γάσματα Μ rljp XotwJjv Χογυήρ κτίσα*. 
Oomp. c Ceb. v. 185 do princ ι, 2, 4 
(and Redepenning's note); Horn, in 
Jot. ix. 4 ονχ\ Ιγ4ρρησ*ρ ο πατ^ρ 
top υίορ καϊ άπίΚυσιν avrbp ©Sro της 
γ*ρ4σ*ως αυτού, άλ\ $ at\ γ<ν*ψ αύτορ 
οσορ 4στ\ το φως πονηηκορ του απαυ- 

Greg. Nyss. de perfect* Chriet. 
forma, Migne Patr. Or. xlvi. p. 265 
σα£α* κα\ νποστασι* α\ρ6μασβ το vntp- 
κψίμιρο* παρτος άγαΰοΰ...το & συραφίς 
τι καί ά^ιαστατορ του υΙου προς το> 
πατ4ρα &ι*ρμηρ*ύωρ... απαύγασμα &6ξης 
κα\ χαρακτήρα ύποστάσ*•ς προσαγορβυη 
...άλλα 1 κα\ άτήρ άπαυγάζουσαρ φύσα» 
ροησαψ *α1 το απαύγασμα ταύτης πάρτης 
κατίρύησ*, κα\ 6 το μίγιθος της ύπο- 
στάσ*ως 4ρ ρψ λαβών τψ Ιπιφαιραμίρψ 
χαρακτήρι πάντως Ιμμ*τρύ τ^* υποστα- 

Chrysostom (Horn. il. 2) απαύγασμα 
carer.. .uv oWfo οτι κάκ*\ (John viii. 

12) ooV»f ιΐμηταϊ ΟηΧορ Μ ω* ς φως U 

Theodoret ad he. το απαύγασμα κα\ 
Ac του πυρός Ιστι καίσυρτψπυρίίστι... 
ΜδΊ ή ούζα, acl toIpvp *a\ το απαύ- 

Gficumenius ad loc. &a του 'απαύ- 
γασμα' τή* κατά φύσα* Ικ του πατρός 
προοοορ του νίον οηΧοι' ούΜργαρ Ska* 
ουοαμου κατά χάρο* καϊ ςίσποίησιρ πρά- 
iurip απαύγασμα ri»or,ov« άπο του ήΧίον, 
ου* άπο του πυρός, ουκ άφ* Μρου rtvot, 
άφ $ ον πςφυκςρ απαύγασμα irpotfoai. 

It is indeed true that the sense 
of 'effulgence' passes into that of 
' reflection ' so far as both present the 
truth that it is through Christ that 
God becomes visible to man. But 
in tho one case the nature of Christ 
is emphasised and in the other His 
office. The 'effulgence' is the neces- 
sary manifestation of the luminous 
body: the 'reflection' is tho mani- 
festation through some medium as it 
takes place in fact 

It is however necessary to observe 
that 'effulgence' is not any isolated 
ray, but the whole bright image which 
brings before us the source of light 
Comp. Greg. Nyss. c Eunom. viii, 
Migne Patr. Or. xlv. p. 773 4ς U 
παρτος του ηΧιαχου κναλον τ§ τοβ φωτός 
Χαμπήοση άπαυγάζςταί, ού γαρ το μ4ρ 
τι Χάμπα το dc αΧαμπις ion τον κνκλον' 
όντως $Χη ij οα£α ήτις Ιστίρ ά πατήρ τψ 
Ιξ ίαυτης απαυγάσματα τουτίστι τψ 
ΪΚηθίΡψ φοϊτΧ παρταχάφςρ πςραητγάζβται. 
And again, while the general figure 
guards the conception of the perma- 
nence of the relation between the 
source and the light» the 'effulgence' 
is regarded in its completeness (oVov- 
γασμα)— the light flashed forth, and 
not the light in the continuity of the 

της οοζης αύτον] The 'glory of God 1 
is the full manifestation of His attri- 
butes according to man's power of 
apprehending them, 'all His goodness' 
(Ex. xxxiiL 19 ff). This 'glory' was 
the subject of His crowning revelation 
as contemplated by the prophets 




ντΓοστάσ-βως αύτον, φέρων re τα πάντα τψ ρηματι τίρ 

3 φανςρων Β* (roll φέρων). 

(It. xL 5 ths glory of the Lord shall be 
revealed; xlvi. 13 in Zion salvation, 
untolsradmy glory; lx.ifc) and made 
known in Christ (2 Cor. Iy. 4, 6 : comp. 
Rom. is. 23; 1 Tim. L 11 ; John xi. 
40; L 14); compare Introduction to 
the Oospel of St John xlvii. If. It 
is tho final light (Apoc. xxL 23) for 
which we look (Tit ii. 13 ; Rom. v. 2). 

Under the Old Dispensation the 
Shekinah was the symbol of it: Ex. 
xxiv. 16 ; Pa. lxxxy. 9, Comp. Rom. ix. 
4; (2 Pet i 17). 

For illustrations see Rom vi. 4; ix. 
4; OoL L 11; Bph. iii. 16; compare 
2 These, i. 9; 1 Cor. xL 7; Rom. 
iii. 23. 

Clement (1 Oor. c. xxxvi.) writes hs 

&v Απαύγασμα της μ*γαλο\σννης αύτου, 
taking the word μβγαλωσύνη from the 
later clause and greatly obscuring the 
fulness of the thought 

χαρακτηρ της άτοοτάσηκ] the ex- 
preesion of Hie essence, Yulg. fi- 
gura (O. L. imago, v. character) sub- 
stantial. Syr. image of His essence 

The word χαρακτηρ is used from 
the time of Herodotus (L 116) of tho 
distiuguishing features, material or 
spiritual, borne by any object or 
person; of the traits by which we 
recognise it as being what it is. 

It is specially used for the mark 
upon a coin (Burip. EL 558 f.; Arist 
Pol. i 9) which determines tho nature 
and value of the piece, Comp. Ign. 
ad Magn. 5 *σπ*ρ yap Ισην νομίσματα 
6vo, ο piv θ*ου ο bi κόσμου, κα\ ίκαστον 
avrmv Vkov χαρακτήρα Ιπικιίμινον Μχς t, 
ol άπιστοι τον κόσμου τούτον,οί bi πιστοί 
lv αγάπη χαρακτήρα θ*συ πατρός bta 
Ιησού Χρίστου• 

In this connexion χαρακτηρ is ap- 
plied to the impression of tho en- 
graving on a die or seal which is con- 
veyed to other substances. Philo, de 

Mund. ojK/:§ 4(L4lL) Jcnrcp k κηρψ 
Tim tj Ιαυτου γυχϋ...τους χαρακτήρας 
ΙνσφραγΙζ* σ Am. 

id. § 53 (i. 36 Μ.) της ΙκαΗρας φνσ**ς 
άπιμάτητο tj ψνχ§ τους χαρακτήρας; 
de mundu § 4 (ϋ 606 Μ.). 

De plant. Now § $ (L 332 Μ.) ο M«G- 
σης [τήν λογική ψυχήν]ων6μασςν...τον 
falov καΧ αοράτου cJkona, δόκιμο* thai 
νομίσας owrmfcura* καϊ τυπωθύσαν 
σφράγισα $*ου, jjr 6 χαρακτηρ Ιστα* ο 
tUota λόγος. 

By a natural transition from this 
use, χαρακτηρ is applied to that in 
which the distinguishing traits of the 
object to which it is referred are 
found. 80 Philo describes 1 the spirit/ 
the essence of the rational part of 
man, as ( a figure and impress of 
divine power': η μ** oZv κοίτη προς τα 
Αλογα ουναμις ουσία* Γλαχιν αίμα, ή bi 
4κ της λογικής άκορρυΛσα πηγής, το 
πννμα, ουκ αέρα κινούμενο* αλλά τύπο* 
τινά καϊ χαρακτήρα tolas οννάμ*»ς 9 ην 
ονόματι κνρίωΜωνο^ ς ^όνακαλ*ι,Οηλων 
οτι άρχίτυπον ρΑν φύσ•ως λογικής ο &€ος 
ίση, μίμημα bi καΧ άπ€ΐκ6τισμα άνθρω- 
πος {quod det pot. insid. § 23; i 
207 Μ.). And Cloment of Rome speaks 
of man as 'an impress of the image 
of God': Μ πασιν το ίζοχώτατον... 
άνθοωπον...1πλασ*ν [6 &ημ*ονργος καϊ 
ΟΊσπότης τΑν απάντων] της Ιαυτου ιΐκό- 
νος χαρακτήρα (Gen. i. 26 f.) (ad Oor. 


Generally χαρακτηρ may be said to 
be that by which anything is direct- 
ly recognised through corresponding 
signs under a particular aspect, though 
it may include only a few features of 
the object It is so far a primary and 
not a secondary source of knowledge. 
Χαρακτηρ conveys representative traits 
only, and therefore it is distinguished 
from tUtiv (2 Cor. iv. 4; CoL L 15; 
1 Cor. xi. 7 ; Col. iii. 10) which gives a 
complete representation under the 
condition of earth of that which it 

ι- Λ 



_.__•; and from μομφή (Phil. II. 6f.) 
which marks the essential form. 

There is no word in English which 
exactly renders it If there were a 
sense of 'express' (*.* expressed 
image) answering to 'impress,' this 
would be the best equivalent 

άτάπ-ασκ] The word properly 
means 'that which stands beneath' 
as a sediment (Arist de hut. an. v. 
19 and often), or foundation (Esek. 
xliii. 11, lxx.), or ground of support 
(Ps. lxYiii.(Wx.)a; Jor.xxiii. 22, lxx.). 
From this general sense come the 
special senses of firmness, confidence 
(compare e. ill. 14 note; 2 Oor. ix.4; 
xi 17); reality ([Arist] de mundo 4 
rk μ*ν κατ 9 Ιμφασι», τα Μ waff υπόστατ 
σ», κατ ίμφασιν μ*9 1oto*t...Ka(T υπό- 
οτασιν οΊ.•.κομήται...\ that in virtue 
of which a thing is what it is, the 
essence of any being (Ps. xxxviti. 
(xxxix.) 6; Ps. lxxxviii. (Ixxxix.) 48; 
Wisd. xvi. 21 : compare Jerem. x. 17 ; 
Esek. xxvi. 11). 

When this meaning of 'essence' was 
applied to tiie Divine Being two dis- 
tinct usages arose in tho course of 
debate. If men looked at the Holy 
Trinity under the aspect of the one 
Qodhead there was only one υπόστα- 
ση one divine essence. If, on the 
other hand, they looked at each 
Person in the Holy Trinity, then that 
by which each Person is what He is, 
His υπόσταση, was necessarily re- 
garded as distinct, and there were 
three υπόσταση. In the first case 
υπόσταση as applied to the One God- 
head was treated as equivalent to 
ουσία: in the other case it was treated 
as equivalent to πμόσνπου. 

As a general rule the Eastern (Alex- 
andrine) Fathers adopted the second 
mode of speech affirming the existence 
of three υποστάσ* η (real Persons) in 
the Godhead; while the Western 
Fathers affirmed the unity of one 
υπόσταση (essence) in the Holy 
Trinity (compare the letter of Dio- 
nysins of Alexandria to Dionysius of 
Rome, Routh, Μ warm, iii. 39° Λ 

and notes). Hence many medimval 
and modern writers have taken υπό- 
σταση in the sense of 'person' here. 
But this use of the word is much 
later than the apostolic age; and it is 
distinctly inappropriate in this con- 
nexion* The Son is not the image, 
the expression of the ' Person' of God. 
On the other hand, He is the ex- 
pression of the 'essence 1 of God. He 
brings the Divine before us at once 
perfectly and definitely according to 
the measure of our powers. 

The exact form of the expression, 
άπαύγ. της δ\ κα\ χαμ. της ύποστ. and 
not re άπαυγ. τ. ο. καί 6 χαμ. της 
ύποστ. or άπαυγ. δ. καί χαρ. νποστ., will 
be noticed (comp. v. 2 h υΐγ). 

φ*ρ*ν Tt] and #0 bearing—We 
now pass from the thought of the 
absolute Being of the Son to His 
action in the finite creation under the 
conditions of time and space. The 
particle τ# indicates the new relation 
of the statement which it introduces. 
It is obvious that the familiar dis- 
tinction holds true here: W con- 
jungit, re adjungit' The providential 
action of the Son is a special mani- 
festation of His Nature and is not 
described in a coordinate statement: 
what He does flows from what He is. 
The particle re is rarely used as an 
independent conjunction in the N.T. 
It is so used again c vi. 5 ; ix. 1 ; 
xii. 2 ; and in 8t Paul only Rom. ii. 
19; xvi 26; 1 Oor. iv. 21 ; Bph. iii. 19. 
φ4μωρ.~] bearing or guiding, Vulg. 
portan», 0. L. ferene v. geren*. 
This present and continuous support 
and carrying forward to their end of 
all created things was attributed by 
Jewish writers to God no less than 
their creation. ' God, blessed be He, 
bears falD) the world' (Shem. A 
§ 36 referring to Is. xlvi. 4; compare 
Num. xi. 14; Deut L 9). The action 
of God is here referred to the Son 
(comp. Ool. L 17). 

The word φ*μ•ιν is not to be under- 
stood simply of the passive support 
of a burden (yet notice c xiii. 13; ***• 




δννάμβως αυτόν, καθαρισμοί των αμαρτιών ποιησάμβνος 

«α**μ*/ιο> ΚΑΒ vg: + S» 1 αΦτο* «α*. D, # : + ** *αντο3' «α*. Γ •ΥΤΓ. τ. άμαρτιύ» 
K*ABD,*M, vg syr vg me: τ. *>. +V^ Γ syr hi: +*Atur Κ•. r. Α/*• *•«¥*• ****• 
KABD.M, yg: VM ^. τ. *>. to*. W#. Γ. 

2o); "for the Son is not an Atlas 
sustaining the dead weight of the 
world." It rather expresses that 
1 bearing ' which include• movement» 
progress, toward• an end. The Son 
in the word• of Gicumenius wtptayii 
καϊ σν»4χ*ι καϊ πη&α\ιονχιϊ...τα άάρατα 
καϊ τα ορατά 9*ρνφίρ*ν καϊ κνβ*ρν*». 
The same general senae is giyen bj 
Ohrysostom: φ*ρω»...τοντ€στι 9 jcv/3co- 
tm» 9 τά tiawiwrovra σνγκρατ&ν. του 
γαρ ποιησαι το» κόσμο» ούχ ^τταψ Am 
το συγκροτύ» &λ', *l dfi τι tsa\ Θαυ- 
μαστό» §Ιπ*ι» 9 καϊ μάζο» (Horn. Η. 3)• 
And so Priuiasius; verbo juasionie 
suae omnia gnbernat et regit, non 
enim minus eat gnbernare mundum 
quam gubornando vero oa 
quae facta aunt ne ad nihilum redeant 

Gregory of Nyssa goes yet further, 
and understands φέρω» of the action 
by which the Son brings things into 
existence: τΑ σύμπαντα τψ £ήματι 
της δυνάμιως αύτου φ4ρ*ι 6 Aoyoc Ac 
τον μή error §1ς yinaw* warm yap 
6σα τ$» ΛΰΚο» €ΪΧηχβ φύσι» μίαν αΐτία» 
Ιχιι της ύποστάσςως το &ημα της άφρά- 
ότου &υ»άμβως (de per/. Christ. forma, 
Migne Pair. Or. xlvi. p. 265). For 
this sense of φ4ρ*ι» compare Philo 
quit rer. die. hanr. § 7 (L 477 Μ .); de 
mut. nom. § 44 (L 6, 7 M.X 

Philo expresses a similar idea to 
that of the toxt whon ho speaks of 
6 πησαλιονχος καί κυβιρνήτης τον παντός 
λο>* *«κ(2>0 Cherub. § 1 1 ; i. 145 Μ .). 
And Hennas give• the passive side of 
it Sim, IX. 14, 5 το όνομα του vtov τον 
Btov μέγα έστ\ καί αχώρητο» καϊ το> 
κόσμο» όλον βάσταζα' tl ου» πάσα ή 
κτίσις λΑ του υΙου τον θ*ον βαστά- 

τα ιτώτα] as contrasted with warra 
(John La). All things in their unity: 
C 0. 8, 10 (not iii. 4); Rom. yiil 32 ; 
xi36; 1 Cor. yiii. 6; xv. 27 t.\ 2 Cor. 

iv. 15; y. 18; Eph. i. 10 f.; iii. 9; iy. 
10, 15 ; PhiL iii. 21 ; OoL L 16 f., 20; 
1 Tim. vi. 13. 

See also 1 Cor. xi. 12; xii. 6; Gal 
Iii. 22; PhiL iii. 8; Eph. L 23; v. 13. 
The reading in 1 Cor. ix. 22, and 
perhaps in xii. 19* is wrong. 

τψ fi. της ow.J by the word— the 
expression•--*/ Hie (Chriefe) power, 
the word in which His power finds its 
manifestation (compare Roy. iii. 10 

το» λόγο» της νπομονης μου). Αβ the 

world was called into being by an 
uttoranco (ρήμα) of God (c xL 3X so 
it is sustained by a like expression of 
the divine wilL The choke of the 
term as distinguished from λόγο* 
marks, so to speak, the particular 
action of Providence. Gen. L 3 c hr*» 
ο * ά. 

dv». αύτου] The pronoun naturally 
refers to the Son, not to the Father, 
in spite of the preceding clauses, from 
the character of the thought 

καθ. πο*ησάμ€»οί] having made— 
when He had made— purification of 
eine. This clause introduces a new 
aspect of the Son. He has been re- 
garded in His absolute Nature (Λ), 
and in His general relation to finite 
being (φέρω»): now He is seen as He 
entered into the conditions of life in a 
world disordered by sin. 

The comploted atonement wrought 
by Christ (having made) ie iiistinguish- 
ed from Hie eternal being and His 
work through all time inthesupport of 
created things (f>eing 9 bearing)', and it 
is connected with His assumption of 
sovereign power in His double Nature 
at the right hand of God (Jiaving 
made.. Me eat...). Thus the phrase 
prepares for the main thought of the 
Epistle, the High-priestly work of 
Christ» which is first distinctly intro- 
duced in 0. ii. 17. 

νοα)σάμ€»ος] The Vulgate, from the 




6καθισ€Ρ iv δβ£ια της μ^αΧωσύνη^ iv ύ-ψηΧοΐς, 4 τοσοντω 

defectiveness of Latin participles, fails 
to give the sense: purgationem 
peeeatorum fattens (compare e. 1 
loqum$). In e. 14 (mini) there is 
the converse error. The Old Latin 
had avoidod this error but left the 
thought indefinite, purifications (pur- 
fictions) peceatorum facta. 

The use of the middle (πιπησάμβνοψ) 
suggests the thought which the late 
gloss &Γ iavrov made more distinct 
Christ Himself, in His own Person, 
mado the purification : He did not 
make it as something distinct from 
Himself, simply provided by His 
power. Compare μπία* vottta6<u 
Rom. i 9; Eph. i. 16, etc.; noutaoai 
kfatn 1 Tim. ii. 1; Luke v. 33; 
John xiv. 23, Ac. 

mA rmv αμαρτιών) 2 Pet i 9 (per- 
sonally applied). Compare Exod. xxx. 
10 (lxx.); Job viL 21 (lxx.). Else- 
where the word καθαρισμός is used 
only of legal purification (Luke ii. 22 ; 
Mk. i. 44 I Luke v. 14 ; John ii. 6 ; 
Hi. 25). The verb καθορίζων is also 
used but rarely of sin : c x. 2 (ix. 14); 
1 John i. 7, 9. Comp. Acts χ v. 9; 
Eph. v. 26; Tit ii. 14 (2 Cor. vii 1 ; 
James iv. 8). 

There is perhaps a reference to the 
imperfection of the Aaronic purifi- 
cations (compare Lov. xvi. 30) which 
is dwolt upon afterwards, c χ. 1 ff. 

Tho gonitivo (καθ. αμαρτιών) may 
express either 

(1) the cleansing o/sins, *'.«. the re- 
moval of the sins. Compare Matt 
viiL 3; Job vii 21 (Ex. xxx. 10), 

or (2) the cleansing (of the person) 
from sins. Comp. c. ix. 15. 

The former appears to bo the right 
meaning. See Additional Note. 

rmw άμαμηωρ) of rim generally. 
Comp. Col i. 14 ; Eph. i. 7. Elsewhere 
ήμωρ (or avrmw) is added : Matt i. 21 ; 
OaL L 4; 1 Cor. xv. 3; 1 John iv. 
10; Apoc. L 5. Contrast John i. 29 
(τ$* αμαρτία*). For the contrast of the 
sing, and pi see α ix. 26, 28 ; x. 18, 26. 

The result of this ' purification • is 
the foundation of a 'Holy' Church 
(comp. John xiii 10 n.). The hin- 
drance to the approach to God is 

UaBur*»] c. viii 1; x. 12; xii 2. 
Comp. Eph. i 20 (ftal&ror); Apoc iu 
21. Καθίσαι (intrans.) expresses the 
solemn taking of the seat of authority, 
and not merely the act of sitting• 
Comp. Matt v. 1 5 xix. 28; xxv. 31. 

The phrase marks the fulfilment of 
Ps. ex. 1 ; Matt xxii 44 and parallels; 
Acts ii 34; and so it applies only to 
tho risen Christ Angels are always 
represented as ' standing' (Is. vi 2; 
1 K. xxii 19) or falling on their 
faces : and so the priests ministered, 
comp. c. x. 11. Only princes of the 
house of David could sit in the court 
(m?P) of the Temple (Biesenthal). 
Hence 'the man of sin 1 so asserts 
himself : 2 These, ii. 4. Bernard says 
in commenting on the title 'thrones' 
(Col. i 16) : nee vacat Sessio : tranquil- 
litatie insigne est (d$ comid. v. 4, 10). 

h &<($] v. 13. The idea is of 
course of dignity and not of place 
('dextra Dei ubique est^ All local 
association must bo excluded: ούχ 
bri τόΊτω rrtptKktUrai 6 6fht <1λλ 
cm το όμοτιμον ctvroO Α*ιχ00 rb wpbt 
rbw πατέρα (Thoophlot). Non est 
putandum qnod omnipotens Pater 
qui spiritus est incircumscriptus 
omnia replons dexteram aut sinistram 
habeat...Quid est ergo ' sedit ad dex- 
teram majestatie' nisi ut dicatur, 
habitat in plenitudine paternss majes- 
tatie ? (Primas.) Comp. Eph. iv. ία 
We, as we at present are, are forced 
to think in terms of space, but it does 
not follow that this limitation belongs 
to the perfection of humanity. 

Herveius (on e. 13) notices the 
double contrast between the Son 
and the Angels: Soraphin stent ut 
ministri, Filius sedet ut Dominus: 
Seraphin in circuitu, Filius ad dex- 




της firyoX.] α viii. I ; Jude 25. The 
word is not unfrequent in the lxx. : 
eg. 1 Chron. xxix. 1 1 ; Wisd. xviii. 24. 

•The Msjesty' expresses the idea 
of Qod in Hie greatness. Oomp. 
Buxtorf Leaf. s. v. mm 1 Clem. 

XvL τλ σκήιττρο* της μβγαλ., C, XXXvL 
απαύγασμα της μτγαλ. 
ir v^Xoif] Pa. xciii. (xcil) 4 (lxx.). 
Here only in N.T. Oomp. fr v+Ur- 
nus Luke iL 14; Matt xxi. 9 and 
parallels ; and l* rote iwovpaviois Bpli. 
L 3, 20; ii 6; Hi. 10; vL 12. 

The term marks the sphere of the 
higher life. Local imagery is neces- 
sarily used for that which is in itself 
unlimited by place (compare ir. 14 ; 
vii 26). Tt earw Έ* ύψηλοΐς; Chry- 
sostom asks, *lt τόπον wtputkiiti τον 
6*6»; &rayc (Horn, it 3). In excelsis 
dicens non earn loco concludit, sed 
ostendit omnibus sitiorem et eviden- 
tiorem, hoc est quia usque ad ipsum 
per?enit solium patera© claritatis 
(Atto Verc). 

The clause belongs to JuaBurtv and 
not to της μ*γαλωσύ*ηε. The latter 
connexion would be grammatically 
irregular though not unparalleled, 
and τη§ /iryoX«<rwijf is complete in 

This Session of Christ at the right 
hand of God,— the figure is only usod 
of the Incarnate Son— is connected 
with His manifold activity as King 
(Acts ii. 33 ft; Eph. i. 21 ft; OoL iii. 
1; c x. 12) and Priest (1 Pet iii. 22; 
α viii. 1 ; 0. xii 2) and Intercessor 
(Rom. ?iii. 34). Oomp. Acts vii. 55 f. 
(ίστωτα Ac o\). 

iii. Transition to the detailed de- 
velopment of the argument (4)1 

The fourth verse forms a transition 
to the special development of the argu- 
ment of the Epistfa. The general con- 
trast betwoen 'the Son* as the medi- 
ator of the new revelation and 'the 
prophets' as mediators of the old, is 
offered in the extreme case. Ac- 
cording to Jewish belief the Law was 
ministered by angels (c. ii. 2; Gal 
iii 19; comp. Acts vii. 53^ but eveu 

the dignity of these, the highest re- 
presentatives of the Dispensation, was 
as far below that of Christ as the title 
of minister is below that of the incom- 
municable title of divine Majesty. 
This thought is developed L 5— ii. 18. 

The abrupt introduction of the 
reference to the angels becomes 
intelligible both from the function 
which was popularly assiguod to 
angels in regard to the Law, and from 
the description of the exaJtatiou of 
the Incarnate Son. Moses alone was 
admitted in some sense to direct 
intercourse with Ood (Num. xii 8; 
Deut. xxxiv. 10) : otherwise 'the Angel 
of the Lord* was the highest mes- 
senger of revelation under the Old 
Covenant And again the thought of 
the Session of the Son on the Father's 
throne calls up at once the image of 
the attendant Seraphim (Is. vi 1 ft; 
John xii 41; iv. 2ff.). 

The superiority of Messiah to the 
angels is recognised in Rabbinic 

JaUtut Sim. 2, foi 53, 3 on Is. Iii. 13, 
Behold my servant shall (deal wisely) 
prosper. This is King Messiah. He 
shall be exalted and extolled and be 
very high He shall be exalted be- 
yond Abraham, and extolled beyond 
Moses, and raised high above the 
ministering angels (ΠΊΡΠ *D*6o). 

Jalkut Chadash f. 144, 2. Messiah 
Is greater than the fathers, and than 
Moses, and than the ministering 
angels (Schoettgon, i. p. 905). 

4 having become so much better than 
the angels as He hath inherited a 
more excellent name than they* 

4. The thought of the exaltation 
of the Incarnate Son fixes attention 
on His Manhood. Under this aspect 
He was shewn to have become superior 
to angels in His historic work. And 
the glory of ' the name ' which He has 
'inherited' is the measure of His 
excellence. Comp. Eph. L 20 f. 

τοσούτω...οσ τ >] C. X. 25; viL 20 ft 
Oomp. vtii. 6. The combination is 
found in Philo (de mund. op\f. § 50 




κρςίττων γςνόμβνος των άγγ4\ων οσφ διαφορώτ€ρον 
παρ αυτού* κβκληρονόμηκβν όνομα. s Ttvt yap ehriv 

4 om. twv 9 (Αγγ.) B. 

(L 33 M.); Leg. ad Cat. % 36) bat not in 
St Panl. 

tcfHtrrwp] The word is characteristic 
of the epistle (13 times). Elsewhere 
it is found only in the neuter (κρύτταν 
4 times; 1 Cor. xii. 31 is a false 
reading). The idea is that of 
superiority in dignity or worth or 
advantage, the fundamental idea being 
power and not goodness (άμ*1ν*ν and 
Sfpiorof are not found in the Ν. T.X 

yiivpoof] The word stands in 
significant connexion with Jv (v. 3). 
The essential Nature of the Son is 
contrasted with the consequences of 
the Incarnation in regard to His divine- 
human Person (comp. c v. 9). His as- 
sumption of humanity, which for a time 
' made Him lower than angels,' issued 
in His royal exaltation. Comp. Matt 
xx vi. 64; Luke xxii. 69 (6 vlot του 

The Greek fathers lay stress upon 
*ρ*1ττ*ν as marking a difference in 
kind and not in degree. Athan. c 
Ar. 1. § 59 ro ipa 'ιφιίττνν 9 κα\ νυν 
κα\ eV 3λων rf ΚνρΙψ άνατΙΘησ^ τψ 
κριίττονι κα\ ίΚλψ πάρα τα γβνητα 
τνγχάνονη, Κρ*1ττων γαρ ή oV αυτού 
θυσία, κρ*(ττω* ή iv αύτψ Air/r, καΧ 
αϊ ο** αυτού Αταγγώ/αι, οΰχ »r προ* 
μικρά μιγαλαι συγκρυώμιναι Λλ* ωβ 
&ΧΧολ wp&taWa τ^ν φύσα* τυγχάνουοΊκ' 
/ircl καϊ 4 πάντα οίκονομήσα» Kpchrmv 
τ*ν ytvnrmv /στ/. 

They also rightly point out that 
ytpoficvof is used of the Lord's Human 
Nature and not of His divine Person- 
ality : τοΟτο κατά το avBpumttov «tpiy«f r, 
•If yap fcht ποιητή* άγγίΚνν καϊ oc σ- 
ποτης 4yyA«r, tk b* Mpamot μ /trh 
τ^ν άναστασνν καΧ τήν tit ουρανούς 
άναβα/ην Kpctrrmv ayyikmv iyivm. 

For Kpcirrmv, λαφορ«τ#ρο*, see C. 

τΑν ayftXmv] The class as a de- 

W. H. f 

finite whole (w. 5, 7, 1 3),and not beings 
of such a nature (ii. 2, 5, 7, 9, 16). 

σιαφ. παρ 9 αντονψ...&*ομα] The 
'name' of angels is 'excellent* (&«(- 
φορον, different» distinguished, forgood 
from others; comp. Mat! xii. 12 
σιαφήκι), but that inherited by the 
Son is 'more excellent* (Vulg. dif- 
ferentiu* prm tilts. O.L. procetientiu* 
(exceUmtiu9)hU(abhU)). For the use 
of παρά see ill 3, ix. 23, xi. 4, xiL 24. 

By the 'name' we are to understand 
probably not the name of 'Son' simply, 
though this as applied to Christ in 
His humanity is part of it, but the 
Name which gathered up all that 
Christ was found to be by believers, 
Son, Sovereign and Creator, the Lord 
of the Old Covenant, ss is shewn in 
the remainder of the chapter. Comp. 

For the position of οΊαφορωτ*ρον 
compare xi. 25 (iil. 14). 

KfftXijp.] The perfect lays stress 
upon the present possession of the 
'name' which was * inherited' by the 
ascended Christ. That which had 
been proposed in the eternal counsel 
(e. 2 ϊθηκ**) was realised when the 
work of redemption was completed 
(John xix. 30 TfrcXccrrai). The pos- 
session of the 'name' — His own 
eternally — was, in our human mode of 
speech, consequent on the Incarna- 
tion, and the permanent issue of it 

In looking back over the view of 
the Lord's Person and Work given in 
ee. 1 — 4 we notice 

1. The threefold aspect in which 
ii i$ regarded. 

(a) The Eternal Being of the 
Son (Λ, φίρων). 

(β) The temporal work of the 
Incarnate Son (καθαρισμών wotyra- 
μ*νος, Kptbrmv γ*νομ*νοΐ). 





(γ) The work of the Exalted 
Christ in iU historical foundation and 
in iU abiding issues (ίκάΰισιρ, Kt κλήρο- 


2. The unity 0/ Christ 9 Person. 
Hie continuity of the Person of the 

Son throughout is distinctly affirmed. 
He is One before the work of creation 
and after the work of redemption. 
Traits which we regard as character- 
istic severally of His divine and of 
His human nature are referred to the 
same Person. This unity is dearly 

God spake in His Son, 
Whom He appointed heir of ail 

through Whom He made the world, 
Who being... and bearing... 
having made purification. . . 
sat down, 
?taving become... 

Erou during His dwelling ou earth, 
under the limitations of manhood, the 
activity of His divine Being (φ*ο** 
τ& warra) was not interrupted ; and 
His redemptive work must be referred 
to the fulness of His One Person. 

3. The unity of Clirists work. 

The Creation, Redemption, Con- 
summation of all things are indis- 
solubly connected. The heirship of 
Christ is placed side by side with His 
creative work. The exaltation of 
humanity in Him is in no way 
dependent on the Fall. The Fall 
made Redemption necessary, and al- 
tered the mode in which the divine 
counsel of love, the consummation 
of creation, was fulfilled, but it did 
not alter the counsel itself! 

A mysterious question has been 
raised whether the terms 'Son 9 and 
'Father' are used of the absolute * 
relatione of the divine Persons apart 
from all reference to the Incarnation 
In regard to this it may be observed 
that Scripture tells us very little of 
Qod apart from His relation to man 
and the world. At the same time the 
description of God as essentially 'love 1 
helps us to see that the terms' Father 1 

and 'Son 9 are peculiarly fitted to 
describe, though under a figure, an 
essential relation botwoen the Persons 
of the Godhead. This essential rela- 
tion found expression for us in the 
Incarnation ; and we are led to see that 
the 'economic' Trinity is a true image, 
under the conditions of earth, of tho 
'essential' Trinity. 

Comp. v. 2 iw νΐω; vil 3. John 
iii. 16, 17. 

It is remarkable that the title 
' Father ' is not applied to Qod in this 
Epistle except in the quotation L 5 ; 
yet see xil 9. 

See Additional Note on the Divine 
Names in the Epistle. 

I. Tan BUPuioniTr. of τη Son, 
thu Mhdiator op tub New Riykla- 
tion, το Angels (i. 5 — iL 18X 

This first main thought of the 
Epistle, which has boon anuouucod 
in e. 4, is uufoldod hi three ports. 
It is established Arot (i) in regard to 
the Nature and Work of tho Sou, as 
the Mediator of tho New Covenant, 
by detailed references to the testi- 
mony of Scripture (i. 5 — 14). It is 
then (ii) enforced practically by a con- 
sideration of the consequences of 
neglect (ii. 1—4). And lastly it is 
shewn (iii) that the glorious destiny 
of humanity, loftier than that of angels, 
in spite of the fall, has been fulfilled 
by the Son of Man (ii 5—18). 

i. The testimony of Scripture 
to the preeminence of the Son over 
angels (i. 5— 14). 

The series of seven quotations 
which follows the general statement 
of the subject of the Epistle shews 
that the truths which have been 
affirmed are a fulfilment of the teach- 
ing of the Old Testament The quo- 
tations illustrate iu succession tho 
superiority of the Sou, tho Mediator 
of tho new Revelation and Covenant, 
over the angels, and therefore far 
more over the prophets, (1) as Son, 
(ee. 5, 6) and then in two main aspects, 
(a) as 'heir of all things' (ee. 7—9), 




and (3) as 'creator of the world' (00. 

The last quotation (w. 13, 14) 
p rogen ia (4) the contrast between the 
Son and the angels in regard to the 
present dispensation. The issue of 
the Son's Incarnation is the welcome 
to sit at God's right hand (κρ<1ττ*ν 
γ**6μ*νο*) in certain expectation of 
absolute victory, while the angels are 
busy with their ministries. 

(1) 5, 6. The essential dignity of 
the Sim. 

The dignity of the Son as Son is 
asserted in three connexions, in its 
foundation (σήμιρον γ*γ4ννηκά σ#); in 
its continuance (ϊσομαι αντψ tit 
war ίρα); and in its final manifestation 

(orav iraktw ύσαγάγχί). 

* For to which 0/ the angels said 
He at any time, 

My Son art Thou : 
I have today begotten Thee t 
and again, 

I will be to Him a Father, 
And He shall be to Me a Son? 

• And when He again bringeth (or 
when on the oilier hand He bringeth) 
in the Firstborn into the world He 

And let all the Angels of God 
worship Him. 

The first two quotations arc taken 
from Ps. ii. 7 and 2 Sam. vii. 14 
(I 1 Chron. xvii. 13). Both quotations 
Yerbalty agree with the lxx., which 
agrees with the Hobr. 

The words of the Psalm are quoted 
again c τ. 5 and by 8t Paul, Acts 
xiii. 33. And they occur in some 
authorities (D a b c Ac) in Luke ill 22. 
8ee also the reading of the Ebionitic 
Gospel on Matt «L 17. 

The same Psalm is quoted Acts iv. 
25 tL Comp. Apoc ii. 27; xii. 5; xiv. 
i; xix. 15. 

The passage from 2 Sam. vii. 14 is 
quoted again in 2 Cor. vi. 18 with 
important variations (ϊσομαι νμιν... 
νμιϊς 1σ*σβί μοι tit vlovr Jtal Ovyaripat), 
and Apoc xxi 7. 

Both passages bring out the rela- 

tion of ' the Son of David ' to the ful- 
filment of the divine purpose. The 
promise in 2 Sam. vii. 14 is the 
historical starting point It was 
spoken by Nathan to David in answer 
to the king's expressed purpose to 
build a Temple for the Lord. This 
work the prophet said should be not 
for him but for his seed. The whole 
passage, with its reference to 'iniquity' 
and chastening, can only refer to an 
earthly king; and still experience 
shewed that no earthly king could 
satisfy its terms. The kingdom passed 
away from the line of David. The 
Temple was destroyed. It was 
necessary therefore to look for an- 
other 'seed' (Is. xi. 1 ; Jer. xxiii. 5 ; 
Zech. vi. 12): another founder of the 
everlasting Kingdom and of the true 
Temple (compare Luke L 32 t; John 


The passage from the Second Psalm 
represents the divine King under 
another aspect He is not the builder 
of the Temple of the Lord but the 
representative of the Lord's triumph 
over banded enemies. The conquest 
of the nations was not achieved by 
the successors of David. It remained 
therefore for Another. The partial 
external fulfilment of the divine 
prophecy directed hope to the future. 
80 it was that the idea of the theo- 
cratic kingdom was itself apprehended 
as essentially Messianic; and the 
application of these two representa- 
tive passages to Christ depends upon 
tho prophetic significance of the 
critical facts of Jewish history. 

The third quotation is beset by 
difficulty. Doubt has been felt 
as to the source from which it is 
derived. Words closely resembling 
the quotation are found in Ps. xcvii. 
(xcvi.) 7 προσκύνησαν* αντψ warns ol 
&γγ*\οι αυτού (lxx.). But the exact 
phrase is found in the Vatican text 
of an addition made to the Hebrew 
in Dent xxxii. 43 by the lxx. version 
which roads 
€νφράνθψ* ουρανοί α\μα αντψ, 





irore των dyyeKwv 

YlOC ΜΟΥ/ cT ctf, έτώ C^MCpON Γ€ΓέΝΝΗΚΑ C6, 
5 rwr 477. von D t * syr vg. 

«αϊ προσκυνησάτωσα* αύτψ rarer vUA 

βνφρ&»6ητ* ϊβνη μβτά του λαον ανταν, 
κα! 9¥%σχυσ&τΦσα* αάφ «art r eyycXot 


This gloss is quoted also by Justin 
M. i>ia/. c. 130. It wai probably de- 
rired from the Pealm (oomp. Is. xliv. 
23), and may easily liavo gainod 
currency from tho liturgical use of 
the original hymn. If (as soeuis 
certain) the gloes was found in the 
current text of the lxx. in the 
apostolic age, it is most natural to 
suppose that the writer of the Epistle 
took the words directly from the 
version of Deuteronomy. 

The quotation of words not found 
in the Hebrew text is to be explained 
by the general character of Deut 
xxxii which gives a prophetic history 
of the Course of Israel, issuing in the 
final and decisive revelation of Jehovah 
in judgment When this revelation 
is made all powers shall recognise His 
dominion, exercised, as the writer of 
the Epistle explains, through Christ. 
The coming of Christ is thus identified 
with the coming of Jehovah. Oomp. 
Luke i. 76 ; Acts ii 20, 21. 

In the Targum on Deut xxxii 44 
which bears the name of Jonathan ben 
Usxiel there is the remarkable clause : 
•He by His Word (nnontt) shall 
atone for His people and for His 

It may be added that the thought 
both in Deuteronomy and in the 
Psalm is essentially the same. The 
Hymn and the Psalm both look for- 
ward to the time when the subordi- 
nate spiritual powers, idolised by the 
nations! shall recognise the absolute 
sovereignty of Jehovah. 

Part of the same verse (Deut. xxxii 
43) i* quoted by St Paul in Rom. xv. 

5. Ww yhp c&r«V iron] For to 
which... eaid He at any time? The 
use of the rhetorical question is 
characteristic of the style of the 
Epistle. Compare v. 14; ii 2 ft; 
iii. 16 ft; vji 11 ; xii. 7. 

The subject of the verb is taken 
from the context God is the Speaker 
in all revolution (*. i\ It has bocn 
objected that the titlo 'Son* is not 
limited to the Messiah in the Old 
Testament, but the objection rests 
upon a misunderstanding. The title 
which is characteristic of Messiah is 
never used of Angels or men in the 
Old Scriptures. Angels as a body 
are sometimes called 'sons of God' 
(Pa xxix. 1, lxxxix. 6) but to no one 
(run) is the title 'Son of God' given 
individually in all the long line of 
revelation. The rbn and the «-ore are 
both significant 

In like manner the title * Son' was 
given to Israel as the chosen nation : 
Hoe. xi 1 ; Ex. iv. 22 ; but to no single 
Jew, except in the passage quoted, 
which in the original refers to Solomon 
as the type of Him who should come 

Nor is it without the deepest signi- 
ficance that in these fundamental 
passages, Pa ii 7, 2 Sam. vii 14, the 
speaker is ' the Lord ' and not ' God.' 
The unique title of Christ is thus 
connected with God as He is the God 
of the Covenant (Jehovah, the Lord), 
the God of Revelation, and not as He 
is the God of Nature (Elohim, God). 

vlos μου] The order is full of mean- 
ing. By the omphasis which is laid 
upon vlos the relation is marked as 
peculiar and not shared by others. 
My eon art thou, and no less than 
this; and not Thou too, as well as 
others, art my eon. Compare Pa 
lxxxviii (lxxxix.) 27 wanfp μου rf αν. 
At the same time the oni is brought 




K€U πά\ιν 

Έγο> Icomai Α^τφ etc ΠΑτέρΑ, ka! ai?toc icTAi moi etc yMn J 
*orav ie πτίλιρ e'urayayy τον πρωτότοκο* eU την οίκου- 
μένην, \eyei 

Offi• ΛνΤψ Ν • 

into significant connexion with fyaf in 
the next clause, where the emphasis 
is laid on iyd (Ί fa my sovereign 
majesty') and not on σήμιρον. 

σήμιρο*) The word both in its 
primary and in its secondary meaning 
naturally marks some definite crisis, 
as the inauguration of the theocratic 
king, and that which would correspond 
with such an event in the historic 
manifestation of the divine Ring. So 
the passage was applied to the Resur- 
rection by St Paul (Acts xiii. 33; 
comp. Rom. i. 4); and by a very early 
and widespread tradition it was con- 
nected with the Baptism (Luke HL 22 
Ood. D; Just M. Dial c 88, and 
Otto's noto). 

Many howover havo supposed that 
1 today* in this connexion is the ex- 
pression for that which is eternal, 

This view is very well expressed by 
Primasius : Notandum quia non dixit: 
Ante omnia socula gonui te, vel in 
pnetorito tempore; sod, hodie, inquit» 
genui te, quod adverbium est pra- 
sentis temporis. In Deo enim nee 
pneterita transeunt nee future succe- 
dunt; sed omnia tempore simul ei 
conjuncta sunt, quia omnia prosentia 
habet Bt est sensus : 8icut ego 
semper aeternus sum neque initium 
neque finem habeo, ita te semper 
habeo coosternum mihi. 

Philo recognises the same idea: 
σήμιρορ ftc itrnv Α awi parrot κα\ abw(i- 
nrrof aUir. μηρών γαρ na\ inavrmv 
«αϊ σννολως χρ6ν*ν wtplodot Μγματα 
Mpmmmv cMr AptBpbv Ικτίτιμηκάτων* 
ro Μ <ty«v0cf ζνομα almvot if σήμιρον 
{do Prof. § 1 1 ; i. 554 M.) ; and the idea 
was widely current Comp. Schftttgen, 
ad toe. and c. ih\ 13 noto. 

Such an interpretation, however, 
though it includes an important truth, 
summed up by Origen in the doctrine 
of the eternal generation of the Son, 
appears to be foreign to the context 

yryfanjica] The term marks the 
communication of a new and abiding 
life, represented in the case of the 
earthly king by the royal dignity, 
and in the case of Christ by the 
divine sovereignty established by the 
Resurrection of the Incarnate Son in 
which His Ascension was included 
(Acts xiii. 33; Rom. i. 4; vL 4» 
Col. i. 8; Apoc. i. 5). 

For the use of γ**νάν compare 
1 Cor. iv. 15 ; and especially St John's 
nee: t John Hi. ι Add. Note. 

/yd ?fro/iM...f2r] The relation once 
established is to be realised in a 
continuous fulfilment The future 
points to the coming Messiah from 
the position of the Ο. T. prophet 

The title πατήρ is applied to Ood 
here only in the Bpistia 

cfvoi tit] Comp. c. viii. 10; 2 Cor. 
vi 18. And in a somewhat different 
sense, Matt xix. 5; Acts xiiL 47; 
1 Cor. xiv. 22; xvi. 16; Bph. L 12; 
Luke ifi. 5 Ac 

6. orawbi] Jhto third quotation is 
not a mere continuation (καΐ πάλιν) 
but a contrast (W). It marks the 
relation of angels to the Son and not 
of the Son to Ood ; and again it points 
forward to an end not yet reached. 

όταν Μ π. *Ur.] The wakw has been 
taken (1) as a particle of connexion 
and also (2) as qualifying ilrayayp. 

In the first case it has recoivod two 

(a) again, as simply giving a new 
quotation as in the former clause, it 
13; iv. 5; x. 30 Ac. But it is fatal 




to this view, which is given by Old 
LaL (deinde iterwn cum inducii) and 
Syr,, thai such a transposition of πάλι* 
is without parallel (yet see Wisdom 
xiv. i). Tho ease with which we can 
introduce the word 'again' paren- 
thetically hides this difficulty. 

(e) on the other hand, in contrast 
In this way ιταλέ* would serve to 
emphasise the contrast suggested by 
ti. Oomp. Luke vi. 43; Matt iv. 7; 
1 John ii. 8. 

Such a use is not without parallels, 
Philo, Leg. AUeg. iii. § 9 (L 93 M.) 
6 to πάλιν άπο&δράσκων θίόν.,.ή Μ 
πάλιν θ*α* άπααοκφάζουσα..., and the 
sense is perfectly consistent with the 
scope of tho passage. It would leave 
the interpretation of 'the bringing in 
of the Son* undefined. 

(2) But it appears to be more 
natural to connect wfow with *1σαγάγη 
(Vulg. et cum iterum introducit) and 
so to refer the words definitely to the 
second coming of the Lord. This 
interpretation is well given by Gregory 
of Nyssa : ι} τον 'πάλιν* προσθήκη το fJj 
πρωτως γινισθαι τοντο but της κατά 
njr λίξιν ταύτη* σημασία* ivb*i$arvrai. 
Μ γαρ της Ιπαναλήψιως τω* άπαξ 
γεγονότων rj λ* ξ* ι rainy κιχρήμιθα. 
ούκονν τη» *π\ τψ τίλει των αΙωνων 
φαβ*ρα* αυτού ίπιφάν*ια» σημαίνει τψ 
\6γω6ηονκ€τι ίντ^τουοουλονκαθοραται 
μορφν, αλλ* c π\ τον Θρόνου της βασιλείας 
μεγαλοπρεπώς προκαθήμενος κα\ νπ6 
των άγγίλων πάντων περί αυτόν προσ- 
κννουμ*νος. (c. Eunom. iv., Migne, 
Pair. Or. xlv. p. 634; oomp. e. 
Eunom. ii, id. p. 504.) 

The advantage of taking wakw as 
1 on the other hand' is that the words 
thon bring into one category the many 
preparatory introductions of the 'first- 
born' into the world together with 
the final one. But one maiu objoct 
of the Epistle is to meet a feeling of 
present disappointment. The first 
introduction of the Son into the world, 
described in v. 2, had not issued in an 
open triumph and satisfied men's de- 
sires, so that there was good reason 

why the writer should point forward 
specially to the Return in which 
Mossiah's work was to bo consum- 
mated. On the whole therefore the 
connexion of πάλιν with είσαγάγα 
seems to be the more likely con- 
struction. In any case the όταν «2αβ- 
γάγη must refer to this. 

οταν...€Ϊσαγάγα] The Latin render- 
ing cum introducit (inducit), which 
has deeply coloured tho Western in- 
terpretation of tho phrase, is wholly 
uutenabla In other places the con- 
struction is rightly rendered by the 
fut. exact., e.g. Matt v. 11 cum male 
dixerint; xix. 28 cum tederii Ac, 
and so in 1 Cor. χ v. 26 many authorities 
read cum dixerit. 

The construction of orav with aor. 
eubj. admits of two senses. It may 
describe a series of events reaching 
into an indefinite future, each occur- 
rence being seen in its completeness 
(Matt v. 11; x. 19; Mark iv. 15; 
Luke vi. 22; James L 2); or it may 
describe tho indofiniteness of a single 
ovout in tho futuro soou also in its 
completeness (John xvi. 4; Acts xxiv. 
22; 1 Oor. xv. 28). (The difference 
botweon tho pre», tuty. and the aor. 
euly. with orav is well seen in John 
vii. 27, 31; xvi. 21.) 

In other words οταν...§Ισαγάγ^ must 
look forward to an event (or events) 
in the future regarded as fulfilled at 
a time (or times) as yot undetermined. 
It cannot describe an event or a series 
of events, already completed in the 
past We may, tliat is, when we 
render the phrase exactly 'whenever 
ho shall liave introduced,' contompluto 
each partial aud successive intro- 
duction of the 8on iuto the world 
leading up to aud crowned by the oue 
final revelation of His glory, or this 
final manifestation aloue (oomp. CoL 
iii. 4; 2 Thess. i. 10). 

If, as seems most likely, the πάλιν 
is joiued with ciVoyoyp, then the 
second interpretation must be taken. 

It follows that all interpretations 
which refer this second introduction 




of the 800 into the world to the In- 
carnation are untenable, as, for exam- 
ple, that of Primasius: Ipeam as- 
sumptionem cnruis appellat alteram 
introltum; dam enim qui invisibilis 
erat humanis aspectibus (John L 10) 
assumpta carne visibilem se probavit 
quasi iterum infcroductus est 

Nor indeed was the Incarnation in 
this connexion the first introduction 
of Christ into the world. We must 
look for that rather in the Resurrection 
when for a briof space He was re- 
vealed in tho fnlness of His Manhood 
triumphant over death and free from 
tho limitations of oarth, having vic- 
toriously fulfilled the destiny of hu- 
manity. For tho. present He has 
been withdrawn from if οίκονμίνη, the 
limited scene of man's present labours ; 
but at the Return He will enter it 
once more with sovereign triumph 
(Acts L n). 

rfc πρωτότοκο*] Vulg. primogmi- 
tum. The word is used absolutely of 
Christ here only (comp. Ps. lxxxix. 
(lxxxviii.) 28, txx.). Its usage in other 
Rom. viu 29 wp. iv woWoit ΜΚφοκ, 
comp. OoL i. 15 wp. ναση* tcrfotut, 
Apoc i. 5 ό wp. των vftpvv, 
CoL I. 18 wp. At nir νικρων, 
brings out tho special force of the 
term hero, ss distinguished from vttt. 
It reprosonte the 8on in His relation 
to the whole family, the whole order, 
which is united with Ilim. His tri- 
umph, His new birth (γψγίννηκα), Is 
theirs also (comp. 1 Pet i. 3)1 The 
thought lies deep in the foundations 
of social life. The privileges and 
responsibilities of the firstborn son 
were distinctly recognised in the Old 
Testament (Deut xxi. 15 ff. [inherit- 
ance]; 2 Chron. xxi 3 [kingdom]); as 
they form a most important element 
in the primitive conception of the 
family, the true unit of society (Maine, 
Ancient Law, 233 ff.). The eldest 
son, according to early ideas, was the 
representative of his generation, by 
whom the property and offices of the 

father, after his death, were adminis- 
tered for the good of the family. 

The title ' firstborn' (nan) was ap- 
plied by Rabbinic writers even to God 
(8chfittgen ad he.) and to Messiah on 
the authority of Ps. Ixxxix. 27 (Shs- 
moth R. § 19, pp. 150 1 Wunsche). 

In Philo the Logos is spoken of as 
wporayovot or irpf<r0vraror vlot, De 
eonfiu. ling. § 14 (L 4U M.) rovror 
wptwfivrarov vlhv 6 των ϋντων Mr* iXt 
(Zech. vL 12) πατήρ, ov Μρωβι wpowh- 

Γόρ ίψ&μησ* ..., id. § 28 (L 427 M.) mil 
μηΜπω μίντχ* τυγχάνπ m ά(ι6χρ*ω{ 
ων vlot 61ου wpmniyopcvf σ&ιι, wwovda- 
(ίτω κοσμησβοι κότα τον πρωτογονον 
αντοΰ λόγο*, τά* rfyytXor πρ*σβύτατον 
*ς άρχσγγιΧον ποΧνωνυμον υπάρχοντα. 
Comp. de agrieuU. § 12 (i. 308 Μ.). 

The wider sense of the term is 
suggested by its application to Israel: 
Ex. iv. 22 ; comp. Jer. xxxi. 9. 

The patristic commentators rightly 
dwell on the difference between /wo- 
ywff, which describes the absolutely 
unique relation of the Son to the 
Father in His divine Nature, and 
πρωτότοκο*, which describes the re- 
lation of the Risen Christ In His 
glorified humanity to man : e.g. Theo- 
doret: ούτω κάί μορογιντρ ίπτννω* Btot 
ml πρωτότοκος m άνθρωπο* iv woXKoit 
odekfatt. Compare Bp Lightfoot on 
Coloss. i. 15. 

fiff την οίκους] Vulg. in orbem 
terra. Comp. c. ii. 5 note; Acts xvii. 


Xryri] he eaith, not A* will toy. 
The words already written find their 
accomplishment at that supreme crisis. 
The different tenses used of the divine 
voice in this chapter are singularly 
instructive. The aor. in e. 5 (carcy) 
marks a word spoken at a definite 
moment The per/, in e. 13 (fW"r) 
marks a word which having been 
spoken of old is now finding fulfil- 
ment Here the pree. regards the 
future as already realised. 

The contrast of Μγω and Αρηκα is 
seen clearly in John χ v. 15 (comp. 
xii 5 o)i 



Π- 7 

Hebrow. For ά*ομΙα* some lxx, texts 
give αδικία*. 

The use of these two Psalms is of 
marked significance. Pa civ. is a 
Psalm of Creatiou : Ps. xlr. k a Psalm 
of the Theocratio Kingdom, the Mar- 
riage Song of the King. 

Neither Psalm is quoted again in 
the N. T. The second passage is 
quotod by Justin M. DiaL 56, 63, 

Both quotations are iutroducod hi 
the same manner by a proposition 
markhig a general refereuee (wpbs yAv 
...πρ6ς &'.., : contrast riw ehrt* v. 5). 

' And of the angel* He *aith t 
Who maketh Hi* angel* wind*, 
And Hi* minuter* α βατή* ο/ 
fire * 

■ but of the Son He saith, 
Qod w Thy throne for ever and 

Και προεκγΝΗΟΑτωοΑΝ &i τφ π&ιτεε Α"ίτβλοι θεογ. 
7 και προ* μεν τους dyyeXow Key α 

«d προσκυν.] And let... The con- 
junction suggests others who join in 
this adoration, or in some correspond- 
ing service of honour. 

warns &γγ.] Biesonthal quotes a 
passage from the Jerus. Talmud 
(Avod. Zar. § 7) in which it is said 
that when Messiah comes the demons 
who had been worshipped among the 
Gentiles shall do him homage, and 
idolatry shall cease. 

(2) 7—9. Tli* euperior dignity 
of the Son a* anointed King ('heir 
of all things'). 

In the quotations already given the 
author of the Bpistle has shewn that 
the language of the Old Testament 
pointed to a divine Son, a King of an 
everlasting Kingdom, a Oonquoror, a 
Builder of an abiding Temple, such 
as was only figured by the earthly 
kings of the chosen people. One truly 
man was spoken of in terms applied 
to no angeL In Jesus, the Messiah, 
the 8on of Qod, such language was 

He now shews tne abiding royal 
glory of the Son in contrast with the 
ministerial and transitory offices of 
angels. Angels fulfil their work through 
physical forces and 'natural* laws 
(v. 7): the Son exercises a moral and 
eternal sovereignty (v. 8); and in 
virtue of His owu Character He re- 
ceives the fulness of blessing (v. 9). 
So He becomes 'boir of all thiug*'. 

The lesson is given in two quotations 
from the Psalms. The first quotation 
from Pa oiv. (ciiL) 4 agrees verbally 
with the Alexandrine text of the 
lxx. and with the Hebrew, save that 
*ai is inserted, an insertion which is 
not uncommon. The second quotation 
from Pa xlv. (xliv.) 7, 8 differs from the 
lxx, by the insertion of «αί, by the 
transposition of the article (ή p. r. *ύθ. 
fi. for β. iv. ή fi.) t and probably by the 
substitution of aarov for σον after 
βασιλέα*, which is also against the 

And the eceptre of uprightnee* 
i* the *ceptre of Hi* kingdom. 
[or Thy throne, Ο Qoa\ i* for ever 
and ever, 

And the eceptre of uprightnee* 
i* the *ceptre of Thy kingdom.) 

9 Thou looedet riglUeouenee* and 
hated*t iniquity; 

Therefore Qod, Thy Qod, an- 
ointed Thee with the oil of gladnee* 
above TlvyfeUow*. 

7. npot μ*ρ . .Jo/., .til reference to. . . 
Rom. x. 21 ; Luke xii. 41; xx. 19 (c. 
xL 18). The contrast between 'the 
angels' and 'the Son' is accentuated 
(μ<¥—Μ iii. 5 £). .The rendering of 
the original text of Pa civ. 4 has 
been disputed, but the construction 
adopted by the lxx., the Targura 
(coinp. Slusmoth R. § 25, p. 189 Wun- 
sche) and A. V. seoui* to be certaiuly 
correct The words admit equally to 
be takeu ' making winds his messen- 
gers (angels)' ('making his messen- 
gers out of winds'), and 'making his 
messengers (angels) winds' ; but the 
order of the words and, on a closer 




~ 0€ TOP VIOV 

Ό ποιώΝ to^c irriAoyc Αίττογ πν€^ματα, 
kaI Tofc AerroYprojc Αγτοί Trrpdc φλόΥ&* 


7 AryAevt+edroO'D/ 

view, the tenor of the Psalm are in 
favour of the second translation. The 
thought is that whore men at first 
see only material objects and forms 
of nature there God is present, ful- 
filling His will through His servants 
under the forms of elemental action. 
80 Fhilo views the world as roll of 
invisible life ; <fe w § 2 (I. 263 M.). In 
any ease the udl rendering is adopted 
by the writer of the Epistle, and this 
is quite unambiguous. Tho Greek 
words describo tho mutability, the 
materiality, and transitoriness of an- 
gelic service (comp. Weber, AUtynag. 
Theohgie, § 34), which is placed in 
contrast with the personal and eternal 
sovereignty of the Son communicated 
to Him by the Father. 

β iroM*r] The Greek Fathers lay 
stress on the word as marking the 
angels as created beings in contrast 

with the 8on : Idov ή μβγίστη διαφορά, 
οτι ol μ*ρ κτιστοί ό Oc Αχτιστο? (Ghrys.). 

πνβύματα] winds, not ipiriti. The 
context imperatively requires this ren- 
dering. And the word πκυμα is 
appropriate here ; for as distinguished 
from the commoner term oWpof it 
expresses a special exertion of the 
elemental force : Gen. viH. 1 ; Bx. 
xv. 10; 1 K. xviii. 45 ; xix. 11 ; 2 K. 
iii. 17 ; Job L 19; Ps. xi. (x.) 6, Λα 

Xrcrovpyovr] The word sooms always 
to retain something of its original 
force as expressing a public, social 
service. Comp. Rom. xiil 6 ; xv. 16 ; 
ch. vili. 2 ; and even Phil. ii. 25 (e. 30). 
Bee also 2 Cor. ix. 12. 

The reference to the 'winds' and 
the 'flame of fire' could not fail to 
suggest to the Hebrew reader the 
accompaniments of the giving of the 
Law (c xiL 18 ff.\ Thnt awful scene 
was a revelation of the ministry of 

τρ<0μα D a . 

The variableness of the angelic 
nature was dwelt upon by Jewish 
theologians. Angels were supposed to 
live only as they ministered. In a 
remarkable passage of Shemoth R. 
(§ f 5i P• i°7 Wfinsche) the angels are 
represented as 'new every morning.' 
' The angels are renewed every morning 
and after they have praised God they 
return to the stream of fire out of 
which they came (Lam. iii. 23).' The 
same idea is repeated in many places, 
as, for example, at length in Bereehith 
R- § 78, pp. 378 f. (Wunsche). 

8. wpht bi...]in reference to... The 
words in the Psalm are not addressed 
directly to the Son, though they point 
to Him. 

ο Bpovot σου 6 6Vof...&& το ντο... 
6Vot, ο 0for σον...] It is not necessary 
to discuss here in detail the construc- 
tion of the original words of the Psalm. 
The lxx. admits of two renderings : 
ο 6Vor can be taken as a vocative in 
both cases (Thy throne, Ο God,... 
therefore, Ο God, Thy God...) or it 
can be taken as the subject (or the 
predicate) in the first case (God ii 
Thy throne, or Thy throne ii God...), 
and in apposition to 6 6W σον in the 
second case ( Therefore God, even Thy 
God. . . ). The only important variation 
noted in the other Greek versions b 
that of Aquila, who gave tho vocative 
6W in the first clause (Hieron. Ep. lxv. 
ad Princ. § 13) and, as it appears, 
also in the second (Field, Hexapla 
ad lnc\ It is scarcely possible that 
DNiAk in the original can be address- 
ed to the king. The presumption 
therefore is against the bolief that 6 
toot is a vocative in the lxx. Thus 
on the whole it seems best to adopt 
in the first clause the rendering: God 
ii Thy throne (or. Thy throne ii God), 
that is ' Thy kingdom is founded upon 




Ό OpONOC r coy δ Oedc ek ton aioona [Tof a!c>noc], 

και ff fxi&Aoc της εγθ^τΗτοο f*B*oc τΛ BaciAci'ac αι/τοί/ 1 . 

8 or ^ον, 6 fee's, ilt...fiafiktlat tov. 
8 om. ro0 oiwros B. «al 4 p. KABD a *M, me : om. *al Γ syrr. ή J. ri)i «M...A• 
K»ABM,: Α- Λ...*. A• *" D r om. r^t «ft. J. K*. aJroO KB : σον AD, vg eyrr. 
9 dVojiiar BM, syr hi: dVo/iiat D t # : doWar KA. 

God, the immovable Rock'; and to 
take 6 6*ag as in apparition in the 

The phraae ' God is Thy throne' is 
not indeed found elsewhere, but it is 
in no way more strange than Pa. lzxi. 
3 [Lord] be Thou to me a rock of 
habitation... Thou art my rock and 
my fortrea. Ia. xxvi. 4 (R.V.) In 
the Lord Jnhovah if an everlasting 
rock. Pa. xc. 1 Lord^ Thou hast 
been our dwelling-place. Pa. xcL 1 
He that dwelleth in the secret place 
of the Moet High... 9. 2 1 will eay of 
the Lor d. He U my refuge and my 
fortress, v. 9; Deut xxxiii. 27 The 
eternal Ood ie thy dwelling-place. 
Oomp. Ia xxiL 23. 

For the general thought compare 
Zeoh. xiL 8. Thia interpretation is 
required if we adopt the reading avrov 
for σον. 

It ia commonly supposed that the 
force of the quotation lies in the divine 
title (o toot) which, as it is held, is ap- 
plied to the Son. It seems however 
from the whole form of the argument 
to lie rather in the description which 
is given of the Son's office and en- 
dowment The angels are subject to 
constant change, He has a dominion 
for ever and evor : they work through 
material powers, Ho— the Incarnate 
Son— fulfils a moral sovereignty and 
is crowned with unique joy. Nor 
could the reader forget the later 
teaching of the Psalm on the Royal 
Bride and the Royal Race. In what- 
ever way then 6 6V0V bo takeu, the 
quotation establishes the conclusion 
which the writer wishes to draw as to 
the essential difference of the Son 
and the angels. Indeed it might 

appear to many that the direct ap- 
plication of the divine Name to the 
Son would obscure the thought 

«if το* aL ταΰ al] The phrase ο 
al&p row alAvot is unique in the N.T. 
It is not unfrequent in the lxx. ver- 
sion of the Psalms together with *h 
al**a aiayof and «iff ro> αΙωρα κα\ «iff 

top almra του almvos for ΊΡ) &?^?ι 

The phrase 6 ate* t&p oiaw occurs 
in Eph. iii. 21, al*y*s αΐω*** in Apoc. 
xiv. 1 1, and ©J a&m τωρ αϊωρωρ («tr 
rovff al r*¥ al) not unfrequontly 
(a xiii 21). 

«al ή jUfi&ot ιύΰύτητος] The «ai, 
which is not found iu the lxx. or the 
Hebr., is probably added by the 
apostle to mark the two thoughts of 
the divine eternity of Messiah's king- 
dom and of the essential uprightness 
with which it is administered. 

The word «vA/n?f is found here 
only in the N.T. It occurs not very 
unfrequontly in the lxx. for deriva- 
tives of nth, and so Wisd. ix. 3 Λα 
It is not quoted from Classical writers 
in a moral sense. 

For fii&dos compare Apoc ii. 27, 
xii. 5, xix. 15. It is used in the lxx. 
as a rendering of ΠφΡ, D^, &Φ1/Ρ. 
In classical Greek it is used rarely and 
only poetically (Piud. 01. ix. 5 1) for the 
rod of authority. Virga ' justos regit, 
impios percutit 1 ; sed haac virga forti- 
tudo est invicta, mquitas roctissima, 
inflexibilis disciplina (Atto Verc.). 

9. ήγάκησα*...] Thou loeedst... The 
aorist of the lxx. gives a dietiuct 
application to the present of the 
Hebr. The Son in His Work on 
earth fulfilled the ideal of righteous- 




ΛιΑ τογτο IxpiciN ce 6 Oetfc, ό ecdc coy, Ιλ&ιον ArAAAiAcecoc 
n^pi to}c Μβτόχογο coy* 

IXtorB*: Acot D t *. 

ness ; and the writer of the Epistle 
looks hack upon that completed work 
now aeon in lie glorious issue. 

&a rovro...] Λτ <Att eatit«... 
Therefore... The words express the 
ground ('because thou lovedst') and 
not the end ('that thou mightest 
IotoQl Gomp. ii. 1 ; ix. 15 (not else- 
where in ep.). For the thought see 
c ii. 9 ; Phil. ii. 9 (διό); John x. 17. 

Ιχρισατ] Gomp. Luke It. 18 (Is. 
lxi. 1); Acts iv. 27; x. 38. This 
unction has been referred (1) to the 
communication of royal dignity: 1 
8am. x. 1 ; xtL 12 f.; and (2) to the 
crowning of tho sovereign with joy, as 
at the royal banquet: Is. lxi. 3; oomp. 
Acts ii 36. The second interpreta- 
tion is to be preferred. The thought 
is of the consummation of the royal 
glory of the Ascended Son of man 
rather than of the beginning of it 
Primasius gives a striking turn to the 
words : Oleo autem exsuttationis sou 
Isstiti» didt ilium unctum quia 
Ghristus nunquam peccavit, nunquam 
tristitiam habuit ex recordatione pec- 
cati. Quid est enim olco Irctitira ungi 
nisi maculam non habere peccati f 

dror, & 0cor σον] Tlioro can bo 
no reason for taking tho first 6 foot 
as a vocative, contrary to tho certain 
meaning of the original, except that 
it may correspond with an interpreta- 
tion of the first clause which has boen 
set aside. The repetition of the divine 
Name has singular force : 'God, who 
has made Himself known as thy God 
by the fulness of blessings which He 
has given.' 

mpa root jMToxovf] above thy 
fellows, Vulg. prm partieipibus tuts, 
above all who share the privilege of 
ministering to tho fulfilment of God's 
will by His appointment There is no 
limitation to any sphere of being or 
class of ministers ; but of men it is 
specially declared that Christ has 

made believers 'a kingdom and priests' 
(Apoc. i. 6; comp. Matt xxv. 34). 
Tbqy too have received 'an unction ' 
(1 John ϋ 2o). Gomp. 2 Cor. L 21 ; 
Rom. viii 17 ; 2 Tim. ii. 12. 
t\. <*γαλλ.] Gomp. xii. 2 χαρά. The 

same original phrase (fkfy jtj^) occurs 
again in Is. IxL 3 (8λ<ιμμα *ύφροσν*ηΐ) 
in opposition to 'mourning 9 ('?!*). 
It refers not to the solemn anointing 
to royal dignity but to the festive 
anointing on occasions of rqjoicing. 

(3) 10—12. The superior dignity 
Of the Son a» Creator in contrast with 
creation ('through whom He made the 

A new quotation adds a fresh 
thought The exalted king, who is 
truly man, is also above all finite 

The words are taken from Ps. cii. 
(ci.) 26, 27, according to the lxx. 
text with some variations. The συ 
is brought forward for emphasis, and 
ilr Ιμάτιο* is repeated by the best 
authorities ; the Kvpw is added to the 
original text by the lxx. from the 
oarlior part of tho Psalm; and the 
present text of the lxx. followed by 
the Epistle has Ai£fir mirror when 
<!XXa£ftr aurovff, a variant found in 
some copies, would have been the 
natural rendering in correspondence 
with άλλαγησορται which follows. The 
introduction of Kvpu is of importance 
for the application made of the words. 
It is of the greater significance be- 
cause in e. 24 ^M is introduced 
(though the lxx. renders differently), 
while in every other case the sacred 
Name in the Psalm is (π<) Π1Π\ The 
insertion of Kvpu therefore emphasises 
the thought that the majestic picture 
of divine unchangeableness belongs to 
God as He has entered into Covenant 
with man. 



[Ι. 10, it 

ιο καί 

Σγ κατ* *ρχ&, Kf pie, t»4n γΛν tocMeAuocac, 
και IprA τωπ χβιρώΝ cof cScin ο! ΟγρΑΝΟΓ 
"Afroi ΑπολογΝΤΔΐ, cf hi AiaWncic* 


The Psalm itself is the appeal of an 
exile to the Lord, in which out of the 
depth of distress he confidently looks 
for the personal intervention of 
Jehovah for the restoration of Zion. 
The application to the Incarnate Sou 
of words addressed to Jehovah (see 
*. 6) rests on the essential conception 
of the relation of Jehovah to His 
people. The Covenant leads up to 
the Incarnation. And historically it 
was through the identification of the 
coming of Christ with the coming of 
'the Loan' that the Apostles were 
led to the perception of His true 
Divinity. Compare Acts ii. i6ff,2i,36; 
iv. io, 12; ix. 20; c. iii 7, Addit Note. 

It is not however to be supposed 
that Jehovah was personally identi- 
fied with Christ Rather the concep- 
tion of the Qod of Israel was enlarged ; 
and the revelation of Qod as Jehovah, 
the God of the Covenant, the God 
Who enters into fellowship with man, 
was found to receive its consumma- 
tion in the mission of the Son. 

"And [again of the Son He saith] 

Thou, Lord, in the beginning didst 
lay the foundation of the earth, 

And the heaven» are works qf Thy 

" They shall perish, but Thou eon- 

And they all shall waa old as doth 
a garment; 

"And as a mantle shall Thou roll 
them up, 

As a garment, and they shall be 

But Thou art the same, and Thy 
years shall not fail. 

ία KtU...] The connexion of this 
passage with the former is very close 
although it introduces a new idea. 

Oomp. Acts L aa The conjunction 
carries with it the \4γη npot τα» via» 
of 90. 8, 9. God through His 8pirit 
so speaks in the Psalmist that words 
not directly addressed to Christ find 
their fulfilment iu Ilim. 

2ν...Κνρκ...] It has been already 
noticed that the 2v is brought forward 
by the writer of the Bpistle, and the 
Kvfnt added to the original text in 
the lxx. The addition corresponds 
with the omission of the divine Name 

(/tf ) iu v. 24 owing to a false rendering, 

but it is significant as definitely con- 
necting the thought of divine im- 
mutability with the thought of the 
divine revelation consummated in the 

ear' Λρχάί] Vulg. inprineipio, 0. L. 
initiis. The phrase is a wrong render- 
ing of DVf>V (Ιμπροσθ*» Jud. L io> II, 
23, Ac.). It occurs again Pa cxix. 
(oxviii.) 152 as the rendering of DlJJ ; 
and is found in Philo and classical 

1 1. aiWJ The heavens are token 
as representing the whole visible 

άπολονκται] The idea, as it is 
afterwards developed (xii. 26 fL\ is 
of change, transfiguration, and not of 
annihilation: la 11 6, 16; lxv. 17; 
Ixvi 22; 2 Pot iii 13; Apoc xx. 11. 
Thus Theophylact: μ*\ζ6» r« rijt 

δημιουργία* 0*ί£ατο, n)r μπ-ασχαμάησι» 
τον κόσμου, άΚΚαγησονται γαρ νάττα 
άπα xqs φθοράς tit αφθαρσία»• 

ju^fmf] Latt permanebis (6w- 
μ**9ΐ*). The present is more expres- 
sive. The compound marks continu- 
ance throughout some period or crisis 
suggested by the context: Luke L 

L «t »3] 



11 και 0W1 nepiBrfAAiON Ixileic aittoyc, 
αϊ? ιμάτιον και αΑΑαγ>Ιοονται' 

d hi 6 aytAc Α και τΐ Ith coy ογκ έκλβίψογαΝ. 
τ *προ* τίνα he των ayyiXw βϊρηκέρ irore 
ΚλΘου €Κ λβΙιωΝ ΜΟΥ 
fa* £ν θώ to^c εχθροί coy υποποΑιον τα>Ν ttoAojn coy; 

me: fIXIfef Κ•: άλλ^ι K*D t (vg). eJ. *r 

μ *r D f •. Alfcif ABM, (latt) syrr 
IpAru* KABD,•: om. At Iji. Γ vg syrr me. 

22; xxii. 28; 2 Pet HI 4; Chd. «. 5• 

«Arc* ] The thought appears to be 
of sphere succeeding sphere in in- 
creasing parity and therefore in in- 
creasing permanence: but all alike 
are subject to time and to decay. 

waXatmfyaomi) Ο. viii. 135 ^uke 
xii 33; Is. 1. 9; 11. 6; Bcclus. xiv. 17- 

12. π*ρφ6\ωον] a mantle. The 
word suggests a costly robe: Jud. 
viii, 26 (a) rtr π<ριβο\αΙων r*r πορ- 
φυρών rmv Μ TOir fhrtKwat Μα&ώμ. 
Bsech. xxvii. 7. Oomp. 1 Cor. xl. 15. 

Λ /fm] The substitution of this 
word for tlienatnral renderingaXXafri t 
may have been duo to a reference to 
Is. XXXiv. 4 ίλ*γήσ*ται 6 ovpapot tit 

βιβλίο*. In tho original the verb is 
repeated (W^Q!) D^P). 

ο αυτοί] The original is simply 
•Thou art He.' Comp. Is. xli. 4; xliii. 
10; xlvi. 4; xlviii. 12; Deal xxxii 39 

800 ch. xiii. 8 note. 

(4) 13, 14. The superior dignity of 
the Son as Mated in Royal Majesty 
assured 0/ triumph Charing made 
purification... Ho sat down...'). 

The comparison of the Son with 
angels is completed by the develop- 
ment of the idea contained in the 
fact of the Session of the 8on at the 
right hand of the Father. This idea 
is conveyed by tho opening words of 
Pa ex. and is spread throughout the 
New Testament: Matt xxii. 23 ff. and 
parallels; Acts ii. 34 f. See also c. x. 
13; 1 Cor. xt. 25; 1 Pot. Hi. 22. The 

Psalm (ex.) is quoted again eo. v. 6; 
vii. 17, 21. 

**Bul of which ο/ the angels hath 
He said at any tints 

Sit on My right hand, 
Until J make Thine enemiee 
the footstool of Thyfeetr 

"Are they not all minietering 
tpirite sent forth unto service for 
the sake of them that shall inherit 
salvation f 

13. wphsTlmM...]Butofu>hich... 
The writer appears to turn aside from 
the contemplation of the unchange- 
ableness of Ood seen in the Person of 
Christ to the thought of the conflict 
between good and evil wrought out in 
time. Here also the supreme eminence 
of the Son is conspicuous. The 
language used of Him has been used 
of no angeL He serenely waits for a 
sure and absolute victory while they 
are busied with ministerial offices. 
For wp6s see e. 7 note. The contrast 
between rlwt Awb irorf (e. 5) and 
upbt rim <1ρηκ4* *orf is full of mean- 

c Χρηην] See c iv. 3 ; x. 9 notes. 

κάθον...] The verb marks the con- 
tinuance of the Session as distin- 
guished from the assumption of the 
place (*. 3 faioW'). Comp. Luke 
xxii. 69. For the image see Zech. vi. 
13; 8chdttgen on Matt xxii. 44 

#V b(tmv) This phrase, which is 
with one exception (Mk. xri. 5 I» 
nuf def ) the uniform phrase iu the 
Synoptists, is used twice only in this 
Epistle. Elsewhere e. 3 ; viii. 1 (note); 



P. U 

* 4 ούχι κάντε* el<riv XeiTovpyiica πνεύματα eis οΊακονίαν 
αποστελλόμενα Ζιά tow μέλλοντας κληρονομεί? σωτη- 

14 duuoriot Β. 

χ. 12; xii. 2 jw &£ι$ is written by the 
author himself. 

for aw βω] Compare ι Cor. xv. 28. 
Our powers are inadequate to realise 
that end. 

virotrodior τ»* jr.] Compare Josh, 
x. 24 f. 

14. ouxQciiL 17. For the interro- 
gative form see 0. 5 note. 

ιπύ™] Whatever differences of 
rank and dignity there may be among 
them, all are alike in this. 

Xttrovpyuca wv.] Vulg. adminiitra- 
torii tpiritui, JT#0 >yfr9(Ber.R. 
8). The word occurs hero only iu 
N.T. Oomp. Philo, <** carii. § 3 (iL 
387 M.) AyyfXoi Xc ιτσνρ>ο(. Λ 010. § 3 

cir duuc. άπχπ-.] sent forth' for 
ministry as each occasion arises (Old 
Lat qui miUuniur. Vulg. uttfri). 
Contrast 1 Pet L 12 (αποσταλεί). 
The difference between the general 
office of the angels as spirits charged 
with a social ministry (v. 7 λατονργούς), 
and the particular services (a vi 10 
biaKowovvT^s) in which it is fulfilled, is 
clearly marked. 

Herveius (and so Primasius) shews 
how the angels, even on their missions, 
remain in the presence of God: 

Mittuntur igitur et assistant, quia 

etd drcumscriptus sit angelicus 
spiritus, summus tameu spiritus ipso 
qui Deus est circumscripta* non est. 
Angeli itaque et missi ante ipsum 
eunt quia quolibet missi veniant intra 
ipsum currant 

diit rovr μ. κλ. σ.] The service is 
rendered to God for the sake of 
believers. The use of dw (accus.) in- 
stead of ύπίρ indicates a widor re- 
lation. Compare α vi. 7 and contrast 
vi. 20. The difference of idea is seen 
in Col. iv. 3 compared with Bph. vi. 2a 

κληρον. σωτηρ.] Compare a vi. 12 
(Additional Note); xii. 17; (1 Pot ill. 
9). 8eo also Matt xix. 29 (ctornal 
life); Luke x. 25; xviii. 18; Mattxxv. 
34; 1 Cor. vi 9 f.; GaL v. 21 (the 
kingdom); 1 Cor. xv. 5o(incorruptiou). 

'Salvation, 1 like 'eternal Ufo/ is at 
once present and future: α v. 9; ix. 

σωτηρίαν] Salvation is contem- 
plated in its essential character, and 
not in the concrete form of the 
expected and promised Salvation (ή 
σωτηρία Acts iv. 12; John iv. 22). 

Primasius refers the words to the 
belief ('as the doctors say') that to 
each of the faithful a guardian angel 
is assigned 'from his birth or rather 
from his baptism. 9 


Additional Note on L 3. The teaching upon Sin in the 

There is no direct statement in the Epistle as to the origin of sin or the 2? iyer " 
universal sinfulness of men. It is however implied that all men m*^ 1 ' 70 
sinners. This thought lies in the description of the characteristics of the 
High-priest who is fitted to satisfy our needs (ημιυ tfwpartp). He is 
4 separated from sinners' (vii. 26 Μχ*ρισμίνο* tAp άμαρτ*\*ρ\ whore the 
definite phrase ο! άμαρταΧοί appears to describe a body commensurate with 
humanity. The same idea is expressed still more forcibly in It. 15, if the 
interpretation given in the note upon the passage is correct. For while the 
fact of sin is for us a fruitful source of temptation it is laid down that, whon 
Christ was in all other points tempted as we are, this one feature must 

necessarily be excepted (πνπιιρασμίνοψ κατά πάντα κα& ομοιότητα X*p\t 
αμαρτία*). The common interpretation also suggests, though less distinctly, 
the uniqueness of Christ's siDlessness. 

Sin then is treated as universal, and men are held justly responsible for Respond- 
its consequences. They are conscious of sins (x. 2 σνρ*(σησι* Ιχ«* αμαρτιών), hility of 
as hindering them from attaining their true destiny. In themselves they are, Bmn " 
so to speak, 'clothed in weakness' (v. 2 mpltunat άσ6**ααρ: comp. vii. 28 
ψχονταΐ &σθ4ψι*α*) which is shewn in many forms (iv. 15 rait Ασ6*ηΙαις). 
Thoy 'go astray and arc ignorant' (v. 2). Their works as they stand alone 
are 'dead works' (vi. 1 ; ix. 14 ρικρα tpya). 

Meanwhile 'through fear of death 9 — which is assumed to be the end of 
sin— 'they are all their lifetime subject to bondage' (ii. 15). And probably 
tho reference to 'the devil,' 'who hath the power of death' (ii. 14 top to 
κράπκ ίχορτα του 6αψατον\ points to the primal temptation and fall of man. 

The writer of tho Kpistlo, as tho othor apostolic writers, distinguishes 
clearly between 'sin,' the principle, and 'sins,' the specific acts in which tho 
principle is embodied and manifested. The passages which deal with these 
two conceptions must be noticed separately (comp ix. 26 note). 

I. 8in (4 Αμαρτία, αμαρτία). »• Sin. 

The ritual of the O.T. recognised 'sin' no less than 'sins.' There were 
sacrifices 'for (in the matter of) sin' (x. 6\ 8; xiii. 11 w*p\ apaprlat). The 
burdon of 'sins and iniquities ' mode such α general sacrifice necessary. But 
'where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin' (x. 18 ούκίτι 
προσφορά πβρί αμαρτία*). The power of sin lies in its transitory pleasures. 
Sm oners enjoyment though it is but 'for a season' (xi. 25 πρόσκαιρο* Ζχην 
Αμαρτία* απόλαυση). Even Christians are exposed to the peril of fatal 
insensibility from its insidious assaults (iii. 13 cm μ*) σκΧηρυρ&β Tit 4( ύμ*Ρ 
Απάτη τηψ Αμαρτία*). Λβ in old time, unbeliof still loads to disobedionce to 
God, and disobedience is sin (iii. 15—19). 80 it is that under different 
figures sin is an encumbrance which tends to check tho freedom of our 
movements, and an adversary whom wo find in our path. Wo must 'lay it 
aside' that we may run our race (xii. ι Αποθίμτροι,.,τ^ρ ιυπιρίστατο* 
άμαρτίαρ) ; and we must 'strive against it' even unto blood (xii 4 προψ tj>* 
αμαρτία» άνταγ*νιζ6μ*ψοι). Such an effort, such a conflict, is possible, for 



Christ 'hath been manifested to disannul sin through the sacrifice of 
Himself 1 (ix. 26 «It άθέτησιν άμαρτίαή. He has shewn it to us prostrate and 
powerless through His work, and we can use the fruits of His victory. 
1. Sins. 2. Sins (at άμαρτίαι, άμαρτίαι). 

• Sin ' issues in a variety of ' sins. 1 The High-priesthood was instituted 
to deal with these, ' to offer gifts and sacrifices for (in behalf of) sins ' (v. 1 
Mp αμαρτιών: ooiup. vit. 27), or, as it is expressed more generally, 'to offer 
for (in the matter of) sins' (τ. 3 w€p\ αμαρτιών). But the conscience of man 
- witnessed (x. 2) that such sacrifices as the Levitical Law prescribed wore 
powerless to 'take away 1 sins, when the sinner from time to time 
acknowledged his guilt (x. 4 άφαιρύ» άμαρτίας\ or once for all to strip from 
him the bands which they had formed (x. 11 wcpuXw αμαρτίας). They 
served indeed only to call to mind that which they could not remove (x. 3 
άνάμνησις αμαρτιών). But a diviue promise held out the hope of a new 
Covenant when sins should be no more remembered (viiL 12; x, 17 των 
αμαρτιών ού μη μνησθω in) ; and Uiis hope was fulfilled through the work of 
Christ He 'offerod one sacrifice for (in behalf of) sitis for ever' (x. 12 μια* 
Mp αμαρτιών πμοσ**4γκας θυσία* *lt τα &ιηνικ4ς). By this IIo 'Iliuisolf mado 
purification of sins' (i. 3 καθαρισμών των αμαρτιών ποιησάμινο*), and in virtue 
of this He is able, having entered into the heavenly sanctuary, 'to make 
propitiation for the sins of the people' (ii. 17 ΙΚάσκ*σθαι τάς αμαρτίας ταυ 
λαον). But for those who 'sin wilfully after that they have received the 
knowledge (ιή* Μγνωσι*) of the truth' 'there is no longer left a sacrifice 
for (in the matter of) sins' (x. 26 ov«m wtpl αμαρτιών anoXtlwerai θυσία) ; 
and there are cases when it is impossible for the Christian teacher 'to 
renew to repentance' (vL 6) such as have fallen away. 

Thus Christ's work is now available for believers to overcome sin and 
do away sins; but one crowning scene still remains to be realised. 'Christ 
having been once offered (ιτ/>οσ««χ0«Ό'-- the passive form seems to 
express His willing submission to a divine law — 'to bear (άν*ν*γκ*ϊν) 
the sins of many '—to carry them up to the altar of the Cross (1 Pet 
ii 24)— * shall appear a second time without sin (χ -pU αμαρτία*)'— un- 
touched and untroubled by the sin which He has ovoroonio— ' to tliom 
that wait for Him unto salvatiou' (ix. 28). 
Utpi and It will be observed that in all the passages quoted the prepositions πβρί 
*r4p. and ύπίρ retain their distinctive force; «rcpi marks the object of the action, 
'in the matter of/ while υπέρ adds the thought of the beneficial effect designed 
in the action, 'in behalf of.' Compare for the use of π*ρί Rom. viiL 3 (*<pl 

αμαρτίας)', I Pet UL l8 («. αμαρτιών); I John ii. 2; IV. IO (wtpl των άμ. 

ήμων); and in a different connoxion John viii. 46; xvi. 8 £; xv. 22; and for 
the use of ύπίρ I Cor. xv. 3 (vir<> των άμ. ημών) ι OaL i. 4 (all. jr«pf)• 
Words for The vocabulary connected with sin is not targe. Παράπτωμα and άμάρ- 
ύη. τημα are not found (yet see παραπισύν vi 6). * Ανομία (i. 9; x. 17) and 

αδικία (viii. 12) occur only in quotations from the lxx. Παράβαση occurs 
ii 2; ix. 15; and παρακοή ii. 2. The word άγνάημα (ix. 7; comp. v. 2) is 
unique in the N.T. 


Additional Note on i. 4. The Divine Names in the Epistle. 

The Names by which the Lord ie spoken of in the Epistle throw light The 
upon its characteristic teaching. Speaking generally we may say that Names 
Je$it$ directs our thoughts to His human Nature, Christ to His Work as j*^? 
the Fulfiller of the old Dispensation, Son to His divine Nature, Lord itself 
to His sovereignty over the Church. 

1. Of these Names that which is distinctive of the Epistle is the human 1 • Jt$m. 
Name, Jesus. This occurs nine times, and in every case it furnishes the 
key to the argument of the passage where it is found : 

it 9 top βραχύ r< παρ 9 αγγίΚους ή\αττωμ*ΡθΡ βλ*πομ(¥ Ίφσοΰιτ... ΑΙ though 
humanity has not yet attained its end we see that the Son of Man— true 
man— has fulfilled through suffering the destiny of the race. 

Hi. Ι κατανοήσατε top απόστολο* κα\ άρχίΛρία της ομολογίας ήμωρ *1ησουρ 
(text. rec. Χρίστο» Ίησουρ). In His manhood, our Lawgiver and Priest is 
seen to rise immeasurably above Moses and Aaron, who occupied severally 
the same offices under the Old Covenant 

vi. 20 οπού πρόδρομος vtrrp ήμων *ίση\θ*ρ Ίι)σοΰ? ...Our High -priest, even 
when He enters into the immediate presence of God, to take His seat at 
God's right hand, preserves no less a true humanity than the Jewish High- 
priest who entered into tho typical sanctuary. 

vii. 22 κρείττονος διαθήκης ytyoptp ίγγυος Ίησονς. The eternal priesthood, 
answering to the better Covenant, is still the priesthood of One who is true 

X. 19 ίχορτ*ς παρρησία» ιΐς τήρ Λσοδορ rmp άγίωρ cV τφ αιματι Ίησου. The 
virtue of the offered life of Him Who shares our nature is that wherein we 
can draw near to Ood. Contrast ix. 14. 

ΧΠ. 2 άφορ*ΡΤ€ς €Ϊς top της πίστεως άρχηγορ καϊ τ*\€ΐωτηρ Ίησονρ. Our 
strength in Christian effort is to fix our eyes upon Him Who in His 
Manhood won for us the perfect victory of faith. 

xii. 24 (προσβλη\ύθατ€) διαθήκης νίας μεσίτη Ιησού. Conip. vii. 22. 

xiii. 12 Ίησους..,€ξω της πνλης ίπαθ*ρ. 

χϋί. 20 ό άραγαγωρ c\c ρ*κρωρ...*ν αϊματι διαθήκης αίωρίον top κνριορ ήμωρ 
Ίησονρ. This single reference in the Epistle to the Resurrection, combined 
with the declaration of the twofold office of Christ as Shepherd and Lord, 
is pointed by the use of His human Name. 

It will be noticed that in every case but xiii. 12, which is a simple 
historic statement, the name ' Jesus ' occupies an emphatic position at the 
end of the clause. 

2. The Name of Christ (the Christ) occurs just as many times as Jesus. * - <7Λη*ί, 
It is desirable to notice separately the two forms in which it is used. The the ChrtiL 
definite form * the Christ' («5 χριστός) appeal's always to retain more or less 
distinctly the idea of the office as the crown of the old Covenant : the 
anarthrous form ' Christ' (Χριστοί) is rather a proper name. 

w. H." 3 


The iii 14 μέτοχοι του χριστού γ<γόναμίν...\νο have become partakers in Him 

Christ. Who has fulfilled the hope of the fathers. 

I. S β χριστοί ου χ ίαυτόν 4ύόξασ*ν γ€νη$ήναι αρχιερέα though the Iligil- 
prieethood might have seemed to be necessarily included in the office to 
which He was sent 

vi. ι τον της αρχής τον χριστού λόγον, the elementary exposition of the 
Gospel as the true accomplishment of all that was promised to Israel. 

ix. 14 το αίμα του χριστού, the blood of Him to Whom every sacrificial 
ordinance of the Levitical ritual pointed. Contrast x. 19. 

ix. 28 6 χριστός άπαξ προσ€ν*χθ*ίς. . .όφΰήσ*ται. That which seemed to be 
disappointment in the Death of Him to Whom the people had looked shall 
hereafter be turned to glory. 

xi. 26 τον όηώισμαν του χριστού. Each hero of faith realised a little of 
that which is the part of the Messenger of God. 
Chrut. The anarthrous form is less frequent: 

iii. 6 (Μωυσής μίν)... Χριστός d( ως υΙός... 

IX. II Χρίστος dc παραγ*νόμ*νος άρχι<ρ€νς... 

IX. 24 ου γαρ *1ς χειροποίητα βίσηλθιν άγια Χριστός (text, rec 6 χριστός). 
The force of this Name will be felt if the student substitutes for it the 
human Name. Throughout c. ix. the thought is of the typical teaching of 
the Law. 
3. Son, the 3- The title Son is with one exception (i. 8) always anarthrous. The 
Son. writer, that is, fixes the attention of his readers upon the nature implied 

by it: 

i. 2 ίλάλησεν cv υΐφ as contrasted with i» τοις προφηταις. 
i. 5 υΙός μου cl συ (LXX.). 80 V. 5. 

UL 6 Χριστό? bi ως υΙός as contrasted with Μωυσης.,.ως θεράπων. 
v. 8 Kaivtp ων νΙός, and therefore having personally right of access to the 

vii. 28 υ\όν, (Ις τον αΙώνα τετελβιωμένον as contrasted with ανθρώπους... 
ϊχοντας άσθίνειαν. 
λ. Tfic 4• The title Lord is comparatively rare. 

Lord. ii. 3 (σωτηρία) άρχην λοβού σα Χαλεϊσθαι Βιά του κυρίου. 

νϋ. 14 (ζ Ιούδα άνατέταλκιν ό κύριος ημών. The title here is perhaps 
suggested by the royal tribe. 

Compare also i. 10; xii. 14; xiii. 20. 

5. Jesus 5. Of compound Names that which is elsewhere most common (more 
Christ, than thirty times in the Epistle to the Romans, eleven times iu 1 Peter), 

Jesus Christ, is comparatively very rare : 

X. IO bia της προσφοράς του σώματος * Ιησού Χρίστου. 
xiii. 8 * Ιησούς Χριστός εχθές και σήμερον ό αυτός... 

xiii. 21 δια Ιησού Χρίστου, φ ή δόξα είς τους αιώνας των αιώνων. 

The force of the full Name, which is an implicit Creed, will be obvious 
in each place. 

The characteristic Pauline Name Christ Jesus does not occur in the 
Epistle (not iii. 1). 

6. The Son 6. The title the Son of God speaks for itself in the places where it is 
of Qod. used : 

vi. 6 άνασταυρουντας iavrois τον vlov του θεού. 


τϋ. 3 Αφ*μο€*μ4νοί τψ υΐψ τον 6*ου % not νίψ 0rov. Tho Incarnate Son 

wm the archetype of Melchlsedek. 

X. 29 πόσψ x*(popot άξί*θησ*ταί τιμωρίας 6 tw vlbv του 6*ου καταπάτησα* 

7. Tho complete affirmation of the divine and human natures of our 7. Jetu$, 

High-priest is found in the phrase which occurs once, Jesus, the Son of the Son of 

God: 0o± 

fv. 14 ϊχοττίί Αρχι*ρ4α...*1ησονν top vlb* τοΟ θ*ου. 
Compare also the descriptive titles : ii. 10; iii. 1 ; xii. 2 ; xiii. 2a 
It may be noticed that the title σ*τήρ does not occur in the Epistle, 

though σωτηρία is not uncommon. The idea which it expresses finds a 

special embodiment in Christ's priestly office. 

Sometimes tho Lord, though unnamod, is assumed as the subject of the 

teaching of the prophets: ii. 14 ; x. 5 ft ; 37. 




[Π. i, a 

II. *Διά τοντο ie? περισσοτέρων προσέχει*- ημάς 
roU άκουσθεΐσιν, μη wore τταραρνώμεν. *ά yap ό it 

ι wtptee. dc? Κ Vg. Μ, om. V. ι. προσέχ*» fri£f KABD, vg: to*. »jw*. Γ. 

iL The peril of neglecting the new 
revelation through the Son (iL ι — 4). 

After establishing the superior dig- 
nity of the Son in comparison with 
that of angels, the writer of the 
Epistle pauses for a moment to en- 
force the practical consequences which 
follow from the truth before he sets 
forth the work of the Son for human- 
ity. It is obvious that a revelation 
given through such a Mediator carries 
with it more solemn obligations on 
those who receive it and heavier pen- 
alties for neglect than a revelation 
made through angelio ministry. 

Similar hortatory passages are in- 
troduced in tho argumout iii. 7 — »9p 
v. 11 ft 

Contrast GaL L 6—9. 

The line of thought is direct and 
simple. There is always in men a 
tendency to forgotfuluoss of a past 
message under the influence of new 
forces. The authority of the message 
is a measure of the danger of such 
neglect (1, 2); and the Gospel comes 
to us with the highest possible attest- 
ation in regard to its Author and 
its messengers (3X and the manifold 
witness of God by which it was con- 
firmed (4). 

* Therefore we must give the mare 
earnest heed to the things thai were 
heard lest haply we drift away from 
them. • For if the word spoken 
through angels proved stedfast, and 
every transgression and disobedience 
received a just requital; > how shall 
we escape if we neglect so great sal- 
vation f which, having at the first 
beenspokenthrough <Λ* Lardy was con- 
firmedunto us by them that heard; 
« Qod bearing witness to it with them 
by signs and wonders, and by mani- 
fold powers, and by various gifts of 
the Holy Spirit according to His 

1. b\e\Twro]Forthiscause... There- 
fore..., because of the superiority of 
the Son over the angels, through 
whom the Law was given. 

fc«] The word marks a logical ne- 
cessity and not a moral obligation: 
we must rather than we ought. Com- 
pare xi 6, iz. 26, and contrast όφ*ίΚ<ι* 
*• *7> v • 3> I2 • See 1 John iL 6 

πιρισσ. προσ.] Vulg. abundantius 
observare. The adverb expresses, so 
to speak, an absolute excess (xiiL 19, 
c. vL 17, viL 15), and not simply a 
relative excess (μάλλον ix. 14, x. 25, 
xll 9, 25). The connexion of wtpur- 
traripm with &ci is unnatural Tho 
force of the comparative is 'more ex- 
ceedingly than if there had been no 
such marked preeminence of the Son•' 
The form in -<*s is not found in the 
lxx. or Pkilo. 

προσίχκν] The full phrase προσ. 
τ. νουν does not occur in the N.T. (but 
see Job vii. 17 lxx.). The word is 
used of things Act» viiL 6; x?L 14; 
1 Tim. L 4; Tit L 14 ; 2 Pot L 19 ; 
and of persons Acts viiL 10 f. ; 1 Tim. 
iv. 1. The absolute use occurs as 
early as Demosthenes. Compare viL 
13 η. 

ήμας] we Christians. The obligation 
is a special one. 

rolt άκουσθ.] to the things that were 
heard, to the message received by the 
apostles (ol «Ιβονσα»™*) when 'God 
spake in Hie Son' ; or, more simply, to 
the things we heard (as κατηχούμίνοι) 
when first the Gospel waa preached to 
US (6\6yct np άκαη* C. iv. 2 ; I These. 
iL 13. Conip. Horn. x. 17). 

It is to be noticed that the writer 
of the Epistle does not use ιύαγγΙΚω* 
(the verb occurs iv. a, 6). in the 
writings of St John it is found only in 
Apoc. xiv. 6. 

μη wort] lest haply, Vulg. ne forte 

II. 2] 



αγγέλων λαληθώ* λόγος iy&vero βέβαιος, και πάσα 

(Ο. L. ne eaeu) and not lest ever. 
Compare iv. i. 

ρχφαρνωμβρ] The word wopappctp is 
of considerable interest It is con- 
stant! y need of things which slip away, 
as a ring from the finger (Plat Amat. 
p. 754 a), or Uko a wrong course, as 
a crumb of food passing into the wind- 
pipe (Arist de part. an. iii. 3), or an 
inopportuno snhjoct intruding upon 
a company (jftlian, V. JL iii. 30). 

It occurs twice in the Greek trans- 
lations of the Book of Proverbs. It 
is found m the sense of 'slipping 
away' in Symmachus' rendering of 
Pro?, ir. 21 μή παραρμυησάτ§ΗΤθΡ j£ 
όφ6αλμ£ψ σον for the Hehr. W>rS* 
YJTR?: Vulg. ne reeedani ab oeuli» 
tuts : Ε. Y. Let them not depart from 
thine eyet. And again it occurs of 
the person in Prov. iii. 21 (lxx.) vU 
pJ) frapopvpff, τήρησορ ftt 4μ^ρ fiovkfjp 
κα\ twvowpy for the similar Hebrew 

TJW ^Γ^* **? : Vulg. FiU mi, ne 
qflnant hoe ab oadis tuis: B. V. Let 
them not depart from thine eye». 

This latter usage is identical with 
tho usage in the present passage: 
'Do not bo carried away from my 

The idea is not that of simple for- 
gotfulnoss, but of being swopt along 
past tho sure anchorage which is 
within roach. (Compare flosychius: 
wapapv§t t μ€Τ€§φίσθζψ, wapaniayt.) 
The image is singularly expressive. 
We are all continuously exposed to 
the action of currents of opinion, 
habit, action, which tend to carry us 
away insensibly from tho position 
which we ought to maintain. 

The versions are very vague. The 

8yriae gives JaU ^£L) as in iv. n 

{μη τ•* W<rg). There are many Latin 
renderings: Vulg. perejfluamu», O. L. 
totomur (lebemur) or labemu»; and in 
patristic quotations: euperefflwimu» 
(flier.), dtfiuamu» (Aug.), qfluamti» 

(SeduL). Prhnasius was evidently per- 
plexed by the phrase : ne forte perejflu- 
amue; id est, no forte pereamus et a 
salute exddamus ; vel no forte evanes- 
oamus, transeuntes in perditionem 
more fluminis currentis in mare... 

The Greek Christian writers use 
the word in the same sense as it has 
here, and perhaps they derived the 
usage from tho Epistle: og. Clem. 
Alox. Patd. iii. § 58 p. 288 P. Μ *a\ 
σνστΛλ«τ χρ^ rat yvwaiutat κοσμ/βκ 
«ml **ρ*σφΙγγ*%ρ ofdoc σιίφροη, μή 
wapappvmtn rtjt dXi^e/ar ΰώ χονροτητα. 

Orig. e. Cel». viil 23 "The great 
mass of slmplo believers, who cannot 
keep every day as a divine festival, 
need sensible patterns in fixed holy 
days that they may not wholly drift 
away (ί*α μή rfktop vapappvfi) under 
popular ' influences from the obser- 
vance of regular religious duties.' 

2,3a.fiyrfp...] The necessity of heed- 
ful care is grounded on the certainty 
of retribution. This certainty is pro- 
portional to the authority of tho 
revelation• Comp. 1 Clem. xli. 4 
δσψ nXtlopot κατη£υίόημ*ρ ymknmt 
τοσοντψ μαΚΚαρ νπυκιίμιΰα KtPovpf. 

6 6V Λγγ. λβλ. λσγο*] the word— 
the revelation— spoken through an- 
gel», as the organs of the Divine 
communication, that is the Law. Vulg. 
qu%perangeio»dietiue9t»ermo. The 
titlo λόγο? (not ρόμο») is given to the 
Law in order to characterise it as the 
central part of the Old Revelation 
round which all later words were 
gathered. 80 throughout the Epistle 
the Law is regarded as a gracious 
manifestation of the divine will, and 
not as a code of stern discipline 
The connexion of the angels with the 
giving of the Law is recognised else- 
where in the N. T., GaL iu 19 diorayclf 
ftY eyyikup ; Acts vii. 53 (comp. 9. 38) 
tit diarayat ayyfXup. So also Josephus 
represents Herod as saying that the 
Jews 'learnt rh wnmrara tup ip rot* 
pqtoit 6V dyy^kmp wapa του ώον' (Antt. 



[Π. 3 

παράβαση και παρακοή tkafiev ενδικον μισθαιτοδοσίαν, 
?7τώ« ήμέιν έκφευζόμεθα τηλικαντης άμέΚησαντ6* σωτη- 

χν. 5> 3Χ Β 7 a natural process 'of 
interpretation the attendance of the 
angels at the revelation on Sinai 
(Deut xxxiii. 2; Ps. lxviii. 17) was 
taken to indicate their ministration. 
The presence of angels is not noticed 
in Ex. xix, and Phiio seems purposely 
to a?oid referring the phenomeua at 
the Lawgiving to tlieir action (de 
Decal. § 9 (ii 185 Μ.) κιλ*ύσας...6ψ 
μιουργηΰη*αι...ψνχήρ Χογικήν...). 

iyl p. βίβαιος] pt % oted sure, not only 
was assured, confirmed (4β*βαιωΰη 
v s 3) by some external authority ; but, 
as it were, vindicated its own claims. 
There is in the divine Law a self- 
executing power. It coufirms itself 
Compare the significant variation in 
the construction in Rom. ii. 6 tt. Aro- 
dtiau...roU κα9 υπομονή* ϊργου άγαΰον 
&όζαν...τοις bi J{ 1ρι$ίας...οργή καί 
θυμοί... together with Origen's note in 
Rom. Lib. ii. § 6. 

The verb always retains its force in 
these periphrastic forms c, ill 14; 
v. 5, 12; vi 4; vii 12, 18, 20, 23; 
x. 33; xi• 6 t; xii. 8; 1 Cor. iii. ij; 
xi. 19. 

παράβ. καϊ παρακ.] Vulg. pranari- 
catio et itiobedientia. Παράβαση do- 
scribes tlie actual transgression, a 
positive offonce(thoovortact) ; παρακοή 
describes properly the disobedience 
which fails to fulfil an injunction, and 
so includesnegativeoffences(theepirit). 
Comp. 2 Cor. x. 6; Rom. v. 19 (Matt. 
xviii 17 παράκανα»). The word πα- 
ρακοή is not found in the lxx. (πάρα- 
Kovti» Esth. Hi 3, 8 [iv. 13]; Is. lxv. 12). 
Prawaricaiio est vetita facere, in• 
obedientia vero jussa uon facere 

In Rom. v. the sin of Adam is 
doscribod successively as παράβαση υ. 
14 (the simple fact) ; παράπτωμα v. 17, 
18 (contrasted with the δικαίωμα of 
Christ : the fact in its relation to the 
divine order); παρακοή v. 19 (con• 

treated with the υπακοή of Christ: 
the manifestation of the spiritual 

παράβ... .ίλαβ€*] The punishment 
meets the transgression, not the trans- 
gressor. Thoro is an absolute cor- 
respondence. Compare CoL iii. 25 
(Bph. vi 8). 

hducow] Tho word occurs again iu 
Rom. iii. 8 : it is not found in tho lxx. 
As distinguishod from bUatos it de- 
scribes that which conforms to, and 
not that which embodies, a rule. The 
word δίκαιος is used almost exclusively 
of persons as possessing the positive 
quality of righteousness. It is used 
also of judgment as being not only 
right, but rigfUeous; John v. 30; 
vii. 24 ; Apoc xvi 7 ; xix. 2 ; 2 These, 
ii 1. Comp. Luko xii. 57 ; and of the 
' commandment ' (Rom. vii 1 2) and the 
'ways' of God (Apoc. xv. 3). 

μισθαποδοσία*] Vulg. mereedis re- 
tribuHonem, O. L. remunerationem, 
and so Vulg. elsewhere. The word is 
found again in tho Greek Scriptures 
only in c. χ. 35, xi. 26, and tho cor- 
responding personal noun μισθαπο- 
σοτηε in c. xi. 6 for the classical fwrflp- 
boaia, μισθοοΌτης. As oompared with 
the corresponding words άρταπόσοσις 
(Col. iii. 24), άνταποονμα (Lk. xiv. 12; 
Rom. xi. 9), tho word appears to em- 
phasise the idea of an exact requital of 
good or evil by a sovereign Judge. Tho 
discipline and punishment of the wil- 
derness (c. iii 16 tt. ; 1 Cor. x. 6 £) 
furnished the typical illustration of 
this teaching which extends to the 
whole Jewish life: c. xii 25, x. 28 f. 

3. πώς...;] The interrogative form 
is characteristic of the style of the 
Epistle (c. i. 5 noto). Compare 1 Tim. 
iii. 5; 1 J0I111 iii. 17. How shait we 
escape after neglecting... t Tho neglect 
is assumed. 

ίκφ€νζόμ*θα] Thewordisagaiuused 
absolutely Acts xvi. 27; 1 These, v. 3. 

Π. 4] 



njkuu] go grtai as has been seen 
from the nature of the Mediator. 
Gomp. 2 Cor. L ία 'Αμ*\. Matt xxii. 

σωτηρίαί] Tho character of the new 
dispensation is placed in contrast with 
the Law : 'salvation ' (i. 14 note) with 
'the word.' Comp. Jude 3 ; Acts xiii. 
26. So Theodoret : ο μ*ν popot \6yot 
$p το wpattriop farotouonit, ή W του 
κυρίου διδασκαλία τη§ αίωριου npo(*POt 
owrnplat. And Primasius: Lex pro- 
mittebat terram. . .Evangelinm regnnm 
oelorum . . . I Ila pnestabat vindictam de 
terrenis hostibns : istud pnestat de 
spirituaHbn8...111a promittebat Ion- 
gievom vitam temporalem; Evange- 
hum concedit vitam sine fine man- 

ρίας, ι/τκ, αρχήν Χαβονσα \α\€ΐσθαι δια τον κυρίου, 
υπό των άκουσάντων eU ήμας έβββαιωθη, 4 <τυνβπιμαρ- 

4 συρητιμ.: ουρμαρτ. Β. 

XaXua-uai] i I f.; Hi. 5Ί *& 25. 

The addition of tho verb calls at- 
tention to the present preaching, and 
to the fact that this is based, on the 
original preaching of Christ. 

Μ του κ.] through the Lord as 
tho Messenger of tho Father (c. i. 2). 
Vulg. per dominion. Comp. 9.26 oV 
άγγ• λαλ• λ• Contrast ΧάΚΛσθαι ύνό 
Lake it 18; Acts xiii. 45; xvi. 14; 
xvii. 19 ; and XaXr ur6Vu παρά Luke i. 45. 

του κυρίου] not του κυρίου ήμά\ρ. 
Compare c xii. 14. The idea is of the 
Soyereign Majesty of Christ in Himself. 
Contrast vii. 14» x»i». *>> *wi. *• 

ύπο tup <Sie.] by the immediate 
hearers: Luke i. 2. Contrast 1 John 

Though St Paul was not a hearer of 
Christ in the flesh, yet it is scarcely 
conceivable that he should have placed 
himself thus in contrast with those 
who were: Gal. i. 12; and if the 
writer was a disciple of St Paul he 
must refer to other teachers also. 

tit 4μ. 49c0.] was brought unto us— 
into our midst— and confirmed to us. 
Vulg. in no* eonfirmata e$t. The use 
of tho preposition suggests an interval 
between the first preaching and the 
writer's reception of the message. It 
is to be noticed that the 'salvation' 
and not merely the message of it 
(Acts xiii. 26) was 'confirmed': the 
'solvation' was shewn to be real in 
tho experience of those who received 

tit 4pnt] Gal. Hi. 14; John viii. 26; 
Rom. viii. 18; Acts ii. 22; 1 Pet i. 4» 
25. Compare Moulton's Winer, p. 776. 

1β*βαΜη] Compare (Mk.) xvi. 20; 
Rom. xv. 8. 

4. The divine witness to the 'sal- 
vation' of the Gospel is both conti- 
nuous and manifold. The writer ap- 
peals to α succession of forms in 
which it was manifested in his ex- 

3 b, 4. The superior authority of 
the Gospel is shewn in three points, 
in its original announcement, in its 
convincing proclamation, and in the 
manifold divino attestation to its truth. 

frit] The pronoun preserves its 
fall force: Seeing tfiat it... tea* eon- 
firmed.. "Otrrit as distinguished from 
or is rightly described as 'qualitative 
and generic,' a man (a thing) euch 
as... f a elate who..., hence very com- 
monly whoever (whatever)... Compare 
cc. viii. 56; ix. 2, 9; x. 35, 8, 11 ; xii. 
5; xiii. 7, and Moulton on Winer, p. 
209 η. 

άρχηρ Χαβονσα λαλ.] Vulg. CUm in- 

itium aecepieeet enarrari. This 
singular mode of expression suggests 
somewhat more than the simple fact 
having firet been epoken f and implies 
that the teaching of the Lord was 
the true origin of the Gospel The 
phrase is not found elsewhere in tho 
Ν. T. or in the lxx., but is frequent 
in late Greek writers (τηρ άρχ^ρ Χ.): 
eg. Philo, de vita Mom. i. § 14; (ϋ• 
93 Μ.) [σημβΐοψ] τήρ αρχηρ τον γ*ρ4σ6οΛ 
λαβορ 4ρ Αίγυπτψ. 




τνρονντος του θβοΰ σημβίοκ re και τέρασιν και ποικίλαις 
Ζυνάμεσιν και πνεύματος άγιου μερισμοί* κατά την αύτου 

om. re Μ, vg syrr. 

perienoe and in that of those whom 
he addressed. 

1. Miracles (σημύα^ rtpara). 

2. Powers, outwardlyshewn in action 
(voudkai dvrtyut). 

3. Endowments, which might be 
purely personal and unobserved («v. 
ay. pepurpmt). 

There is a progress from that which 
is most striking outwardly to that 
which is most decisive inwardly. The 
outward phenomenon and tho inward 
experience are both in different ways 
capable of various interpretations; 
but they are complementary. The 
one supplies that element of conviction 
which the other wants. 

The passage is of deep interest as 
shewing the unquestioned reality of 
miraculous gifts in the early Church: 
and the way in which they wero re- 
garded as coordinate with other ex- 
hibitions of divine power. 

Compare 2 Oor. xii. 12; GaL iii 5; 
Rom. xv. 19; c. vi.4f. 

σνικπιμαρτνμονντος] Ood also bear* 
ing witness with them to the truth of 
the word. This witness is present and 
not past Vulg. contestant* [O. L. 
adseierante'] Deo. The word is found 
here only in the Greek Scriptures. 
faipaprvptip occurs I Pet V. 12; συμ~ 
μαρτυρά» Rom. il 15; viil 16; ix. 1. 
The word is not uncommon in late 
writers: Clem. R. 1 Oor. 23, 43. 

σημ. rt κα\ rip....] The r«, which is 
not used in the common phrase σημ. 
κα\ tip. % shews that all the forms 
of witness are probably regarded 
singly, Acts xiii. 1 ; 1 Cor. i. 30 ; o. ix. 
2 ; xi. 32. Oonip. Acts ii. 22 ; 2 These. 

σημίϊα «d ripara] The combination 
is found in the Synoptic Gospels 
(Matt xxlv. 24; Mk. xiii 22), St John 
(iv. 48), in St Paul's Epistlee (Rom. 

αιίτνΟ: ro0 0co0 D t *. 

xv. 9; 2 Oor. xii. 12; 2 Thess. ii. 9), 
and most frequently in the Acts (8 
times cc i.— xv.). It is not found iu 
the Catholic Epistles or the Apoca- 
lypse. In the Synoptic passages and 
2 Thess. it 9 the phrase is used of the 
manifestation of evil powers. 

Tipat is nowhere used by itself in 
the Ν. T., though it is so used in the 
lxx. (coinp. Acts ii. 19; Joel iii. 3). 
ΧημΑο* and σημηα are common alone, 
and especially in St Jolin iu reference 
to Christ's works. 

voi*. bw.] by manifold powers (Lat. 
variis virtutibus) shewing themselves 
in their characteristic results. Δύναμις 
expresses here the power itself and 
not tho manifestation of tho power. 
See Mk. vi. 14; 1 Cor. xii. 10; Matt 
xi. 20 ff.; c. vi. 4ff. 

wp. <Sy. μ€ρισμοίς] Vulg. sp. s. dis- 
tributionibus (0. L. divisionibus). 
Comp. 1 Cor. xii. 4, 11 (Acts il 3 
&αμ*ριζ6μ*ραι). The Holy Spirit is in 
one sense the gift and in another the 
Givor. Here there can be no doubt 
that the thought is of the divine gift 
(iry. ay. not rh π*, το ay.) as imparted iu 
several measures by God. Compare 
John iii. 34; 2 Oor. x. 13. 

κατά τήν αύτ. A] according to His, 
God's, not the Spirit's, wiU [willing} 
Vulg. secundum suam [O. L. ijmus] 
voluntatem. The dauso refers to all 
that has gone before. Comp. fiph, 
iv. 7 . 

οΊΚησκ] The word, which occurs 
several times in the lxx., is found 
here only in the N.T. As distinguished 
from θίλημα (χ. 7, 9, 36; xiii. 2i), the 
definite expression of will, it describes 
the active exercise of will. 

The use of these active vorbal nouus 
is characteristic of the style of the 
Epistle. Among many others which 
occur the following are found in the 


θ*\ησιν\ 5 Ov γαρ dyye\ot* vwira^eu την οϊκονμίνην 

5 fortfr.+dfttftOfvg). 

Ν. Τ. only in this Book: ficnfeW 
(viL 12; xt 5; xii 27); iMrvrtt (vii. 
18 ; ix. 26) ; 2dXipnr (χ. 3?) ; νρόσχνσκ 
(xL 28); aWtf (xlil. 15X 

liL 7%« fulfilment qf the divine 
destiny qf man in the Son qf man 
through suffering (il 5—18). 

Two main thoughts are brought out 
in this section. 

(1) The promise of sovereignty to 
man was fulfilled in Jesus ('the Son 
of man 0: 5 — 9. 

(2) The fulfilment of man's destiny, 
owing to the intrusion of sin, could 
only bo brought about through suf- 
fering 9 made possible for Christ and 
effective for man through the Incar- 
nation (10—18). 

Throughout the section there is a 
tacit reference to the objections which 
were raised against the Lord's claims 
to MesMiahsliip on U10 ground of tho 
actual facts of His life and sufferings. 

(1) The promise of marie sot- 
ereignty and itt potential fulfilment 


The writer of the Epistle has al- 
ready assumed the establishment of 
a new order corresponding with the 
fulfilment of the purpose of creation. 
The sovereignty of this order was not 
prepared for angels (0. 5). It was 
promised to man (6 — 8 a); and the 
promise was fulfilled in • Jesus 1 (80—9). 

* For not unto angels did He sub- 
jeet the world to oome % whereof we 

• But one testified as we know 
(somewhere) saying 

What is man 9 that Thou art mind- 
ful qf him t 

Or the son qfman t that Thou visi- 
test him? 

t Thou modest him a little lower 
than angels; 

With glory and honour Thou 
crownedst him; 

And didst set him over the works 
of Thy hands: 

■ Thou didst put all things in 
subjection under his feet. 

5. ov yap...] For not unto angels 
did He subject... The manifestations 
of the Divine Presence which have 
been shewn to attend the proclama- 
tion of the Gospel (0. 4) are intelligible 
both from the Nature of the Son and 
from the scope of His work. For the 
greatness of the 8on as the Revealer 
of the New Dispensation and of its 
preachers, His envoys, is revealed by 
the fact that (a) the future dispensation, 
which is, as has been already implied, 
the fulfilment of tho Creator's will, 
was committed to man; and that (b) 
man's sovereignty has been gained 
for him, even after his failure, through 
the Incarnation of Jesus 'the Son of 

γλρ] For... Tho particle refors di- 
rectly to the signs of divine power 
among believers which were a prelude 
to the complete sovereignty. The 
subject (God) is not expressed but 
naturally supplied from the former 

ovK...ayyf\ois...] not to angels, to 
beings of this class, but (as is shewn 
in the next verses) to man...(comp. 
c.L 4 tAp ayyfXmv note). It is not 
said that 'the present world' was sub- 
ject to angels; but at the same time 
the writer of the Epistle may well 
have recalled the belief which found 
expression in the lxx. Version of 
Deut xxxii. 8 that God assigned tho 
nations to the care of angels while 
Israel was His own portion. 

Compare Eoclus.xvii. 17(14); Daniel 
xfiL 1 ; x. 13, 2a So too in later Jewish 
literature, e.g. in the Book of Henoch, 
angels are represented as having 
charge over difforent elemonts. 

falrafrv] did He subject in the 



[II. 6 

την μέλλουσα ν, ττ€ρι ijs λάλου μ€ ν 6 $ΐ€μαρτνρατο Ζέ πού 
τι? λέγων 

eternal counsel (conip. i. 2 Ιβηκ•*) 
mode known through the Psalmist 
The word is borrowed by anticipation 
from the Psalm. 

Hj¥ οίκ. τή* μίλλ.] Ynlg. orbem terra 
Juturum, 0. L. swculum JUturum t 

Syr. r+Ll•} ΐ&ΐΐ. 

The phrase is not to be understood 
simply of 'the future life' or, more 
generally, of 'heaven.' It describes, 
in relation to that which we may call 
its constitution, the state of tilings 
which, in relation to its development 
in time, is called 'the age to come' 
(ο μίΚΚω* aim*), and, in relation to its 
supremo Ruler and characteristics, 'the 
Kingdom of God/ or 'the Kingdom 
of hoavon,' evon the ordor which 
corresponds with the completed work 
of Christ Compare vL 5 (μ*ΧΧω* 
alaw\ xiii. 14 {ή μίλΧουσα [ποΚις]) 
notes. Is. ix. 6. 

ι) οίκουμίνη) The word is used for 
the world so far as it is 'a seat of set- 
tled government,' * the civilised world. 1 
Thus in Greek writers it is used 
characteristically for the countries oc- 
cupied by Greeks, as distinguished 
from those occupied by ' barbarians 1 
(Herod, iv. no; Dem. de Cor. p. 242; 
[de Hatonn.] p. 85 f.), and at a later 
time for the Roman empire (Philo, 
Leg. ad Cai. §45; ii. 598 M.). 

Hence it come to be used even of α 
limited district defined, us we should 
say, by a specific civilisation (Jos. Anti. 
VUL 13, 4 π*ρ*π4μψαψ κατά πάσα* τη* 
οΙκουμ{*η* τους ζητησο*τας το* προ- 
φήτη* Ήλ««αν). Comp. Luke ii. ι; 
Ex. xvi 35 c ως ήλθον cfc τη* οίκουμ4*η* 
[Alex, γη* oL•] 'to the borders of the 
land of Canaan': compare Kuseb. 
Η. E. vii. 31, 2 U της Π*ρσω* art π)» 
καθ* ήμας οΙκουμί*η*...Αύά on the other 
hand it was used to describe the whole 
world as occupied by man (Luke iv. 5 
[Drov κόσμου]; Matt xxiv. 14; Apoc. 

xvi 14) ; and men as occupants of the 
world (Acts χ vii. 31 ; xix. 27; Apoc. 
iiL 10; xiL 9). Comp. Wisd. L 7 
«Tf υμα κυρίου πατΧήρωκ* τη* οΙκουμ4*η*. 

It was therefore perfectly fitted to 
describe the Christian order under the 
aspect of a moral, organised system : 
comp. a i. 6. 

The word is found in St Paul only 
Rom. x. 18 (Ps. xix. 5). 

mpl fg λαλ.] which is the subject of 
tlio whole writing. Tlio thought has 
been already announced in i. 2 κληρο- 
νόμο* κοντώ*. 

6—8 α. TJie promise. The promise 
of uuiversal sovereignty was confirmed 
to mou in α passage of Scripture (Ps. 
viii 5—7) which fully roooguisos his in- 
firmity. I lis weakness is first eoufossed 
(ft 6); and thou his triple diviuo en- 
dowment of nature, honour, dominion 

(* 7, 8 a). 

The viiith Psalm is referred to by 
the Lord Matt xxL 16 (comp. Matt 
xi. 25; 1 Cor. i. 27), and by 8t 
Paul 1 Cor. xv. 27. Comp. Eph. i. 22. 

It is not, and has never been ac- 
counted by tlio Jowe to be, directly 
Messianic; but as expressing the true 
destiny of man it finds its accomplish- 
ment in the Son of Man and only 
through Him in man. It offers the 
ideal (Gen. i. 27—30) which was lost 
by Adam and then regained and 
realised by Christ 

Clement spooks of tlio application 
of the words of the Psulm to man by 
some : ου γαρ §π\ τον κυρίου 4Μχρ*ται 
τή* γραφή* καίτοι κάκ€Ϊ*ος σάρκα Ιφ#- 
ρ* *' «τι οΊ του τ*λ*ίον κα\ γ*ωστικον 9 
τψ χρό*ψ καΐ τφ Μύματι ίΚαττονμί*ου 
πάρα rove άγγίΚους {Strain, iv. 3 § 8, 

ρ. 566). 

And so Chrysostom; ταύτα u καϊ 
th τή* KOi*if* ανθρωπότητα Λρηται^ αλλ* 
Ζμως Kvpuirtpo* άρμοσα** α* τψ Χριστψ 
κατά σάρκα (Horn. iv. § 2). 

And Theodore t; το Μ 'W icrrw 


Ti icim ΛΝθρωποο 5τι mimnMckh Afrof, 
»? vioc ^Νθρώπογ δτι έπιεκέτττΗ αυτόν; 
6 rl KABD, vg syrr: rlt C• (latt) me (so ιλχ A). 


άνθρωπος ι 9 ttpnrm μίν π*ρ\ r^r «xi^f 
<W*f «ff, άρμότπι Wrj^( i}p£ * Αηφχρ, 
•iff οίκινουμίνης ra πάσης της φυσιως* 
τα & ήμ<τ*ρα oicriovptmr. στόμα ri}ff 
<£ar*»fycyor*v. mlr^r yAp r«f αμαρτίας 
ημών ΤΚαβ* καί rat >wow ιβάντασ* 
(ad he.). 

One peculiar difficulty meets as in 
the dm made of the Psalm by the 
writer of the Epistle. The thought 
expressed in tho original by the words 
rendered in the lxx. ήΚάττωσας αυ- 
τόν βραχύ τι nap* άγγίλους is that of 
the nobility of man's natnre which 
faHs but little short of the divine. 
The words on the contrary as applied 
to Christ describe a humiliation. This 
application is facilitated by the lxx. 
rendering, but does not depend upon 
it The essential idea is that tho true 
destiny of man described by the 
Psalmist» which experience teaches us 
that man himself has missed, was ful- 
filled otherwise than had been ex- 
pected. Words which were used of 
man in himself became first true of 
Ono Who boing more than man took 
man's nature upon Him. In such a 
case tho description of dignity was 
of necessity converted initially into a 
description of condescension. 

6. The thought of man's frailty 
comes first According to a remark- 
able Jewish tradition the words were 
addressed by the ministering angels 
to God when 'Moses went up to re- 
ceive the Law.' Ό Lord of the 
world,' they said, 'wilt Thou give to 
flesh and blood that precious thing 
which Thou hast kept for 974 genera- 
tions t (Ps. viii. 5). Give Thy glory 
rather to heaven 9 (8abb. 88, 1). 

5, 6. ov yap άγγ....&ί*μαρτ. d/...] 
The form of the construction is ex- 
pressive. The sovereignty was not 
indeed designed for angels; but pro- 
vision was made for it When there 

is a direct and sharp opposition, iXkd 
follows a negative not..Jbut. When 
the negative marks a sentonce which 
is complete in itself; and another 
statement is added as a fresh thought, 
this, though it does in fact oppose the 
former, is introduced by d4. Gomp. 
ee. 8, 9 ουπω —hi; iv. 13; vi 12 ; 
Acts xii. 9, 14. 

fticp. λ πού T«r] In this quotation 
only in this epistle (iv. 7 is not a case 
in point) is there a reference to the 
human author of the words ; and here 
God is addressed directly. At the 
same time the reference is as general 
as possible. The form of reference 
is found in Philo, de temul. § 14 (i. 
365 M.) «fire yap που rtt (Gen. XX. 12). 

For πού see c. iv. 4 note. 

Διαμαρτύρομαι is used absolutely 
Luke xvi. 28; Acts ii. 40 (viiL 25); 
1 These, iv. 6. 

ri ίση*] i.e. how little outwardly, 
and at first sight, compared with the 
statoly magnificence of Nature. 

Comp. Ps. cxliv. 3; Job vii. 17. 
Tho interpretation 'how great is man/ 
Lo. in consoquonco of God's lovo shewn 
to him, is quite foreign to tho course 
of thought Nor again is there any 
reference to the fact of the Fall. 

άνθρωπος] Bta^j, man, with the 
secondary idea of weakness. 

vlbt άνθρωπου] Ε>Ί{Π$ not ο vlot 
τον άνθρωπου (ΧΓ^ψ^\Χ). 

μιμ*ησκΐ)...ίπίσκ<πτν] The twofold 
regard of thought and action. 'Em- 
σκίπτισθαι is used almost exclusively 
in the lxx., as in the N. T.,of a visita- 
tion for good. Luke i. 68, 78 ; vii. 16 ; 
Acts xv. 14. The word was especially 
used of the 'visits' of a physician. 
Gomp. Matt xxv. 36; James i 27. 

7,8 b. In spite of his frailty man 
recognises his divine affinity. He is 
more glorious than the world which 




7hAattcocac atton ΒρΑχγ τι παρ" Αττέλογο, 

λόΐΗ και tim£ έοτεφΑΝωοΛς λυτον, 
[και kat&thcac άΐτάπ <πί τα* ίρΓΑ τώπ χειρώΝ coy,] 

8 πα , ντα tn^TAlAC γποκΔτω τώπ ΠΟΑώΝ Αΐ?τογ• 
At T y yap ϊποταΙαι [αι/τω] τα πάντα ούδβν άψηκβν αύτω 

7 frr•*. afirb, +καΙ κατέπψτα* αύτ^ Μ τά ipya τ& χ«ρ&> eoO KAGD/M, vg 
(syrr) me (so lxx): om. Β (syrr). 8 fr τ# >*ρ KBD^: έτ γΑ/> τ# ΓΑΟ. 

αάψ(ι) om. Β. τά dura ferortf{at «v. D, syrr me. 

2 Pet L 17 ; Apoc. ?. 12 f. The com- 
bination is common in lxx. «#. Kx. 
xxviii. 2 (r. icai Α. irjHQ^ *W). 

seems to crush him, in nature, endow- 
ment, destiny. 

7. ^λάτ. A>. «...] 7%o» rood»* 
Aim α ftttfe fewer... Vulg. MinuisU 
(Old Latmtnorosft) eumpauio minus 
ab angeUs. Βραχύ τι is need here of 
degree (compare 2 Bam. xvi. 1), and 
not of time (la lvii. 17 lxx. 'for a 
little while'). The Hebrew is un- 
ambiguous; and there is no reason to 
depart from the meaning of the 
original either in this place or in e. 9. 

wop* oyyAow] The original DV^gg, 
rendered literally by Jerome a deo, 
is thus interpreted by the Targum 
and Syr. and by the Jewish Commen- 
tators (Rashi, Kinichi, Aben-Esra), as 
well as by the lxx. 

The original meaning is probably 
less definite than either 'a little less 
than angels' or 'a little less than 
God. 1 It would more nearly cor- 
respond to 'a little less than one who 
has a divine nature.' 'Thou hast 
made him to fall little short of being 
a God 1 (oomp. 1 Sam. xxviii. 13). To 
our cars 'than God 1 would be equiva- 
lent to 'than the Eternal/ which 
would have been wholly out of place 
in the Psalm. And on the other hand 
«than angels' obscures the notion of 
the 'divine nature 1 which lies iu the 
phrase. . 

For tho wider sense of DVP$» see 
Pa lxxxii. 1, 6 (John x. 34 f.) ; xxi*• 
1 (not Ex. xxi. 6). 

Μά «αϊ τ Ψ ί] with the essential dig- 
nity and with the outward splendour 
which signalises it: Rom. ii. 7, 10; 
1 Pet. i. 7 ; Apoc. iv. 9. The words 
ooour in opposite order, 1 Tim. L 17; 

ίστ<φάν*σας] crownedst as a con- 
queror; 2 Tim. ii. 5. 

8. ιτάκΓα...οντοΟ] Man's sovereignty 
is exercised over a worthy domain. 
This clause completes the view of 
man's eminence in nature, glory, do- 
minion. See Additional Note. 

8 b, 9. The divine fulfilment of 
the promise in the Son of man. The 
promise to man has not however yet 
been realised. It assured to him a 
dominion absolute and universal; and 
as yet he has no such dominion (*. 8 b). 
But the words of the Psalm have re- 
ceived a new fulfilment The Son of 
God has assumed the nature in which 
man was created. In that nature — 
bearing its last sorrows— He has been 
crowned with glory. The fruit of His 
work is universal. In 'the Son of 
man' (Jesus) thou thore is tho assur- 
ance that man's sovereignty shall be 
gained (*. 9). Thus the fact of man's 
obvious failure is contrasted with the 
accomplishment of Christ's work 
which is the potential fulfilment of 
man's destiny (Humiliation, Exalta- 
tion, Redemption). 

»For in t/iat He subjected all 
things unto him, He left nothing 
tJtat is not suited to him. But now 
we see not yet all tilings subjected to 
him. » But we behold Him who hath 
been made a Utile lower than angels, 
even Jesus, because of the suffering 
of death crowned witii glory and 
honour, that by the grace qfOod He 
should taste of death for every man. 

II. 9 ] 



άνυπότακτον. νυν $€ ουπω όρώμ$ν αύτφ τα πάντα ΐποτβ- 
ταγμ^να• 9 τον he ΒρΑχγ τι παρ* irreAorc ^λΑΤτωΜέΝΟΝ βλέπομβν 
Ίησοΰν δια το πάθημα τον θανάτου λ($*Η και τιμή &τ€φΑ- 

8. ίψτψγάρνπ.] The 'for,' which 
is directly connected with the pre- 
ceding clause, points back to e. 5, eo 
that the connexion is: God did not 
subject the future world to angels, 
for He promised man an absolute 
sovereignty which has still to be as- 
sured in that coming order. The nk 
πάντα takes up the πάντα of the 

*w οΊ. . .] but at present, as the world 

αντψ] Le. to man. 

o> top W...] But in spite of the 
obvious fact of man's failure the 
promise has not failed: 100 behold 
Him that hath been made a Utile 
lower than angels, even «Ten»,... 
crowned with glory and honour.... 
The words of the Psalm hare an 
unexpected accomplishment The 
man thus spoken of as little less than 
angels (so great is he) is represented 
by Jesus, the Son of God become 
flesh, and so made little less than 
angels (so full of condescension was 
He), and in that humanity which He 
has taken to Himself crowned with 

Jesus is not the 'man* of the 
Psalmist, but He through whom the 
promise to man has been fulfilled and 
is in fulfilment; while the revelation of 
the complete fulfilment belongs to 
'the world to come.' 

The definite article (rto> & βρ. τ* 
ifX.) does not refer to the Psalm as 
fixing the original meaning of it, but 
to the known personality of Christ in 
whom the promise of the Psalm was 

βραχύ n..^ Yu\g. qui modicoqtiam 
angeli minoratus est....O. L. paulo 
quam angelos minor at urn... Bee v. 7. 

ijXarrttficVoi'] not AarrtteVirra. The 
human nature which Christ assumed 

He still retains. Comp. 0. 18 π4πορΘ*ν. 

βΚίπομίρ] The change of the verb 
from 6ρ*μ*¥ in v. 8 cannot be without 
meaning. BX/trciv apparently ox- 
presses the particular exercise of the 
faculty of sight (comp. John i. 29; 
v. 19 ; ix. 7 ff.), while ooav describes 
a continuous exercise of it (c. xt 27). 
The difference is not marked by the 
Latt (videmus...videmus...). 

*\ησουν) The name comes in em- 
phatically as marking Him who, being 
truly man, fulfilled the conception of 
the Psalmist of 'one made a little 
lowor than angels.' 

The personal name Jesus, which 
always fixes attention on the Lord's 
humanity, occurs frequently in the 
Epistle: iii. 1; vi. 20; vii. 22; x. 19; 
xii 2, 24; xiil. 12 (iv. 14; xiii 20). 
See Additional Note on c. i. 4. 

For the separation of the Name 
(Him that hath been made... even 
Jesus) compare c, iii. 1 ; xii. 2, 24; 
xiii. 20 (pur Lord even Jesus; comp. 
vi. 20; vii. 22); 1 These, ii. 15; iii 13. 

to ro πάθ. του A] Vulg. (Latt) 
propter passionem mortis. The suf- 
fering of death— the endurance of 
the uttermost penalty of sin— was the 
ground of the Lord's exaltation in 
His humanity. Comp. Phil. ii. 9 (Rom. 
viil 17). 

The words are not to be joined 
with ήλαττωμίνορ either in the sense 
(1) that in this lay His humiliation, 
or (2) that this was the aim of His 
humiliation, that death might be pos- 
sible, 'owing to the met that death 
has to be borne by men. 1 The main 
thought of the passage is that man's 
promised supremacy, owing to tho 
fall, could only be gained by sacrifice. 

Stress is laid not Upon the single 
historic fact that the Lord suffered 
death (01Λ το wa&tw A), but on the 



[II. 9 

ncom&on, 07τω9 γάριτι 6eov ύπϊρ παντός γέύσηται θανάτου* 

9 χάμτιι χωρίς. See Additional note. 

nature of the aufferiog itself (&a ro 


έσηφανωμένον] At in the case of 
the Lord's humiliation ao also iu thia 
of Hia exaltation the writer bring• 
out the permanent effect (not σηφα- 
νωθέντα aa έστιφάνωσας in 9. 7). 

όπως...] The particle is not strictly 
oonnected with 4στ*φανωμ*νον alone, 
but refers to all that precedes— to the 
Passion crowned by the Ascension. 
The glory which followed the death 
marked its universal efficacy. Thus 
Christ was made lower than angels 
that He might accomplish this 
complete redemption. The particle, 
which is much less frequent in the 
Epistles than fro, occurs again c. ix. 


Under this aspect the words are 
illustrated by St John's view of the 
Passion as including potentially the 
glorification of Christ (John xiii. 31), 
a double 'lifting up' (xii. 32). So 
Gfieumenius here says boldly σοζαν col 
τιμήν τον σταυρέ «toXcZ. 

χάριτι θβου] Comp. ι John iv. 10; 
John ill 17 ; Rom. v. 8. Chrysostom : 
bUa τήν X*pw row θβου την fir ήμας 
ταύτα π4πον6\ν. For the anarthrous 
form (aa contrasted with ή χάρις του 
$*ov xiL 1 5), 'by grace, and that grace 
of Him Whose Nature is the pledge 
of its efficacy/ see c. iii. 4 note. 
Comp. Lk. ii. 40; 1 Cor. xv. 10; 
2 Cor. i. 12. 

The reading χωρίς toov is capable 
of being explained in several ways. 

(1) Christ died 'apart from Ilia 
divinity. 1 His divine Nature had no 
share in His death. 

(2) Christ died "apart from God/ 
being loft by God, and fooling the 
completeness of the separation as tho 
penalty of sin. Comp. Matt xxvii. 


(3) Christ died for all, God only 
excepted. Compare 1 Cor. xv. 27. 

(4) Christ died to gain all, to 
bring all under His powor, God ouly 

But all these thoughts seem to bo 
foreign to the context, while it is 
natural to bring out the greatuoss of 
God's grace in fulfilling His original 
counsel of love in spite of man's sin. 
The reference to ' the grace of God ' 
seems to be the necessary starting 
point of the argument in the next 
section; For it became... 

υπέρ παντός] Vulg. pro omnibus. 
3yr. for every man. Comp. Mark 
ix. 49; Luke xvL 16. The singular 
points to the effect of Christ's work on 
the last element of personality. Christ 
tasted doath not only for all but for 
each. The thought throughout the 
passage (0. 16) is directed to persuual 
objects; and iu such a oonnoxion the 
phrase could hardly mean 'for every- 
thing 1 (neut.y This thought however 
is included in the masculine. Creation 
is redeemed in man (Rom. viiL 19 flty 
Comp. 9. 1 1 έξ ένας. 

The notes of the Greek ooinmen- 
tators are of considerable interest 

OaiOUf : μέγας iorut άρχι*ρ*υς ουχ 
υπέρ ανθρώπων μανό* άλλα και παντός 
λογικού... καϊ γαρ άτοπον υπέρ άνθρω- 
πίνων μέν αντον φάσκ«ιν αμαρτημάτων 
γίγινσθοΛ, θανάτου, οόκέτι &1 «αϊ νπίρ 
άλλον τίνος πάρα τλτ ίνθρωπον έν άμαρ- 
τημασι γ*γ§ννημένον 9 οίον υπέρ ίστρων 
(Job χχν. 5) (/" Job- Tom. i. § 40), 

ThKODOEKT; to μίντοι πάθος υπέρ 
απάντων ϋπίμ*ι**. πάντα γαρ οσα 
κτίστη* 1χ*ι την φνσιν ταύτης έ&€ΐτο 
της θ*ραπ*1ας. . .He then refers to Rom. 
via 19 ff., and supposes that the 
angels will be gladdened by man's 
salvatiou; ώτ«μ απάντων τοίνυν το 
σωτήρων ύπίμ<ι»< πάθος* μονή γαρ ή 
θ*1α φύσις της έντ<υθιν γινομένης θ*ρα• 
π*ίας άνινο^ης (ad loc.). 

CHBT80STOM : ονχΐ [υπέρ] των πισ- 
τών μόνον, άλλα καϊ της οίκουμένης 


II. 9] 



άπόσητ αύτοψ μ*ν yap vtrip πάντων 
awitamv. Horn, if. 2. 

(ECUMBH ΠΤ8 : ου μόνον Mp ανθρώ- 
πων ά\\α κβΑ ύπιρ των An» συνάμιων 
άπίΰανψν, ίνα λνσρ rb μισότνχον [μβσό- 
τοίχο*] τον φραγμού κάί ivdojf τα κάτω 
rotr αν* (Bph. iL 14). 

Comp. ι John ii. a. 

top) not in place of bnt in behalf 
of. Comp. v. 1 ; vi. 20; vii. 25 ; ix. 24. 

Tcucn^m Amirov] Comp. Matt xvi. 
28; John yili. 52 note. Arist -4/w/. 
p. no,L 19. 

The phrase, which is not found in 
the Old Testament, expresses not only 
the fact of death, but the conscious 
experience, the tasting the bitterness, 
of death. Man, as ho is, cannot feel 
the full significance of death, the 
consequence of sin, though ho is sub- 
ject to the fear of it (r. 15); but 
Christ, in His sinlessness, perfectly 
realised its awfalness. In this fact 
lies the immeasurable difference be- 
tween the death of Christ, simply as 
death, and that of the holiest martyr. 
Chrysostom (Theodorct, Primasius) 
loss rightly understands the phrase of 
the brief duration of Christ's ex- 
perience of donth : Non dixit Apo- 
stolus '8ubjacuit morti,' sed proprie 
gusiarU mortem, per quod volocitatem 
resurrectionis voluit ostondere (Pri- 

Chrysostom (Horn. It. 2) likens 
Christ to the physician who, to en- 
courage his patients, tastes that which 
is prepared for them. 

(2) Man' 9 destiny, owing to the 
intrusion of sin, could only be ful- 
filled through suffering, made possible 
for Christ and effective for man 
through the Incarnation (10 — 18). 

The thought of death, and the fact 
of Christ's death, lead the apostle to 
derelope more in detail the conditions 
under which man's destiny and God's 
promise were fulfilled in spite of sin. 
The reality of the connexion between 
the Son and the sons is first traced 
back to their common source and 
shewn to be recognised in tho records 

of the Old Testament (10—13). This 
connexion was completed by the In- 
carnation with a twofold object, to 
overcome the prince of death, and to 
establish man's freedom ( 1 4, 1 5). And 
such a completion was necessary from 
the sphere, the scope, the application 
of Christ's work (16—18). 

The course of thought will appear 
most plainly if it is sot in a tabular 
form : 

Sovereignty for man fallen was won 
through suffering (10—18), 

(1) The Son and the sons (10— 13). 
The connexion lies in a common 

source (ι 1 a). 

This is shewn in the Old Testa- 

The suffering King (12), 
The repre se ntative Prophet( 13). 

(2) The connexion of the Son and the 
sons completed by the Incarnation 

(14, ΐ5λ 
with a twofold object : 
To overcome the prince of death 

(14 b), 
To establish man's freedom (15). 

(3) The Incarnation necessary (16— 
18), from 

Thesphereof Christ's work (16), 

The scope of Christ's work (17); 

The application of Christ's work 


ίο— 13. The Son and the sons. 

The difficulties which at first sight 

beset the conception of a suffering 

Messiah vanish upon closer thought 

For when we consider what is the 

relation between the Son of man and 

men— the Son and the sons— what 

man's condition is, and how he can 

be redeemed only through divine 

fellowship, we ourselves can discern 

the 'fitness' of the divine method of 

redemption. So far therefore from 

the Death of Christ being an objection 

to His claims, it really fails in with 

what deeper reflection suggests. 

The connexion of the Son and the 
sons is first referred to their common 
source (e. 1 1 c £ ivm) and tlion shown 
to be recognised in the divine dealings 



[II. 10 

lo,, Gwpeirev yap αντώ, δι δν τα πάντα και δΓ ου τα 
πάντα, πολλούς υιούς eh δόζαμ ayayovra τον άρχηγον 

with representative men under the 
Old Covenant» the suffering king, the 
typical prophet ( 1 2, 1 3). 

There U throughout the section a 
reference to the Jewish expectation 
that Messiah should * abide for ever' 
(John ziL 34). 

"For it became Him, for Whom 
are all things and through Whom 
are all things, in bringing many 
•one unto glory, to make tlie author 
(captain) of their salvation perfect 
through sufferings. "For both He 
that sancti/UUh and they that are 
sanct\/ied are all of One; for which 
cause He ie not ashamed to call 
them brethren, "saying 

I will declare Thy Name to my 

In the midst of the congregation 
toilll ting Thy praise. 

"And again: I trill put my trust 
in Him. And again : Behold, I and 
the children which Oodgave me. 

ία htf*v€P yap...] For it became 
...'Yes,' the apostle seems to say, 
'"taste of death by the grace of God," 
for we, with our poor powers, can say 
that in this there is supreme fitness.' 
The suffering of Christ in the fulfil- 
ment of His work corresponds with 
the truest conception which man can 
form of the Divine Nature. 

fepifl-f j>] Latt decebat. Comp. c. 
vil 26; Matt iii. 15. The word as 
appliod to Qod appears porhaps start- 
ling but it is not unfrequont in l'hilo, 
ejg. Leg. Alleg. i. 15 (l 53 M.). The 
standard lies in what man (made in 
the image of Qod) can recognise as 
conformable to the divine attributes. 
For man still has a power of moral 
judgment which can help him to the 
interpretation of the action of Qod, 
and also of his own need (c. vil 26). 

The 'fitness' in this case lies in 
the condition of man. His life is 
attended by inevitable sorrows; or, 

to regard the met in another light, 
suffering is a necessary part of his 
discipline as well as a necessary con- 
sequence of his state. It was ' fitting' 
then, in our language, that Qod should 
perfect Christ the 'One' Son by that 
suffering through which the 'many 
sons' are trained (xii. 5 ft) because 
He, in His infinite love, took humanity 
to Himself. In Christ we can see the 
divine end of suffering: suffering con- 
summated in glory. Chrysostom: 
ορψς tq vafolr *a«£f ούκ fori* ίγκατα- 

This argument from 'fitness' is 
distinct from that of logical necessity 
(foe v. 1), and of obligation from a 
position which has been assumed 
(«tyfftXc ν. 17X 

oV &»...&ν oZ...] This description 
of Qod, as being the final Cause and 
the efficient Cause of all things, takes 
the placeof the simplo title because the 
fitness of Christ's perfection through 
suffering appears from the considera- 
tion of the divine end and method of 

ftt' «Γ) Compare Rom. xL 36; 1 Cor. 
i. 9 (GaL iv. 7 d*i Otov ; Rom. vl 4 &Λ 
rijr &έ£ιρ τον πατρός). 

The phrase is commonly used of 
tho work of the Son: c. i. 2; 1 Cor. 
viii. 6; OoL i 16; (1 John iv. 9); 
John i. 3, 10; but it cannot be referred 
tollim here, though Athanasiusso usos 
tho whole clause (Ep. ad Bpisc. JRg. 
et Lyb. § 15); and Chrysostom rightly 
calls attention to this application of 6V 
oZ to the Father as shewing that the 
characteristic use is no derogation 
from tho divine nature of tho Son: 
ουκ &> τούτο Ινοίησ*» Λ γ* Ikarrwrtmt 
ή* καί τψ υΐψ pfoow προσήκον (ad loc.). 

πολλούς vlovc] Christ has been 
spoken of as ' the Son.' Men now are 
made to share His title (comp. xiL 5). 
Chrysostom : κα\ αντο* wttr col ήμ€Ϊς 
viol• αλλ* 6 μ*ν σώ(* ι ήμ*ϊν b* σωζομΜ&α. 

II. u] 



τη* σωτηρίας αυτών δια παθημάτων τβλειώσαι. "ο τ€ 
yap άγιάζων και οι αγιαζόμενοι 4ξ ενός πάντβν hi ην 

The use of ιτολλσντ brings no limi- 
tation to Uie eoope of Christ's work 
(oomp. ix. 28) which has just boon 
described in its universal aspect (Mp 
παντός). It simply emphasises the 
truth that the pattern of Christ's 
Life was in this aspect of wide appli- 
cation. Comp, Matt. xx. 28. 

tit ho(aw άγαγόττα...τι\Μωσαι) Ο. L. 
multis βΙΟ$ in gloriam adduotii, 
Vnlg. gut multot filio$ in gloriam 
adduxeraL These Latin renderings 
suggest a wrong sense. Though the 
objects Of άγαγορτα and rcXr ιέσαι are 
difforont the two acts which they 
describe are regarded as synchronous, 
or rather as absolute without reference 
to the succession of time. The per- 
fecting of Christ included the triumph 
of those who are eon* in Him. At 
tho same timo the work of God and 
the work of Christ are set side by side. 
God ( brings' (αγαγιιν) the many sons 
and Christ is their «leader ' {αρχηγός). 

The order, no loss than the stress 
which is laid on the completed work 
of Christ, is fatal to the proposed con- 
nexion of άγαγόττα with Christ, who 
had 'brought many sons to glory' 
during His ministry, e?en if Christians, 
who are called His ' brethren ' (0. 1 1\ 
could in this place be spoken of as 
His 'sons' (in v. 13 the case is dif- 
foront). And so again the uso of 
δό£α is decisivo against tlie idoa that 
God is spoken of as ' having brought 
many sons to glory ' in earlior times. 

For a similar combination of aorists 
see Matt xxvi. 44 ; xxviii 19 (βαπτί- 
σορτ**); Acts xxiii 35 («cXfarar); 
Rom. ir. 20 ; (Rph. ▼. 26) ; Col. ii. 13 ; 
1 Tim. i. 12; dx. 12. 

τον αρχηγό* της σ*τ.] Th$ author 
(or captain) of their salvation, 0. L. 
ducem e. principem (Vulg. auetorem 
$aluti$). Neither word gives the ful- 
ness of sense. The Αρχηγό* himself 
first takes part in that which he 

W. H. f 

establishes. Comp. xii. 2 ; Acts iii. 
15 ; ▼. 31 ; Mte. i 13 (lxx.); ι Mace. 
is. 61. Comp. Iron. ti. 22• 4 prior 
omnium et prsocodens omnos. 

The word, which is common in the 
lxx., occurs in Clem. R. 1 Cor. c. xiv. 
dpjt. fifXovr, C li. άρχ. της στάση•*, 
and often elsewhere ; 64. 2 Clem. xx. 
5 ο σ. ηά αρχηγοί της Αφθαρσίας \ Jos. 
Β. J. iv. 5• 2 β αρχηγέ mil ήγ*μ£ρ της 
Μα? σντηρίαί ; Ερ. Vienn. 17 (Euseb. 
Η. R ν. ι\ See also classical ex- 
amples in Wetstein on c. xii 2. Com- 
pare aXrtot c τ. 9. 

δω παθ. rAf ιέσαι] Latt per pa$- 
sionem contummar*. For eontum- 
mare some Fathers read and explain 
contummari (Ruff. SeduL Vigil.)t 

The conception of τ*λ*Μ#σαι is that 
of bringing Christ to tho full moral 
perfection of His humanity (cf. Luke 
xiii. 32), which carries with it the 
completeness of power and dignity. 
Comp. c x. 1, 14; xi. 40; xii. 23 ; Phil 
iii 12 (0. 6). 

This ' perfection ' was not reached 
till after Death : v. 9 ; τϋ. 28. It lay, 
indeed, in part in the triumph over 
death by the Resurrection. Comp. 
Cyril Alex. ap. Cram. Oat. pp. 396, 399. 

The sense of 'bringing to His 
highest honour/ or 'to the close of 
His earthly destiny/ is far too narrow. 
800 Additional Note. 

δια. παθήματα**] See c. xlii. 12 note. 

Theodoret supposes that 'the Word' 
perfected tho human nature, the 
source of our salvation : τον Btov ΧΑγον 
foVc^cr Ijv Ανίλαβιν TtXiiaWavra φύσιν. 
Αρχηγός της ήμττίρας σωτηρίας ή Χηφ- 
θιϊσα φύσις. 

1 1 — 13. The title of 'sons 1 can be 
rightly applied to Christians as well as 
to Christ/or, though indifferent senses, 
they depend on ©no Father (0. 11); 
and this fact is recognised in the Scrip- 
tures of the old Covenant (09. 12, 13). 

II. S rt γαρ άγώζων] The disci- 



airlav ουκ έτταίσχύνβται ΑΔελφο^ο αυτού* κα\€Ϊμ 9 %% \έγων 

1 1 αύτοχη AS. Μ, syrr. 

plino through which Ohrist roachod 
perfection is that through which lie 
brings Hie people• That which in 
appointed for them He alio accept• 
(John xvii. 19), for both He and they 
are of One Father. 

The present participle• (Αγιάζ*», 
άγιαζόμ*™) mark the continuous, per- 
sonal application of Ohrist'• work. 
Oomp. John xvii. 17 ff For άγιαζα 
seeaix. 13 note. 

ol άγιαζόμ***] Vulg. qui ionctifi- 
cantur. The thought is of the con- 
tinual process at once in the individual 
soul and in the whole body of the 
Church (c. x. 14). 

Oomp. Χ. ΙΟ (^γιασ/ΜΜκ), 14 ί **& 
^(Uaaytu^y Christians are* holy' 
('saints'): cvi. 10; xiiL 24» (***• 0> 
and the end of their discipline is 
that they may 'partake in the holi- 
ness of Qod' (c. xil 10). That which 
is true ideally has to be realised ac- 

4ξ Ms] qf One, i.a Qod. Ooinp. 
Ex. xxxi. 13 • * <**• L 30 (viii. 6 
quoted by Ohrya); Lk. Hi. 38 ™* 
' Αδάμ, row dfou. 

The reference to Adam or to Abra- 
ham ie partly inadequate and partly 

inurcr] The writer regards the 
whole company of Ohrist and His 
people as forming one body, and does 
not distinguish specially the two con- 
stituent parts {άμφ4τ€ροι). 

Some think that the statement in 
respect of Ohrist is to be confined to 
His Humanity. Othera extend it to 
His whole Person. In the latter 
case, Theodorot (and other Greek 
Fathers) adds that wo must romombor 
that ο §Up fore φύκι υΙοβ focU W 
χάριτι (QScum. ο pi* ywjawf ήμ•ϊί Of 

It will appear that much is lost by 
any precise limitation of the words. 
The Lord both as Son of God and as 

Son of Man can bo spoken of as «« 
Πατρός, and so men also both in their 
creation and in their re-creation. At 
the same time the language used 

(<J αγιάζω* «ol of άγιαζόμι**) naturally 
fixes attention on Ohrist and Chris- 
tians in relation to the work of re- 
demption and sanctification wrought 
out on earth. 

6V Ijv Mew] for which cauee, that 
is, because they spring from Uie same 
source, though in different ways. 
Both in their being aud in the con- 
summation of their being the Son 
and the sons are Of One.' For the 
phrase see 2 Tim. i. 6, 12; Tit i. 13; 
(Luko viii. 47 ; Acts xxiii 28). 

With this specific form of tlio 
'subjective' reason (oomp. 0. v. 3) 
compare tho gonoral form (&£ iii. 
7, 10 Ac.), and the general form of 
the 'objective 1 grouud (Wtr v. 17 

ούκ ίπαισχ....κο\<Ϊ¥] He u not o- 
ihanud to ecitf (Vulg.non confunditur 
...vocare...) in spite of the Fall, and of 
the essential difference of the sonship 
of men from His own Sonship. Oomp. 
cxi 16. 
<&λφον*] Coinp. Rom. viii. 29. 
Obristians are • brethren ' of Ohrist 
(John xx. 17 ; Matt xxviil 10) and 
yet children (v. 13; John xiii. 33 

12, 13. The quotatious in tliese 
verses develope the main idea of the 
section, that of Ohrist fulfilling the 
destiny of men through suffering, by 
recalling typical utterances of repre- 
sentative men: (1) of the suffering, 
innocent king ; (2) of tho representa- 
tive prophet 

The ground of the application in 
the first case lies in the fact that the 
language used goes beyond the actual 
experience of David, or of any rightr 
ecus sufferer. 
In the second case the prophet 

". 13] 



ΆπΑΓΓ€λώ Td iuoui coy to?c ^Αβλφοιε μου, 

In Μ&φ IkkAhciac ymnhco cc 
"καί πάΚιν 

Έγο> ecoMAi ncnoiOcbc «π Αγτφ• 
ιται πάλιν 

"IaoV έτώ και τί ttajAia £ moi ΙλωκβΝ ό Oedc. 

occupies a typical position at a critical 
period of national history. 

Ruler and prophet both identify 
themselves with their people The 
one applies to thorn the express term 
'brethren*: the other takes his place 
among thorn as symbolising their true 

12. Tho quotation is taken from 
Pa xxH. 22 and agrees with the lxx. 
except by the substitution of άπαγ- 
γ«λώ for &ηγησομαι. 

The Psalm itself, which probably 
dates from the time of David's perse- 
cution by 8aul, describee the course 
by which • tho Anointed of tho Lord ' 
made his way to tho throne, or more 
generally tho establishment of the 
righteous kingdom of God through 
suffering. In ee. 2 1 ff. sorrow is turned 
into joy, and the words of the Psalmist 
become a kind of Oospol. Honco tho 
phrase quoted horo has a poculiar 
force. Tho typical king and tho true 
King attain their sovereignty under 
the same conditions, and both alike 
in their triumph recognise their kin- 
ship with the people whom they raise 
(roit <iof λφοίϊ). 

The Psalm is quoted not unfre- 
qnently: Matt xxvii. 46; Mk. xv. 
34 (t. 1); Matt xxvii. 39, 43 (w>. 7, 
8); Matt xxvii. 35 ; John xix. 24 (v. 
18) ; comp. c. v. 7 (e. 24). 

τ * &ρομά σου] I wiU declare Thy 
Name, for Thou hast proved to be 
what I have called Thee, 'my hope 
and my fortress, my castio and de- 
liverer, my defender.. .who snbdueth 
my people under ma' These many 
titles are summed up in the revelation 
of the Name of the Father : nomen 

town quod est Pater, ut cognoscant 
Te Patron, qui eos paterno affectu ad 
hiereditatem supemn beatitudinis ut 
filios vocas (Horv.). 

iw μ*σψ ΐκκλησίατ] in the midti 0/ 
the congregation when the people are 
assembled to exercise their privilege 
as citizens of the divine common- 

1 3. The thought of ' brotherhood ' 
is extended in the two following quo- 
tations and placed in its essential 
connexion with the thoughts of 'father- 
hood 9 and 'sonship.' Brothers are 
supported by the trust in which they 
repose on one above them and by the 
love which meets the trust 

*<il πάλιν *Εγι• ΐσομαι...] Words 
nearly identical (s-firotAlr Ισομαι i* 
αντψ) occur in the lxx. in la viii. 17 ; 
xii. 2 ; 2 Sam. xxii. 3. The reference 
is certainly, as it Appears, to la viii. 
17, whore tho words immediately pre- 
cede the following quotation. The 
two sentences of Isaiah are separated 
because they represent two aspects 
of the typical prophet in his relation 
to Christ In the first the prophet 
declares his personal faith on God in 
tho midst of judgments. In the 
second he stands forth with his 
children as representing 'the remnant,' 
the seed of the Church, in Israel. 
The representative of God rests in 
his heavenly Father, and be is not 
alone : his children are already with 
him to continue tho divine rela- 

«al wik» •ΐσοδ iy•*...] Isaiah with 
his children were 'signs' to the un- 
believing people. In them was seen 
the pledge of the fulfilment of God's 




[Π. Η 

%4 iw€i οίν τα παίδια κβκοινώνηκεν αίματος και σαρκός, και 
αυτός παραπλήσιων μετέσχεν των αυτών, ίνα hia του 

14 βΧμ. καΙ 9. HABODjMj (vg) §yr hi me: σα /wr. «ai af/i. Γ (Tg) eyr Tg. 
ourfe + ταΟημάτω* D t * . 


purpose•. Thus, the prophet was a 
sign of Christ What ho hidicatod 
Cliriet completely fulfilled ; for under 
this aspect Christ is the * father 1 no 
less than the ' brother' of His people. 
The words are not referred directly 
to Christ by a misunderstanding of 
the lxx. 

The emphatic iyti in both cases is 
to bo noticed. Oouip. L 5 ; v. 5 ; x. 30; 
xii. 26. 

«αϊ vakip] Contiguous quotations 
from Deut xxxii. 35 f. arc scpamtod 
by καΐ trak%¥ in c. χ. 3a 

1 μοί IdcMuy] which God gave me 
in the crisis of national suffering as 
a pledge of hope. The prophet looks 
back on the moment wheu light broke 
through the darkness. 

14, 15. The object of the Incarna- 
tion (the completed fellowship of the 
Son with the sons). The full con- 
nexion of ( the Son 9 and 'the sons' 
was realised in the Incarnation with 
a twofold object : 

(1) To overcome the prince of 
death (v. 14), and 

(2) To establish man's freedom, 
destroyed by the fear of death (v. 1 5). 

That which has been shewn before 
to be 'fitting' (10—13) is now re- 
vealed in its inner relation to man's 
redemption Christ assumod mortality 
that He might by dying conquer the 
prince of death and set man free 
from his tyranny. 

Compare Athanaa de deer. Syn. 
Nic § 14; c. Apollin. ii. 8; Greg. 
Nyss. c. JBunom. viii. p. 797 Migne. 

In this paragraph man is regarded 
in his nature, while in the next (16 — 
18) he is regarded in his life. 

l * Since therefore t/te children are 
sliarers in blood and flesh, He also 
Himself in like manner partook of 
the same, thai through death He 

might (may) bring to nought him 
that hail (hath) the power if death, 
that is the devil, ^and might (may) 
deliver all them, who through fear of 
death were all their lifetime subject 
to bondage. 

14. twtlol*...] Since therefore... 
Christ conuects Himself with 'the 
children whom God had given Him.* 
Thcso childrou woro men. To com• 
plote His fellowship with them there- 
for© it was uooessary that He should 
assume thoir unturo uuder its present 
conditions (αίμα κα\ σάρζ). 

For cW see α v. 1 1 note. 

rh παιδία] Tho phrase is taken up 
from the quotation just mada Isaiah 
and his children foreshadowed Christ 
and His childron. 

κ*κοινιάνηκ€¥ μ*τίσχ9¥ ] are 

sharers in... He partook of... Vulg. 
communicaverunt (pueri) . . .partici- 
pant... O. L. participes sunt...parti- 
ceps foetus. The 8yr. makes no dif- 
ference between the words which 
describe the participation in humanity 
on the part of inou and of tho Son 
of man. Yet they present different 
ideas. Kc «ouwipcf marks the common 
nature ever shared among men as 
long as the race lasts: μπίσχ*» ex- 
presses the uuique fact of tho Incar- 
nation us a voluntary accoptanoo of 
humanity. And uudor the aspoct of 
humiliation and trausitoriuess (αίμα 
«col σαρξ) this was past (μπίσχ**). 

For a similar contrast of touses see 
1 Cor. xv. 4 ; 1 John L 1 ; CoL i. 16 ; 
John xx. 23, 29 ; and for the difference 
between Koumytw and μιτίχΐί* see 
1 Cor. x. 17—21; 2 Cor. vi. 14; Prov. 
i. 11, 18. Comp. 0. iii. 1. 

αϊμ. καί σ.] The same ordor occurs 
in Eph. vi 12. Stress is laid on that 
element which is the symbol of life as 
subject to corruption (contrast Luke 

II. ι 5 ] 



θανάτου κατάργηση τον το κράτο* άγοντα του θανάτου, 
τοΰτ €<ττι τον διάβολο ν, * 5 και άτταΚΚαζη τούτους, ίσοι 

Θανάτου (ι°) + θά*ατορ D s *. 

xxiv. 39)• The common order (σαρξ 
κ<ά αίμα) is undisturbed in Matt xvi. 
17; 1 Cor. xv. 50; Gal. i. 16. 

παραπλησίω*] Vnlg. similiter (which 
is also need for ομοίως c. ix. 21). The 
word occurs here only in the Ν. T. (cf. 
PhiL ii. 27); and it is not found in 
the lxx. Ό/ιού•» seems to express 
conformity to a common type : πάρα- 
πλησίως the direct comparison be- 
tween the two objects. In ομοίως the 
resemblance is qualitative (similiter) : 
in παραπλησίως both qualitative and 
quantitative (ματ iter). The two words 
are not «infrequently joined together : 
e.g. Dem. OL iii. 27 (p. 56 a). The 
Fathers insist on tho word as marking 
the reality of tho Lord's manhood: 
σφαίρα dc άναγκαίως καί το παραπλησίως 
τίθακιν ίνα rrjv της φαντασίας οΉλίγξη 
συκοφαντία* (Theod.) ; ου φαντασία 
ovtotUo*tak\ y d\r)u*[a(G\\rjs.). Comp. 
Phil, ii. 7 lv ομοιωματι ανθρώπων ycro- 
μ« ror. Rom. VUi. 3 lv ομοιωματι σαρκός 

μπίσχιν] Contrast νϋ. 13 φυλής 
Μρας μ*τ<σχηκ*ν. The connexion with 
hnmanity remains : the connexion 
with humanity under the condition 
of transitoriness (αίμα) was historical 

diA tow θανάτου] by death, not by 
If is death, though this application is 
necessarily included. Death that is 
truly death (1 John iii. 14), which 
was the utmost effect of Satan's power, 
became the instrument of his defeat: 
non qusBsivit alia arma quibus pug- 
naret contra mortis auctorem, nisi 
ipsam mortem (Herv.). Cliristbythe 
offering of Himself (e. ix. 1 5, 28) made 
a perfect atonement for sin and so 
brought to nought the power of the 
devil. Comp. John xti. 31 ; Col. ii. 15. 

It is not said here that he 'brought 
to nought death' (yet see 2 Tim. i. 
to). That end in the full sense is 

15 dff -αλλ.: άτοκαταΧΚάξν A. 

still to como (1 Cor. xv. 26); and it is 
reached by the power of the life of 
Christ (1 Cor. xv. 54 ft). 

κατάργηση] The word is found in 
the Ν. T. elsewhere only in St Paul 
(twenty-five times and in each group 
of his epistles) and in Luke xiil 7. 
Comp. 2 Tim. i. 10; 1 Cor. xv. 26; 
Barn. v. 6). 

Chrysost Ινταυθα το θαυμαστον Μ' 
κνυσιν, on οΥ ο£ Ικράτησςν ο διάβολος 
Ota τούτου ηττηθη» 

τον το κρ. Ιχ. τ. A] Latt qui 
habebatmortUimperium. The phrase 
may mean that had or that hath. In 
one sense the power is past : in another 
it continues. Comp. Wisd. ii 24. 

Tho devil, as the author of sin, has 
the power over death its consequence 
(Rom. v. 12X not as though he oould 
inflict it at his pleasure; but death 
is his realm: he makes it subservient 
to his end. Comp. John viii. 44 ; 1 
John iii. 12; John xvi. 11 ; xiv. 30 
(prince of the world). Death as death 
is no part of the divine order. 

(Ecuni. πως άρχίΐ θανάτου} ori της 
αμαρτίας α\ρχων Ιξ $ς 6 θάνατος, καί του 
θανάτου 5ρχ*«, ήγουν κράτος θανάτου ή 

τον διάβολον] The title is found in 
St Paul only in Bpb, and Past Epp. 
The title ο Σατανάς is not found in 
this Epistlo. 

15. Tho overthrow of the devil 
involved the deliverance of men from 
his power. 

άταλλάέβ] Latt liberaret. The word 
is need absolutely ('set free'), and is 
not to be connected with ftovXc far. 

τούτους όσοι...] all men who had, 
as we see, come to a perception of 
their position as men. The unusual 
phrase vividly presents the picture of 
human misery as realised by the 
readers of the Epistle. 



[II. 16 

φόβω θανάτου δια παντός τον ζφν ένοχοι ήσαν iovKeias. 
16 ού yap δη που αγγέλων επιλαμβάνεται, άλλα σπίρ^ 

λα «rajror row Qv] Ο. L• temper 
vivendo. Valg. per totam vitam. 
The verbal phrase expresses the 
activity of life and not only the ab- 
stract idea of life. 

?j»x<m dwktiat] Vnlg. obnossii ser- 
pituti. Oomp. Mk. xiv. 64. This 
bondage was to the fear of death. 
To death itself men are still subject, 
but Christ has removed its terrors. 
Comp. Rom. viii. 15, 21. This is the 
only place In the Epistle in which the 
familiar image of bondage (oo&Xor, 
δυνλο», AovXc v«, dovktla) is used. 

In considering the Scriptural view 
of death it is important to keep the 
idea of a transition to a new form 
of being distinct from that of the 
circumstances under which the tran- 
sition actually takes place. Hie 
passage from one form of life to 
another, which is involvod in the 
essential transitorinoss of man's con- 
stitution, might have been joyful As 
it is death brings to our apprehension 
the sense of an unnatural break in 
personal being, and of separation 
from God. This pain comes from sin. 
The Transfiguration is a revelation of 
the passage of sinless humanity to the 
spiritual order. 

16—18. 77* necessity of the In- 
carnation. The Incarnation is further 
shewn to be necessary from the con- 
sideration of 

(1) The sphere of Christ's work, 
man (v. 16) ; 

(2) The scope of Christ's work, 
the redemption of fallen man (9. 17); 
and (3) The application of Christ's 
work to individual men in the con- 
flict of life (*. 18). 

"For He doth not, ae we know, 
take hold of angele, but He taketh 
hold of Abraham 9 • eeed. " Where- 
fore he was bound in all things to 
be made tike unto Hie brethren that 
He might (may) be a merciful and 

faithful high-priest in the things that 
pertain to God, to make propitiation 
for the sins of the people. «• For 
wherein He Himself hath suffered 
being tempted, He ie able to succour 
them that are tempted. 

16. The uecessity of the Incarna- 
tion follows from a consideration of 
the sphere of Christ's work. His 
purpose is, as is confessedly admitted, 
to assist men and not primarily other 
beings, as angels, though in fact 
they are helped through men. He 
lays hold of 'a faithful seed' to 
support and guide thorn to the end 
which He has Himself reached. 

ov γαρ frf vov...] O. L. Nee enitn 
statim... Vulg. nusquam enim,.. The 
yap gives the explanation of the end of 
the Incarnatiou which has boeu stated 
in e. 14 b. The combination day που 
(not In lxx.) is found here ouly in the 
N. T. It implies that the statement 
made is a familiar truth: 'For lie 
doth not» as we well know...* The 
Versions mil to give the sense; and 
Primasiue explains the nusquam of 
the Vulgate: id est nullo loco, neque 
in caelo neque in terra, augelicam 
naturam assumpsit 

αηΧαμβά^ται] The verb αηλαμ- 
βάησΰαι in the middle form 1ms the 
general sense of laying hold of with 
the gen. of that which is taken hold 
of: Matt xiv. 31 ; Luke ix. 47; Acts 
xxi. 30, &c. 

In a particular case this may be 
with the additional notion of 'helping' 
suggested by theooutoxt : Jor. xxxviii. 
(xxxi Hebr.) 32 (quoted α viii. 9X 

Honoe tho verb is used absolutely 
in the souse of 'helping 1 : Bcclus. iv. 
II ή σοφία νΙούς iavrjj άιτύψωσ* και 
ΙνιΧαμβάντται των ζητονντων αντην. 

Is. xlL 8, 9 (R• V.X Comp. Const. 
Apost. vii. 38, I iv rait ήμίραις ημ*ν 
ά*τ*λάβον ήμ*» bu\ του μν/αΚου σον 
άρχίίοίως 'ίησον Χρίστου, 

II. id] 



The versions generally give the β 
of 'take hold of in the sense of 
appropriating : Syr. he took not from 
angd$ (-So «&OQJ)... t.«. he did not 
appropriate their nature; 0. L. ad- 
mmptit, or $ii9C€j>U. Vulg. appr* 

This sense is given, I believe, uni- 
formly by the Fathers both Greek and 
Latin who understand the phrase of 
the fact and not of the purpose of the 
Incarnation : 

rl fWv £ φησιν; ούκ όγγίΚου φύσιν 
Ανι&ίζατΌ αλλ* άϊβρωπον (Chrys.), 

art ιλ) apUptiwttop ijr ο άνίΚαβί dirt 
|icv row irrf&wc το τών Mpmwmw afr/eW«f 
χρΑκ , dirt Μ τ$* του ire «wtfurof σβΐματοτ 
amrrdVcttf Ti}r okf/ar dVcoVi^c owe- 
lty (Theodoret). 

ovic άγγίλωρ φύσεως Μράξατο oM 
MkafUv dXV άν6ρ*πΙρη* ((Kcum.). 

But at the same time they recog- 
nise a secondary thought of 'laying 
hold of that which endeavours to 

chro μβταφορα* rmv btmxoyrvv rovf 
Λνοστριφομίρονς avrovt κα\ πάντα 
wowivrmv Jort καταΧαβιΙν φινγοντας 
κα\ <ιη\αβ4σ6αι όποπηΜντω* (Chry- 


re ιπι\αμβάν*ΤΜ &η\οί ori ijfwtr ply 
ovror 4φ*νγομ*¥ of aVdptnrot, ό Μ 
Xpurror M««f «αϊ &«««? ϊφΰησι «el 
tfjoWfir fVfXo/3fro ((Kcum.). 

Quaro dixit apprchendit, quod 
porUnot ad ftigientetii ? Quia nos 
quasi recedentes a ae et longe fugientes 
insocntus apprehotidit (Primasius). 

This sense however is inconsistent 
with the >*V, and the plural dyytXer, 
and would bo a mere repotiUon of 
v. 14 a; while the sense 'taketh hold 
of to help,' is both more in accordance 
with the usage of the word and falls 
in perfectly with the argument This 
being so, it is remarkable that this 
interpretation was not given by any 
one, as far as I know, before Ohatillon 
in his Latin Version; and it then 
called out the severe condemnation 
of Besa: u ...exsecranda...est Castel- 
lionis audacia qui iwtkapfiawrrm con- 

vortit opitidatur" (ad he.). But, in 
spite of these hard words, this sense 
soon came to be adopted universally. 
The present tense brings out the 
continuous efficacy of the help (*. 18, 

V. II όάγώζων). 

σπίρματοί 'Αβραάμ] Christ took 
hold of a sstd of Abraham, that is a 
true seed, those who are children of 
faith, and not of 'the seed of Abraham,' 
the race descended from the patriarch. 
Oomp. Lk. i. 55; John viii 33, 37; 
OaL iii. 16, 29; Rom. ix. 7 ff.; xi. 
1; 2 Oor. xi 22 (compare W«ra 'A* 
Matt Hi 9 Β Lk. iii. 8; John viii 
39; vlo\ 'A. Gal. iii 7; Acts xiii 26). 
The absence of the article shews that 
a character and not a concrete people 
('the Jews') is described. At the 
same time the phrase marks both the 
breadth and the particularity of the 
divine promise which was fulfilled by 
Christ Those of whom Christ takes 
hold have a spiritual character (faith), 
and they find their spiritual ancestor 
in one who answered a personal call 
(Abraham). Sive igitur de Jud&is, 
sive de gentibus fideles, $*mmi Abraha» 
sunt quod Christus apprehendit 

Nothing is said of tho effect of the 
Incarnation on angels, or other beings 
than man. Man's fall necessarily 
affected all creation, and so also did 
man's restoration. But here the writer 
is simply explaining the fitness of the 

Many however have endeavoured 
to determine why fallen man should 
have been redeemed and not fallen 
angels. Primasius, fur example, sug- 
gests the following reasons: 

1. Man was tempted by the devil: 
the dovil had no tempter. 

2. Man yielded to an appetite for 
eating which naturally required satis- 
faction. The devil as spirit was in- 

3. Man had not yet reached the 
presence of God, but was waiting to 
be transferred thither. The devil 
was already in heaven. 



[Π. 17 

ματος 'Αβραάμ επιλαμβάνεται. 17 6θεν ωφειλεν κατά 
πάντα toic aAcAo>oTc όμοιωθήναι, ίνα ελεήμων γένηται και 

It is evident that we have no 
powers to discuss such a subject 

In this connexion too it may be 
noticed that the writer says nothing 
distinctly of the calling of the Gentiles, 
lie regards the whole diviuo work of 
Christ under the aspect of typical 
foreshadowing. Comp. v. ι 1 note. 

17. The necessity of the Incarna- 
tion ie shewn further from a considera- 
tion of the scope of Christ's work. 
His purpose to help man involved the 
redemption of fallen man ; and He 
who holps must have sympathy with 
those whom lie helps. Wherefore 
He uxu bound to be made like to 
Hi» brethren in all thing», that He 
might be a merciful and faWtful 
High-prieH... For men are not only 
beset by tomptations in the fierce 
conflicts of duty: they are also 
burdened with sins; and Christ had 
to deal with both evils. 

Thus we are introduced to the idea 
which underlies the institution of 
Priesthood, the provision for a fellow- 
ship between God and man, for 
bringing God to man and man to God. 
See Additional Note. 

S6tp] Whence, where/ore... since 
it was His pleasure to help fallen 
man. Tho word 66* ν is not found in 
St Paul's Epistles. It is comparatively 
frequent in this Epistle, iii. 1 ; vii. 25 ; 
viii. 3; ix. 18. It occurs also (nine 
times in all) in St Matt, St Luke, 
Acts, 1 John. It marks a result which 
flows naturally (so to speak) from 
what has gone before. 

4φ€ •λ«»] he was bound, . .Latt dsoutt 
...The requirement lay in the personal 
character of the relation itself. Comp, 
c. v. 3, 12 ; 1 John it 6 note. 

ail (Ifot) describes a necessity in 
the general order of things (oportet): 
ii. 1; iz. 26; xld, 

κατά πάντα] Vu|g. per omnia 
iimilari The 'likeness' which has 

been shewn in nature before (14) is 
now shewn to extend to tho circum- 
stances of life; Μχβη, φησίν, ιτράφη, 
ηνξηθη, hraB* πάντα άπ*ρ Ιχρην, rcXor 
απίθανη (Chrysost). Id ost educates 
crovit, osuriit , passus ost ac uiortuus 

ομοιωθήναι] Comp. C iv. 1 5 Wf- 
νιφασμίνος κατά πάντα καο* ομοιότητα 
(νϋ. 15 κατά τήν ομοιότητα Μ*\χισ<σΊκ). 
Phil• ii 7 Ι* ομου&ματι άνθράπων γ**ό- 
μινος. Rom. viii 3 ; (Matt ft 8 ; Acts 
xiv. 11). The use of toIs ά&*\φοϊς 
calls up the argument of tho former 
versos (0. 1 1). 

tpa...tlt το...] Ίνα expresses tho 
immediate definite end: *h to (which 
is cliaracteristic of St Paul) the object 
reached after or reached. Efc το... 
occurs vii. 25; viii 3; ix. 14; xL 3; 
xii. 10; xiil 21. 

ινα.,.γίνηται] that He might (may) 
become, »heu> Himself... Latt utfieret 
... The discluuge of this function is 
made dependent ou the fulfilment of 
the conditions of human life. Comp. 
v. 1 ff. The verb γίγησθαι suggests 
the notion of a result reached through 
the action of that which wo regard as 
a law. Comp. i. 4; ii. 2; iii. 14; v. 
9; vi. 4, 12; vii. 18, 26 Λα 

ίλ*ήμων...κάΙ ιτιστόί] It SCCIUS to 
be far more natural to take both 
these words as qualifying apxupcvt 
than to take A. separately: 'that He 
might become merciful, and a faith- 
ful high-priest/ Our High-priest is 
'merciful' iu considering the needs of 
each sinful man, and ( faithful' ('one 
in whom the believer can trust') in 
applying the means which He ad- 
ministers. It has been supposed that 
the one epithet expresses mainly the 
relation towards men and the other 
tho relation towards God (c. iii. 2, 5); 
but here the rotation towards men is 
alone in question, so that the faithful- 
ness of Christ expresses that wherein 

II. ι 7 ] 



κτιστοί αρχιβρβντ τα προ* τον deov f eU το ιΧάατκεσθαι 

men can trust with abtolnte con- 

The word wurrot admits two senses 
according as the character to which 
it is applied is regarded from within 
or from without A person is said to 
be 'faithful' in the discharge of his 
duties where the trait is looked at 
from within outwards; and at the 
same time he is 'trustworthy' in rir- 
tne of that faithfulness in the judg- 
ment of those who are able to rely 
upon him. The one sense passes into 
the other. See c. iii. 2, 5 ; x. 23; xi. 1 1. 

m*r4f ] *IoW του orrvt κα\ dXtyAvr 
apXjL9p4mt rovt Α» iartp άρχι*ρ•υς dwak- 
Xdfru τφρ Αμαρτιωρ (QScumen., Chry- 
sostX Ministerium eaoerdoti8...est 
fidolem esse ut possit eos quorum 
sacerdos est liberare a peccatis 
(PrimaaX Man gains confidence by 
the sight of Christ's lora 

άρχι*ρ*νς] The writer introduces 
quite abruptly this title which is the 
key-word of his teaching, and which 
is applied to tho Lord in this Epistle 
only among the writings of the 
Ν. T. So also the title l*p*vt is used 
of Christ only in this Epistlo: x. 21 
(Up4a μ*γα*). Comp. v. 6, &c (Ps. 
ex. 4). Yet see also Apoc i. 13. 
The title is adopted by Clement: ad 
Cor. i. C 36 €νρομ€ν...*1ησουν Xpurrop 
top Αρχι*ρ4α των ηροσφορωρ ήμ»*, C 58 
διλ του ΑρχΜριως καϊ προστάτου ήμ*ρ 
*Ιησον Χρίστου. (8οο Lightfoot ad 
he,) Comp. Ign. ad Philad. 9. 

The rendering of the sing, in the 
Vulg. is uniformly pontifex (ill 1; 
if. 14 f.; f. 5, 10; fi. 20; fiii. 1 ; ix. 
11); the plur. in fii. 27, 28 is render- 
ed sacerdotes (as O. L.). In the Old 
Latin pontifex does not appear except 
hi Vigil Taps. (if. 15) though there 
is considerable fariety of rendering: 
sacerdos, $nmmu$ sacerdos, pr incept 
sacerdos, princeps sacerdotum, prin- 
ceps (Hi. 1). On coins and in in- 
scriptions pontifex generally corre- 
sponds with opxupt w , while pontifex 

maximus is represented by apxuptvt 
ptyat or μέγιστο*. Comp. Boeckh 
Inscrr. Or. 3834, 3878, 3949» 4283 
Ac.; 2741 (epxitpcvr) note; 5899 (ψχ. 
*Λλ# (ardpetar κάϊ πάσψ Αίγυπτου). 

τα wpot top 6<6p] in the things (in 
all things) that pertain to God. Latt 
adDeum. The phrase expresses more 
than npbt top utop and points to 'all 
man's relations towards God/ all the 
elements of the divino life (in his quae 
sunt ad Deum in some old Lai texts). 
Comp. α f. 1 ; Ex. if. 16; xfiii. 19; 
Rom. xf. 17. (Lk. xif. 32; xix. 42; 
Acts xxfiiL ία) Jos. AnU. ix. 11. 
2 farf/9}f...ra wpb$ top 6V0V. The 
phrase is not uncommon in classical 
writers: ej. Arist Pol. iii 14 τα 
tepbt tow ©Vovr ΑποοΊοοται το« 0ασι- 
Xcwir [ip tJ Aojcmptiqj πολιτιία]; Plut. 
Consol. ad Apoll init 

tir το Ιλάσκ. τατ άμ.] Ο. L. ut ex- 
piaret peccata, and ad deprecandum 
(propitiandum)prodeUctis. Vulg. tit 
repropiiiaret delicto. For the con- 
struction of ϊλάσκισθαι (1ξλάσκ*σθαι) 
in biblical and classical Greek see 
Additional Note on 1 John ii. 2. 
The use of the aecus. of the things 
cleansed occurs Lef. xfi. 16, 20, 33; 
Ezek. xliii 20, 22, 26; xlr. 18, 20 (ro 
aytopf το θυσιαστήριο*, top oUop), and 
Dan. ix. 24 (dducfar); Ps. lxif. (lxf.) 4 
(aVf/9<lat): Ecclus. iii. 30 (Αμαρτίας). 

The essential conception is that of 
altering that in the character of an ob- 
ject which necessarily excludes the 
action of the grace of God, so that God, 
being what He is, cannot (as wo speak) 
look on it with favour. The 'pro- 
pitiation' acts on that which alienates 
God and not on God whose lore is un- 
changed throughout 

So Chrysostom expresses tho 
thought here: fra wpwripeyitg θυσίαρ 
ϋυ*αμ*ρηρ ήμαί καθαρίσαι, δώ τοντο 
γίγοριρ Μρ*πος; and (Ecumenius: 
δώ. τούτο yiyoptv (Mpwros) tit το 
ίξιΚίβίσασΰαι ήμαΐ καί καθαρίσαι τωρ 
ΑμαρτιΑρ ήμω*. And Primasius: 



[II. 18 

τάς αμαρτία? του \αου• tB iv ω yap πβπονθβν αυτό? 
πβφααθβίς, δύναται τοΓί πβφαζομβνοις βοηθήσαι. 

1 7 τΑι άμαρτ.: ταίι apaprUut Α (so Ρβ. lxxvii. 38 ; lxxviii. 9 ί **iv. 1 1). ΐθ νέν. 
αοτ.ι afrit Wir. D r 

misertus est [generis humani] elcut 
fidelis pontifex, reoonoilians nog Deo 
Patri, et reoonoiliando purgans. 

The present infin. 2λάσ«#σ&Μ must 
be notiood. The one (eternal) act of 
Christ (c. z. 12 — 14) is here regarded 
in its continuous present application 
to men (comp. c. v. 1, 2). 

ror άμ. του λάου] the sine of the 
people, of all who under the new dis- 
pensation occupy the position of 
Israel. The 'seed of Abraham' now 
receives its fuller title. Comp. Matt 
i. 21 ; Lake ii. 10; and 0. ir. 9; xiii. 
12; (viiL 10; x. 50; xi. 25). For the 
origiual use of tho word for tho old 
'people' see v. 3; vii. 5, 11, 27; ix. 
7, 19• 

The use of the phrase suggests the 
thought of tho privileges of tho Jow, 
and at the same time indicates that 
that which was before limited has 
now become universal, the privilege 
of faith and not of descent 

18. Christ's High-priestly work, 
which has been considered in the last 
clause of v. 17 in relation to God, is 
now considered in relation to man. 
In this respect the efficacy of His 
High-priesthood, of His mercy and 
faithfulness, is shewn in the power of 
its application to suffering men. Pro- 
pitiation must not only be made for 
them but also applied to them. He 
who propitiates must outer iuto the 
oxporienco of the sinner to support 
him in tomptatiou. And this Christ 
can do; for wherein He Himself 
hath suffered. .Me is able to succour. . . 
He removes the barrier of sin which 
checks the outflow of God's love to 
the sinner, and at once brings help 
to the tempted (contrast ΙΚάσκίσθαι, 
βοηθησαή by restoring in them the 
full sense of filial dependence. The 
whole work of our High-priest de- 

pends for its efficacy (γάρ) on the 
perfect sympathy of Christ with 
humanity and His perfect human 

fr φ γάρ] Ο. L. in quo enim ipse 
expertus passu* est The iv f may 
be resolved either into 1* τούτψ bWi 
whereas (Rom. viii. 3?), or into b 
τούτψ 6 wherein (Rom. xiv. 22 ; comp. 
c. v. 8; GaL i. 8; 2 Cor. v. 10; 1 Pet 
ii. 12). Tho latter construction is tho 
simpler and more natural (Vulg. in $0 
enim in quo passus est ipte et ten- 

Taking this construction therefore 
we have two main iutorpretations: 

1. 'For Himsolf having been tempted 
in that which He hath suffered...' 
(80 Vigiliue : in eo onim quo passus 

est illo tontatus est) 

2. 'For in that in which lie hath 
suffered being tempted... ' 
According to the first view tho 

thought is that the sympathy of 
Christ is grounded on the fact that 
He felt temptation when exposed to 

According to the second view the 
thought is that the range of Christ's 
sympathy is as wide as His experi- 

The second view seems to fall in 
best with the context The region 
of Christ's suffering through tempta- 
tion includes the whole area of human 
lifo, aud His sympathy is no loss ab- 
solute. The αυτή is not to bo taken 
exclusively either with vhrovutv or 
with ν<φασ6*ίς. Though Sou Christ 
Himself know both suffering and 

Primasius (Atto) interprets very 
strangely : in eo, id est homine. 

b $ v*vw$*w\ wherein he hath 
suffered. The tense fixes attention 
upon the permanent effect and not on 

Π. ι8] 



the historic fact. Oomp. e. 9 ι/λαττ•- 
μ4ρον 9 1στιφα»*μ4ροψ, and to. 15; xii. 
3 notes. For *ασχί or see c. xfti 12. 

The suffering which was coincident 
with the temptation remained as the 
ground of compassion. For the 
general thought compare Ex. zxiiL 
9; Deut x. 19. 

wtipaaMt w• ιραζομίψοι*] The 

temptation of Christ is regarded in 
its past completeness (of. μβτίσχιν 
r. 14). The temptation of men is 
not future only but present and con- 

βση&ησαί] Vulg. auxUiari: Mark ix. 
22, 24. c. ir. 16. The aor. expresses 
the single, momentary, act of coming 
to help. Compare the use of the 
pros. inf. ▼. 7; vii. 25; and contrast 
Ir. 15 μ^ ονψόμ***»* συμπάθησα* with 
V. 2 urrpnowaBw δυνάμβροψ. 

^ύνσταΛ.,,βση&ησαι] The phrase 
expresses more than the simple fact 
O07OV1). Only ono who has learnt by 
suffering can rightly feel with another 
in his sufferings. The perfect hu- 
manity of Christ is the ground of His 
sympathy. Οοιηρ. c. iv. 15; John v. 
27 (vfoff Mpmwov}. 

Chrysostom rightly dwells on this 
point: v*p\ rod σαρκωΘ4ντθ9, ίνταυθα 
φψτίν,...ου yap «f $ibt ©ftf* μόνον, 
iXKa καί «if ά*0ρωπος 1y*m dta τη* 
nttpas ft *π*φάθη' ftraoV πολλή, oft* 
σνμπάσχ*ιν and again: ο παθάν oftc W 
ιπΜτχ«< η ανθραητίνη φύσις. 

So also Thcodoret: ταύτα κατά το 
Mpwntvo» tlpfjrau ovrc γαρ άρχκριν* 
ημ£ν mt df or αλλ* «κ oVtytniOr, ovT9 a\t 
foot vcwovtitp AXk* mt &v6pwrot, ovrt 
mt tftor die rijr ntlpat μ^μάθηκ**, αλλ' 
«* Icor καί δημιουργοί γιρωσκα τα 
χάρτα σαφΑί. 

The power of sympathy lies not in 
the mere capacity for feeling, but in 
the lessons of experience. And again, 

sympathy with the sinner in his trial 
does not depend on the experience of 
sin but on the experience of the 
strength of the temptation to sin 
which only the sinless can know in 
its full intensity. He who falls 
yields before the last strain. Comp. 
c. τ. 8; ?ii. 26 notes. Sin indeed 
dulls sympathy by obscuring the idea 
of eriL 

Under this aspect we can under- 
stand how Christ's experience of the 
power of sin in others (as in tho 
instruments of the Passion) intensified, 
if we may so speak, His sympathy. 

In looking back over the whole 
section it is important to notice the 
stress which the writer lays upon the 
historic work of Christ Christ is not 
simply a Teacher but a Redeemer, a 
8ariour. The Redemption of man 
and the fulfilment of his destiny is 
not wrought by a moral or spiritual 
union with Ood laid open by Christ, 
or established in Christ, but by a 
union of humanity with Ood extend- 
ing to the whole of man's nature and 
maintained through death. While the 
writer insists with the greatest force 
upon the transcendental action of 
Christ, he rests tho foundation of this 
union upon Christ's oarthly experience. 
Christ «shared in blood and flesh' 
(0. 14), and 'was in all things made 
like to His brethren' («. 17). He took 
to Himself all that oolongs to the per- 
fection of man's being. Ho lived ac- 
cording to the conditions of man's lifo 
and died under the circumstances of 
man's mortality. 80 His work ex- 
tends to tho totality of human powers 
and existence, and brings all into 
fellowship with the divine. Compare 
Clem. R. ad Cor. L 49; Iron. τ. 1. 1 ; 
il. 22. 4; HI. 16. 6. The passages of 
Irenssus will repay careful study. 


Additional Note on ii. 8. Maria destiny and position. 

The view The view which is given in the quotation from Ps. viii. of the splendour 
of man's f jm^ig destiny according to the divine idea is necessary for the argument 
prepare* of Λβ *pW* It suggests the thought of 'the Gospel of Creation/ and 
lion for indicates an essential relation between the Sou of God and men. At the 
the Incur- same time it prepares too way for the full acceptance of the great mystery 
nation. f g redemption through suffering. The promise of dominion givou in tlio 
first chapter of Genesis is renewed and raised to a highor form. Even as 
man was destined to ride ' the prosout world,' so is it tho pleasure of God 
that be should rule * the world to come. 1 His dominion may be delayed, 
misinterpreted, obscured, but the divine counsel goes forward to accom- 
plishment through the sorrows which seem to mar it 
Contradio- For man, as we have seen (Addit Noto on i. 3), has missed his true end. 
lions in He is involved in siu and in an inheritance of the fruit of sius. Born for 

Siuon. 1 ^ Qod he nai no ***** °* aooew to Qod ( & ix • *)• For Wm » tiH Λβ Incarna- 
tion, God was represented by the darkness of a veiled sanctuary. The 
highest acts of worship served only to remind him of his position and not 
to ameliorate it (x. 4, 11). He was held by fear (ii 15). Yet tho primal 
promise was not recalled. He stood therefore iu the face of a destiny 
unattained and unrevoked: a destiny which experience had shewn that he 
could not himself reach, and which yet he could not abandon as beyond 
His moral For man, as he is, still retains the lineaments of the divine image in 
preroga- which he was made. He is still able to pronounce an authoritative moral 
lves * judgment : he is still able to recognise that which corresponds with the 
Nature of God (ii 10 faptw** mfaf), aud with tho needs of humanity 
(vii. 26 thrpiwtp ήμΛ»\ Aud in the face of every sorrow and every dis- 
appointment he sees a continuity in the divine action, aud guards a sure 
confidence in the divine righteousness (vi. 10). 
The moral U follows therefore that there is still in humanity a capacity for 
th^Inear- receivin e tbai for wWon il was flrtt created. The 8on could become true 
nation. " man without change in Hie Divine Person, and without any violation of the 
completeness of the Nature which he assumed. The prospect is opened of 
'consummation through suffering. 9 

Additional Note on the reading of ii. 9. 

The reading of the text χάρπι θ*ου (ty the grace qf Qod) is given 
with two exoeptious by all Greek nee., including KAUCD» by all Latin use., 
by Syr hi and me. For these words M, and 67** (which has remarkable 
coincidences with M lt eg. L 3 ; iii. 6) give x*pU 6*qv (apart from God) with 
later us*, of Syr vg. 


The mm. of the 8yriae Vulgate (Peshlto) present a remarkable variety 
of readings. The text of Wldmanstadt» followed by 8ehaaf, gives : for God 
Himeetf (literally for He God) in Hie goodneee tailed death for entry 
man, (So B. M. Rich 7160 a.d. 1203; Rich 7162 use. xiv.) The im- 
portant MB. of Buchanan in the University Library, Cambridge, reads : 
Jbr He in Hie goodneee, God, iaeted death for every man; and this was 
evidently the original reading of Β. M. Rich 7157 (finished a.d. 768). 
Tho msb. in the Brit Mas. Rich 7158 (sroc. xi) and Rich 7159 (esse, xii) 
both give: for He, apart from God, for every man taeted death; and this 
is the reading of tho vory late corrector of Rich 7157. 

Tremellius gives from a Heidelberg ms. : for He, apart from God, in 
Hie goodneee taeted death for every man, which combines both readings. 

It appears theroforo that, as far as known, no text of Syr vg exactly 
corresponds with either Greek reading. The connecting particle pre- 
supposes yap for &w»t, which has no other authority ; and on the whole it 
is likely that the rendering of x»ptt was introduced after that of χ&ριτι, 
and that the earliest reading, which represents χάριτι Mt, is duo to a 
primitive corruption of the Greek or 8yrian text which was corrected 
in two directions 1 . 

Both readings were known to Origen; and the treatment of the variants 
by the writers who were acquainted with them offers remarkable illustra- 
tions of the indifference of the early Fathers to important points of textual 
criticism, and of their unhistorical method of dealing with them. 

Origen refers to the two readings several times, but he makes no 
attempt to decide between thorn. The ms. which he used whon he was 
writing tho first part of his commentary on St John appears to have read 
X»p\f 6*ov. ffo notices χάρπι θ<ον as road in somo copies : x*p\t yap b\ov 
Mp wavrht iytvtraro θάνατον, oirrp (11. and R. by conj. J) oirrp wrongly) «V 
run «firm τηψ wpot 'Efipalovt arnypttyott 'χηριτι θ*ου* (In Joh. Tom. i. 
§ 40); and in a passage written at a later tiuio he uses the phraso χ«ρΙ* 
6tov in a connexion which seems to indicate that he took it from the text 
of this passage : μόνου % \ψτου το πάντων τηψ apaprtat φορτίον iv τψ υπιρ 
rmv όλων x»p\t ΰ*οΰ στανρψ ανάλαβαν *h iavrbv κα\ βαστασαι rj p*ydkn 
αύτον Ισχνί Μυνημίνον (In Joh. Tom. xxviiL § 41 ; he has said just before: 
σνγχρήσίτοΛ τψ 'α*** χάρα-ί' } 'x«pif Btov\..u.a\ απότιση τψ 'υπίρ wavrbt 9 
και τψ 'xmoh Stov Μρ navrot '). Both readings seemed to him to givo good 
sense, and he was unwilling to sacrifice either*. 

Eusebius, Athanasius and Cyril of Alexandria read χάριη fcov, and do 
not notice the variation x»pU 6\ov. 

Ambrose twice quotes eine Deo without any notice of another reading : 
de Fide ii. § 63; id v. § 106; and explains the phrase in the latter place : 
id est, quod creatura omnis, sine passione aliqua divinitatis, dominid san- 
guinis redimenda sit pretio (Rom. viii. 21). 

The same reading is given by Fulgentius ad Trae. iii. 20 with the 

1 The Syriao translation of Qyril of in Rufinus' translation of the Oom- 

Alexandria (in Joh. iii. pp. 482, 618 ed. mentary on Romans (iii. | 8 ; v. | 7), 

Posey) gives by the grace of Qoa\ but it is most likely that this was 

* It is not possible to lay stress on taken from Origen's toit. 
the tint Deo, which is found twice 


comment: sine Deo igitor homo tile guatavit mortem quantum ad condi- 
tionem aUinet oamia, nou autem sine Deo quaatum ad susoeptiouem 
pertinei deitatis, quia impassibilis atque immortalis ilia divinitas...; and 
by Vigilius Tape, c Bui. ii. § 5 (p. 17)1 

Jerome mentions both readings (In Bp. ad QaL c. Mi. 10) Christus 
gratia Dei, sire, nt in quibuadam exemplaribua legitur, absque Deo pro 
omnibus moriuus est Perhaps the uae of absque for sine indicate• that 
his reference is to Greek and not to Latin copies» and it may have been 
derived from Origen. 

Theodore of Mopsnestia (ad loc) oondemns severely χίρνη θιον as 
foreign to the argument: γελοιότατο* 09 rt πάσχουσα 4*ταύΰα το 'χωρίς 
0cav' ί*αΧΧάττοντ*ς καϊ irotoviref 'χάριτι β*ον* ο J προσ4χο*τβς τ% ακολουθία 
της y ραφής ι while he maintains that it was necessary to insist on the 
impassibility of the Godhead (χωρίς ό\ου). 

Chrytostom explains *<ipm $<ov without any notice of the Tarioty of 
reading : όπως % φησί, χάριτι 0cov, κάκύ*ος pi* γαρ bta π)* χάρι* του $*ου η)» 
βίς ήμας ταύτα πίπο*$ς* (Rom. viii 32). 

Theodoret, on the other hand, explains χωρίς Β*ου and takes no notice 
of any variation : para, φησί», ή $tia φύσα α*ς*ο % ςής ί ταΧλα bi πάντα του της 
ίνα*βρωπήσ•ως ibcTro φαρμάκου. 

Theophylact (ad loc.) ascribes the reading χωρίς $<oi to the Neatorians: 
(ol bi NiotoouwoI παραποωυντςς τ$* γραφή" φασι * χωρίς $*ου νπίρ παντός 
γιύσηται,' Ίνα σνστήσωσι* ότι ίσταυρωμίνω τψ Xpurrf ού συνην ή $<ότης, art 
μη κα& υπόσταση αύτψ ηνωμένη άΧΚα κατά σχίσιν), but quotes an orthodox 
writer as answering their arguments for it by giving the interpretation 'for 
all beings except God, even for the angels themselves.' 

(Bcumenius (ad loc) writes to the same effect (ΙστΙον on ol Nc σι-ορακ»! 
παραποιονσι τη* γραφή*...). 

From a review of the evidenoe it may be fairly oonoluded that the 
original reading was χάριτι, but that χωρίς found a place in some Greek 
oopies early in the third century, if not before, which had however only a 
limited circulation, and mainly in Syria. The influenee of Theodore and the 
Nestorian controversy gave a greater importance to the variant, and the 
common Syriac text was modified in two directions, in accordance with 
Eutychiau and Nestorian views. The appearance of χωρίς in a group of 
Latin quotations is a noteworthy phouomeuon. 

Tho variant may be duo to simplo orror of transcription, but it soouis to 
bo moro reasonably explained by the supposition that χωρίς ν\ου was 
added as a gloss to vwip παντός or wbi* άφήκβν αύτψ ανυπότακτο* from 
1 Cor. xv. 27 ίκτός τον ύποτά£α*τος αύτψ τβ πάντα, and tlien substituted for 
χάριτι $βοΰ. Χωρίς Χρίστου is found Eph. ϋ 12. It is scarcely possible 
that χάρςη 0*ου can have been substituted for χωρίς 0«w, though it is 
really required to lead on to the fuller development of the thought 
in 9. ία 


Additional Note on ii. 10. The idea of τέλβίωσις. 

The idea of rtXc /«σκ — consummation, bringing to perfection — is Use of 
characteristic of tho Epistle. The whole family of words connected with *«λ«οβρ 
rcXccof is found in it: rAciof (v. 14; ix. 11), ηλαότης yi. 1 (elsewhere only <fc0, 
CoL iii 14), rcXfiovv both of Christ (ii. 10; v. 9; vii. 28) and of men (x. 14 ; 
xi. 40; xii. 23; elsewhere in the Ν. T. of the Lord only in Luke xiii. 32 
( r 3 r P' ir O rfXfiowMcu) in His own declaration of the course of His work), 
TfXiwmji (xii. 2 unique), rcX«Wtf (vii. 11, elsewhere only Lk. L 45). 

1. The words were already in use in the lxx. The adj. rcXcior is there '• In tne 
applied to tliat which is perfect and complete, possessing all that belongs Lxx * 
to the 'idea' of the object, as victims (Ex. xii. 5), men (Gen. yi. 2); the 
heart (1 R. viii. 61 Ac.). Compare Jer. xiil 19 αποικία» rtktiav (a complete 
removal) ; Ps. cxxxix. (cxxxviii.) 22 t(\uov μίσος. Hence the word is used 
of mature Israelites, teachers : 1 Chron. xxy. 8 τ*λ*ίων (P3&) καί μαν- 
Θανόντων (v. 7 Ρ?ΦΠ'? war σννιύν). 

The noun Τ9λ*ιότης has corresponding senses. Jud. ix. 16, 19; Prov. 
xi. 3 (A); Wisd. vi. 15; xii. 17. 

The verb τιλιιοΟ* is employed to render several Hebrew words: Ezek. 
xxvii II (τό κάλλος ^9); 2 Chron. viii. 16 (τον οίκον D^); I K. vii. 22 
(to tpyov DPFI); Nell. vi. 16 (flfcW). Comp. Ecclus. 1. 19 (τήν \wovpylav). 
And in the later books the word is used for men who have reached their 
fall development : Wisd. iv. 13 τ*λ*ιωθ*\ς «V δΚίγψ ίπλήρωσ* χρόνους μακρούς. 
Ecclus. ΧΧΧΪτ. (xxxi.) ΙΟ tU c δοκιμάσω? καί crrXcMD^; 

One peculiar use requires special attention. It is employed several 
times in the rendering of *1J NJP, rtXttovv rat χήρας, 'filling the hands/ 
which describes the installation of the priests in the actual exercise of their 
office (the making their hands perfect by the material of their work), and 
not simply their consecration to it: Ex. xxix. 9 (10) ™λ*ι«σ«Γ * Ααρών τάς 
χήρας αντον; id. V. 29 TcXtuocai (Ά. πληρωσαι, 2. Tt\tim6rjvai) 9 33» 35• 
Lev. VUL 33 ™λ«ιωσ«ω? ; *vi. yi op op πλίίωσωσι rat χήρας αύτοΰ itparcvtiv 
(άλλος' ov ίπληράθη 6 τόπος Upartvtiy) ; Num. iii. 3 : and it is found ab- 
solutely in this connexion in Lev. xxi. 10 (some add τας χήρας αντον). 
The Hebrew phrase is elsewhere rendered by ίμπλήσαι (πληρούν) τας χήρας 
(τηρ χήρα): Ex. xxviii. 37 (4θί Jud - *▼«. 5 ( Σ • irikdmaav τ. χ.). The 
installation (rfXuWir) of the priest was a type of that which Christ at- 
tained to absolutely. The priest required to be furnished in symbol with 
all that was required for the fulfilment of his office. Christ perfectly 
gained all in Himself. 

The usage of the verbal r*Xr cWif corresponds with that of the verb : 
Judith x. 9; Ecclus. xxxi (xxxiv.) 8. It is applied to 'Thummim' (Neh. 
vii. 65 some copies; comp. Aqu. and Theodot on Lev. viii. 8 and Field 
ad loc); espousals (Jer. ii. 2); the inauguration of the temple (2 Mace, ii 9; 
comp. Athanas. Ep. ad Const. § 14); and specially to 'the ram of installa- 
tion' (D'K^n ^tt κριός re λϋωσ* o>r) : Ex. xxix. 22, 26, 27, 31, 34; Lev. vii. 
37(27); viii 21, 27, 28, 31, 33. 

Comp. PhOo, Fit. Mot. iii. § 17 (ii. 157 M.), op (κριορ) Μμως ™λ«»σ«•κ 


1κάΚ*σ*ν Arcidty τας άρμοττούσας 6*ραν*υταις κάί Xttrovpyott β*οΰ rcXcntf 
1μ*\\ον 1*ροφαντ*Ίσθαι. 

The noun rcXctar?? is not found in the lxx. 

2. In the 2. In the Books of the Ν . Τ. (if we omit for the present the Epistle to 
Ν • τ • the Hebrews) the adj. rtXttot is used to describe that which has reached the 

highest perfection in the sphere which is contemplated, as contrasted with 
that which is partial (i Cor. xiii. io), or imperfect (James i. 4), or provisional 
(James i. 25), or incomplete (Rom. zii. 2; James L 17 ; 1 John iv. 18), and 
specially of Christians who hare reached full growth in contrast with those 
who are immature or undeveloped (Eph. iv. 13; Col. i. 28; iv. 12), either 
generally (Matt. v. 48; xix. 21; 1 Cor. ii. 6; Phil. iii. 15; James Mi. 2), 
or in some particular aspect (1 Cor. xiv. 20). 

The noun r«Xctorqr is found in Ool. iii. 14, where love is said to be 
σννύ*σμος της τ*λ*ι&τητος 9 a bond by which the many elements contributing 
to Christian perfectness are held together in harmonious unity. 

The verb rtkuovr is not unfrequent in the Gospel and first Epistle of 
St John. It is used in the discourses of the Lord of the work (works) 
which had been given to Him to do (iv. 34; v. 36; xvii. 4), and of the 
consummation of believers in one fellowship (xvii. 23 τ<η\*ιωμ4νοι «Ις iv). 

The Evangelist himself uses it of the last ' accomplishment ' of Scripture 
(xix. 28); and in his Epistlo of love in (with) the believer (ii. 5; iv. 12; 
17 μ*& ήμω»), and of the believer in love (iv. 18). Elsewhere it is used of 
an appointed space of time (Luke ii. 43), of the course of life (Acts xx. 24), 
of faith crowned by works (James ii. 22), of the consummation of the 
Christian (Phil. iii. 12). Once it is used by tbo Lord of Ilimsolf : Luke xiii. 
32 Behold I cast out devils and perform (άποπλώ) cures to-day and to- 
morrow, and the third day lam perfected (πλαοίμαι). 

The verbal τ*\<ίωσις is once used (Luke i. 45) of the accomplishment of 
the message brought to the Mother of the Lord. 

3. In ec- 3. i n ecclesiastical writers the baptized believer, admitted to the full 
wrters 1C&1 Ρ 1 ™^ 6 * of Λθ Christian life, was spoken of as τίλβιος (comp. Clem. Al. 

Strom, vi. § 60). Hence rt\*iow (and perficere) was used of the administra- 
tion of Baptism (Athan. c. Ar„ i. 34 ούτω γαρ τ*\*ιούμ€Ροι κάί ij/mc.) and 
T«XfiWif of the Baptism itself (Athan. c. Ar. ii. 42 §i γαρ cfc το ϊνομα 
πατρός κάί νΙού διδοται ή τ§\•ίωσις 9 C. 4 1 «V Tfj τ«λ«*ωσ*< του βαπτίσματος. 
Comp. Caesar. Dial. i. I2 iv r§ σφραγίσω της μυστικής Τ€λ€ΐότητος). So too 
the person who administered the Sacrament was called τ*\*ιωτης (Greg. 
Nas. Oral. xl. In bapt. § 44 άναστωμβν Μ το βάπτισμα' σφνζ*ι το πν€υμα, 
πρόθυμος 6 τ*\έΐωτης• το δωρον ϊτοιμον, comp. § 1 8). This usage is very 
well illustrated by a passage iu writing falsely attributed to Athanasius : 
ft μη «ϊσι τίΚ*ιοι χριστιανοί οί κατηχούμ*νοι πρίν η βαπτισθώσι, βαπτισΰ*ντ€ς 
W Τ€λ§ιουνται 9 το βάπτισμα &ρα μιιζον Arrt της προσκυνήσιως δ την τ*\*ιότητα 
παρ4χ*ι (Ps.-Ath. Dial. i. c. Maced. 6). Comp. Clem. AL Pwd. i. 6. 

In a more general sense τ«λ*4οθσ0αι and τ*\*ίωσις were used of the 
death of the Christian, and specially of the death by martyrdom, in which 
the effort of life was completed (Eueeb. Η. E. iii. 35; vii. 15 άπαχθΑς την 
άτι θανάτψ T€\uovrat f and Heinichen's note). 

The word rcXctor came naturally to be used of themselves by those who 
claimed to possess the highest knowledge of the truth, as initiated into its 


mysteHee (Iron. L 6 rfXc /ovf iavrovt «JimyopfvoiHri, oomp. C. 3 ol rAf lororoi. 
VaJent op. Epiph. ITarr. xxxi., § 5); and at the tame time the associations 
of τ<\*ισ6αι ('to be initiated') were transferred to r&ciof and rcXtiowrAu 
(oomp. Dion. Ar. de cad. hier. Ti. § 3 ; Method, de Sim. et Anna 5 [6 B*ht] 
6 twp τ*\ονμ4*ω9 re Xc tariff ; and 2 Cor. xii. 9 9. /.). 

Throughout these various applications of the word one general thought' 
is preserved. He who is rAcior has reached the end which is in each 
case set before him, maturity of growth, complete development of powers, 
foil enjoyment of privileges, perfect possession of knowledge. 

The sense of the word in the Epistle to the Hebrews exactly conforms 
to this usage. Tho WXt i©r— tho matured Christian•— is contrasted with the 
wfatot the undeveloped babe (v. 14): the provisional and transitory tabcr- 
nado with that which was 'more perfect' (ix. 11). The ripe perfectness 
(rcX#ionjf) of Christian knowledge is set against the first olementary teach- 
ing or the Gospel (vL 1). Christ, as He leads faith, so to speak, to the 
conflict, carries it to its absolute triumph (xii 2 rcXc u»nfr)• The aim of a 
religious system is rtXtWir (vii. 1 1\ to bring men to their true end, when 
all the fulness of humanity in power and development is brought into 
fellowship with God. And in this sense God was pleased to 'make 9 the 
Incarnate Son 'perfect through suffering' (li. 10; v. 9; vii. 28), and the Son, 
by His one offering, to 'make perfect them that are sanctified' (x. 14; 
xL 40 ; xii. 23). 

Additional Note on it. 10. The reAefo**? of Christ 

In connexion with the Person and Work of Christ the idea of rtkdmatt 
finds three distinct applications. 

(«) He is Himself ' made perfect » : ii. 10 ff. •, v. 7 ff. ; vii. 28. 

Q>) Ho 'perfects' others through fellowship with Himself: x. 14; 
jcL 39 f. ; xii. 23. 

(c) His 'perfection through suffering' is the ground of absolute sym- 
pathy with men in their weakness, and failure, and efforts : it 17 t ; iv. 15 ; 
xii. χ 

A general view of the distinctive thoughts in these passages will 
illustrate the breadth and fulness of the teaching of the Epistle. The 
notes on the several passages will suggest in detail thoughts for further 

(a) The perianal cotuummation of Christ in Hi$ humanity : ii. 10 £ ; (a) Christ 
v. 7 ff; vii. 28. ,e ' m ^ e 

These three passages present tho fact under three different aspects. P*"*". 

(a) The first passage (ii. 10 ff.) declares the general method by which 
the consummation was reached in regard to the divine counsel : God 
perfected His Incarnate Son through sufferings; and Man is able to 
recognise the fitness (?πρ<π<ν) of this mothod from the consideration of his 
own position and needs (iroXXow vlovt *h bo£av dyayovra). 

O) In tho second passage (v. 7 ff.) wo are allowed to see the action of 
the divine discipline upon the Son of man during His earthly life, in its 
course and in its end (1μαθ*ρ άφ* tip 1παθ*ρ rrjp νπακοήν). He realised to 

w. H. f 5 


the uttermost the absolute dependence of humanity upon Ood in tlio 
fuluen of personal communion with Him, even through the last issues of 
sinin death. 

(y) In the third passage (vii. 28) there is a revelation of the abiding 
work of the Son for men as their eternal High Priest (vloV clr ror αΙωνα 

In studying this rcX#Wtr of Christ, account must be taken both (1) of 
His life as man (John viii. 40 ; 1 Tim. ii. 5 (&4p»*of ) ; Acts ii. 22 ; xvii. 31 
amfp\ so far as He fulfilled in a true human life the destiny of man 
personally ; and (2) of His life as the Son of man, so far as He fulfilled in 
His life, as Head of the race, the destiny of humanity by redemption and 
consummation. The two lives indeed are only separable in thought, but 
the effort to give clearness to them reveals a little more of the meaning of 
the Gospel 

And yet again : thoso tliroo passugos are of great importance as 
emphasising the reality of the Lord's human life from stop to stop. It is 
at each moment perfect with the ideal of human perfection according to 
the circumstances. 

It is unecriptural, though the practice is supported by strong patristic 

authority, to regard the Lord during His historic life as acting now by His 

human and now by His Divine Naturo only. The two Natures wore 

inseparably combined in the unity of His Person. In all things He acts 

Personally; and, as for as it is revealed to us, His greatest works during His 

earthly life are wrought by the help of the Father through the energy of a 

humanity enabled to do all things in fellowship with God (comp. John 

xi. 41 £). 

(b) Christ (b) From tho revelation of tho rcXciWtr of tho Lord we pass to the 

makes His second group of passages (x. 14 ; xi. 39 ?• ; *H- 23) in which men are shewn 

people per- ^ ,^^ β^ Him y^ v jrtue of that perfection which He has reached. 

Those who are * in Christ,' according to the phrase of St Paul (which is not 

found in this Epistle ; yet see x. 10^ 19), share the privileges of their Head. 

These three passages also present the truth which they express in different 


(a) The first passage (x. 14) gives the one sufficient and abiding ground 
of man's attainment to perfection in the fact of Christ's work. Mau has 
simply to take to himsolf what Christ has already doiio for him (τ«-«λ«/**«* 
fir το &ηρ4κ*ς). 

(/3) The second passage (xi. 39 f.) enables us to understand tho 
unexpected slowness of the fulfilment of our hopes. There is a great 
counsel of Providence which wo can trust (κρ*ΐττάν η προβλιψαμίνου). 

(γ) And in the third passage a glimpse is opened of the righteous who 
have obtained the abiding possession of that which Christ has won (rm- 
(e) Christ's λ(Μ/Μ ^). 

through* (') ** Λθ Mrd 8"> α Ρ of Ρ** 8 *» wuich *»* with Christ's «perfection' 
suffering in His humanity (ii 17 I ; iv. 15 ; xii. 2) we are led to observe how His 
the pledge « perfection through sufferings' becomes the ground and pledge of His 
afHi'per- ^ftjUng sympathy with men. The experience of His earthly life (as we 
path*™" speak) remains in His glory. 


Thus we toe in succession («) that Christ's assumption of true and 
perfect Immunity («era πάντα voir ά&Χφοκ ομαωΰηραι) becomes the spring 
of His High-priestly work in making propitiation for sins and rendering 
help to mon answering to the universality (A> •} w4wop$tp) of His own 
suffering and temptation (ii. 17 f.). 

And next (β) that the Assurance of sympathy based on the fellowship of 
Nature and experience (πιπηρασμίρον κατά πάντα *aff ομοιότητα) brings 
confidence to mon in their approach to God for pardon and strength 
(iv. 14—16). 

And yet again (y) that Christ Himself in the fulfilment of His work 
proved from first to last (άρχηγορ ml ηλαωτηρ) the power of that faith by 
which we also walk (xii. 1 I). 

No one can regard even summarily these nine passages without feeling 
their far-reaching significance. And it is of especial importance to dwell 
on tho viow which is givon to us in the Epistle of tho rfXtfarir of Christ 
from its direct practical importance. 

1. It gives a vivid and natural distinctness to our historic conception 
ef the Lord's life on earth. 

2. It enables us to apprehend, according to our power, tho complete 
harmony of the Divine and Human Natures in One Person, each finding 
fulfilment, as we speak, according to its proper law in the fulness of 
Ono Life. 

3. It reveals the completeness of tho work of the Incarnation which 
brings to each human power and each part of human lifo its true per- 

4. It brings the universal truth homo to each man individually in his 
little life, a fragment of human life, and presents to us at each moment tho 
necessity of offbrt, and assures us of corresponding holp. 

5. It teaches us to see tho perfect correspondence between the com- 
pleteness of tho divine work (χάρπΐ ίστ* σισωσμίνοή, and the progressive 
realisation of it by man (Μ σδ κα\ σωζ*σ0*). 

Additional Note on ii. 13. Quotations from the Old Testament 

in cc. L, ii. 

The paasagos of tho O.T. which are quoted in tho first two chapters of 
the Epistle offer a representative study of the interpretation of 8criptnre. 
The main principles which they suggest will appear from the simple recital 
of the points which titoy are used to illustrate. 

1. The Divine Son. |a ^Ae 

(a) His work for man. Ps. ii. 7 (i. 5 ; conip. v. 5). Divine 

My Smart Thou; Sim ' 

I have to-day hegoiten Thee. woriPtor 

The words are quoted also Acts xilL 33 (of the Resurrection). Compare man# 
also the various readings of D in Luke lit 22 ; and the reading of the 
Kbkmite Qospel in Matt iii. 17. 




φ) Hie 
work for 



a. The 

3- The 



For the unique force of the address aee note on the passage. 

The thought implied is that the universal dominion of the Dhrine 
King is founded on His Divine Nature. The outward conquests of Israel 
can therefore only he earnests and types of something immeasurably 

If account be taken of the second referenoe to the passage (v. 5), it will 
appear that the foundation and assurance of Christ's work for men, His 
sovereignty and His priesthood, are laid in His divine character declared 
by the Father. 

(/9) His work for God. 2 Sam. vii. 14 (L 5). 
I will be to Him a Father; 
And He ehaU be to Me a San. 

dump. 2 Oor. vi. 18; Apoo. zzi. 7. 

The words are takou from the answer of Nathan to David's desire to 
build a Temple for the Lord. The whole passage ('iniquity 1 ) can only 
refer to an earthly king ; yet no earthly king could satisfy the hope which 
the promise created. The kingdom was destroyed, and the vision of a now 
stock of Jesse was opened (Is. xi. 1; Jer. xxiii. 5; Zcch. vi. u£; Luke 
i. 32 £). The Temple was destroyed and the vision of a new Temple was 
opened, a Temple raised by the Resurrection (John it 19). 

In both these passages it will be observed that the Lord is the speaker, 
the God of the Covenant, the God of Revelation (Ps. ii. 7 The Lard hath 
$aid... ; 2 8am. vii. 4 the ward of the Lard came to Nathan... \ υ. 8 (hue 
saith the Lard...). 

(γ) His final couquost 

Deut xxxii. 43 (uz.)(p. 6). 

Gomp. Ps. xcvil (xcvi.) 7 ; Rom. xv. ία 

The sovereignty of the Son is at last recognised by all created beings. 

2. The Davidic King. 
Ps. xlv. 6 f. (i. 8 £). 

The Psalm is the Marriage Song of the Sovereign of the theocratic 
kingdom. The King, the royal Bride, the children, offer a living picture of 
the permanence of the Divine Son with His Church, in coutrast with the 
transitory ministry of Angels. 

3. The Creator; the manifestation of God (the Lord). 
Ps. cii. 25 ff. (i. 10 ff.). 

The Psalm is an appeal of an exile. The idea of the God of Israel is 
enlarged. He who enters into fellowship with man, takes man to Himself. 
Tho Covenant leads up to the Incarnation. The Creator is the Saviour. 
See Additional Note 0. ul 7. 

4. The King-Prink 

Ps. ex. 1 (i. 13 ; comp. x. 12 f.)t 
Sit Thau at My right hand 9 
Till I make Thine enemiee the foott tool of Thy feet. 
The Psalm, which probably describes the bringing of the Ark to 
Jerusalem by David, the now Melchisedek, king at once and fulfiller of 
priestly offices, describes the Divine King under three aspects as King 
(1—3), Priest (4), Conqueror (5—7). The opening words of the Psalm 


no o c ss ar ily called tip the whole portraiture ; and one part of It (Pa. ex. 4) 
b afterwards dwelt upon at length (τ. 6, ίο; vi. 20 ; vii. 11 if.). 

5. The Son of man, as trne man fulfilling the destiny of man, and the 5• The 
destiny of fallen man throngh suffering ('tho servant of the Lord*). Son °f 

(a) Man's dosUny. (T)Man'e 

Pe.viiL 5 tt(ii.6ff.). hUny. 

Comp. Matt xxl 16; 1 Cor. xv. 27. 

The Psalm, which was new reckoned as Messianic, presents tho ideal 
of man (Gen. i. 27—30), a destiny unfulfilled and unrepealed 

09) Tho suffering King. φ) The 

Ps. χχϋ. 22 (H. 11 f.). Kin ?eHnR 

The Psalm, which is frequently quoted in tho Gospels to illustrate the n8 ' 
desertion, the mockery, tho spoiling of Christ, gives the description of the 
progress of the innocent, suffering King, who identifies himself with his 
people, to the throne. After uttermost trials sorrow is turned into joy, 
and the deliverance of the sufferer is the ground of national joy. Comp, 
Prof. Cheyne On the Christian dement in leaiah, § 2. 

(γ) The representative prophet (7) The 

Is. viii. 17 t (ii. 13). ST 1 * 11 " 

The prophecy belongs to a crisis in the national history. In a period of ρΓΟ Ιι^|. 
the deepest distress the prophet teaches in his own person two lessons. He 
declares unshaken faith in God in the midst of judgments. He shews in 
himself and his children the remnant which shall preserve the chosen 

To these passages 0110 other must be addod, Ps. xl. 6 ff. (x. 5 ff.), in order 
to comploto the portraitnro of tho Christ tty perfoct obedience tho Son 
of man fulfils for mon the will of God. 

Sevoral reflections at once offer thomsolves to the student who considers General 
those quotations as a whole. (1) It is assumed that a divine counsel was conch* 
wrought out in the course of the life of Israel. We are allowed to see in *'*"*' 
' the people of God ' signs of the purpose of God for humanity. The whole 
history is prophotic It is not enough to recognise that the Ο. T. contains 
prophecies: tho Ο. T. is one vast prophecy. 

(2) The application of prophetic words in each case has regard to the 
ideal indicated by thorn, and is not limited by tho historical fact with which 
they are connected. But the history is not set aside. The history forces 
the reader to look boyond. 

(3) The passages are not merely isolated phrases. They represent 
ruling ideas. They answer to broad conceptions of the methods of the 
divine discipline for the nation, the King, the prophet man. 

(4) The words had a perfect meaning when they were first used. This 
meaning is at once the germ and the vehicle of the later and fuller mean- 
ing. As we determine the relations, intellectual, social, spiritual, between 
the time of the prophecy and our own tlmo, we have the key to its present 
interpretation. In Christ we have the ideal fulfilment 

80 it is that when we look at the succession of passages, just as they Summary 

stand, wo can see how they connect the Gospel with the central teaching of review of 

tho 0. T. Tho theocratic Sovereign addressed as 'Son' failed to subdue *** J""- 



the nations and rear an eternal Temple, but none the lets be gave defiuite 
form to a faith which still in one sense want• its satisfaction. The Marriage 
8ong of the Jewish monarch laid open thoughts which could only be 
realised in the relation of the Divine King to His Church. The confidence 
with which the exile looked for the deliverance of Zfon by the personal 
intervention of Jehovah, who had entered into covenant with man, led 
believers to see the Saviour in the Creator. The promise of the Session of 
Him who is King and Priest and Conqueror at the right hand of God, is 
still sufficient to bring strength to all who are charged to gather the fruits 
of the victory of the 8on. 

In this way the Majesty of the Christ, the Son of God, can be read in 
the 0. T. ; and no less the Christian can perceive there the sufferings of 
'Jesus,' the Son of man, who won His promised domiuion for man through 
death. The path of sorrow which He hallowed had been marked in old 
time by David, who proclaimed to his 'brethren' the 'Name' of his Deliverer, 
when he saw in the retrospect of the vicissitudes of his own life that which 
transcended them; and by Isaiah, who at the crisis of trial identified his 
'children'— typos of a spiritual remnant— with himself iu absolute trust on 

On the one side we see how the majestic description of the Mediator of 
the New Covenant given in the opening verses of the Epistle, is justified 
by a series of passages in which He is pointed to in the records of the Old 
Covenant as Son and Lord and Creator and Sharer of the throne of God ; and 
on the other side oven we can discern, as we look back, how it was 
'becoming' that He should fulfil the destiny of fallen men by taking to 
Himself, like King and Prophet, the sorrows of those whom He relieved. 
. The greatest words of God come, as we speak, naturally and intelligibly 
through the occasions of life. In the history of Israel, of the Christ, aud of 
the Ohurclii disappointment is made the door of hope, and suffering is the 
condition of glory. 

Additional Note to ii. 17. Passages on the High-priesthood of 


The student will find it a most instructive inquiry to trace the 
development of tho thought of Christ's High-priosUiood, which is tho 
ruling thought of the Epistle, through tho successive passages iu which tho 
writer specially deals with it 

The thought is indicated in the opening verses. The crowning trait of 
the Son is that, when He had made purification <\f tint, He eat down on 
the right hand of the Majesty on high (i. 3). So the priestly aud royal 
works of Christ are placed together in the closest conuexion. 

The remaining passages prepare for, expound, and apply the doctrine. 

(1) Preparatory. 

ii 17, 18. The Incarnation the foundation of Christ's High-priesthood. 

iil 1, 2. The subject such as to require careful consideration. 


It. 14—16. Recapitulation of points already marked at a transition to 
the detailed treatment of the truth. Christ i• a High-priest who has 
fulfilled the conditions of His office, who can feel with men, and who 
is alike able and ready to succour them. 

(2) The characteristics qf Christ* High-priesthood. 

v. ι— ία The characteristics of the Levitical High-priesthood realised 
by Christ. 

vi 20; Til. 14 — 19. The priesthood of Christ after the order of 

vii 26—28. The characteristics of Christ as absolute and eternal High- 

(3) The work of Christ as High-priest. 

▼ill. 1—6. The scone of Christ's work a heavenly and not an earthly 

iz. 1 1—28. Christ's atoning work contrasted with that of the Levitical 
High-priest on the Day of Atonement 

χ. 1 — 18. The abiding efficacy of Christ's One Sacrifice. 

(4) Application qf the fruits qf Christ s High-priesthood to believers. 
x. 19—25. Personal use. 

xiii 10—16. Privileges and duties of the Christian Society. 

These passages should be studied in their broad features, especially in 
regard to the new traits which they successively introduce. The following 
out of the inquiry is more than an exercise in Biblical Theology. Nothing 
conveys a more vivid impression of the power of the Apostolic writings 
than to watch tho unfolding of a special idea in the course of an Epistle 
without any trace of conscious design on tho part of the writer, as of a 
single part in somo groat harmony. 



[III. ι 

III. % *O6ev % άδβλφοϊ ay ιοι, κλήσεως επουρανίου 

II. Μοβκβ, Joshua, Jbsub, tbi 


of thb Niw (cc. iii., iv.). 

The writer of the Bpistle after 
stating the main thought of Christ's 
High-priesthood, which ooutaiuod 
the answer to the chief difficulties of 
the Hebrews, pauses for a while be- 
fore developing it in detail (cc. v.— τϋ), 
in order to establish the superiority 
of the New Dispensation over tho Old 
from another point of view. He hat 
already shewn that Christ (tho Son) 
is superior to the angels, the spiritual 
agents in the giviug of the Law; he 
now goes on to shew that He is 
superior to the Human Lawgiver. 

In doing this he goes back to the 
phrase which he had used in ii. 5. The 

Conception Of ή οίκονμίνη 8/ μ*λ\ουσα 

leads naturally to a comparison of 
those who were appointed to found 
on earth the Jewish Theocracy and 
the new Kingdom of God. 

This comparison is an essential part 
of the argument; for though the 
superiority of Christ to Moses 
might have seemed to be necessarily 
implied in tho superiority of Christ to 
angels, yet the position of Moses in 
regard to the actual Jewish system 
made it necessary, in view of tho 
difficulties of Hebrew Christians, to 
develop the truth independently. 

And further the exact comparison 
is not between Moses and Christ, but 
between Moses and Jesus, Moses 
occupied a position which no other 
man occupied (Num. xii. 6 ft). He 
was charged to found a Theocracy, a 
Kingdom of God. In this respect it 
became necessary to regard him side 
by side with Christ in His humanity, 
with the Son, who was Son of man no 
less than the Son of God. In the 
Apocalypse the victorious believers 
'sing tho song of Moses and the 
Lamb' (Apoc. xv. 3). (Compare 
generally John v. 45 ft) 

And yet again the work of Joshua, 
the actual issue of the Law, cast an 
important light upon the work of 
Moses of which the Christiau was 
bound to take account 

Thus tho section falls iuto three 
i. Moses and Jesus: the servant 

and the Son (iii. 1 — 6). 
ii. The promise and the people 

under the Old and the New Dis- 
pensations (iii. 7— iv. 13). 
iil Transition to the doctrine of the 

High-priesthood, resuming ii. 17 f. 

(iv. 14—16). 

L Moses and Jesus: the servant 
and tlie Son (1— 6). 

The paragraph begins with an as- 
sumption of the dignity of tho Chris- 
tian calling, and of * Jesus' through 
whom it comes (w. 1, 2); and then 
the writer establishes the superiority 
of Christ by two considerations: 

(1) Moses represents a 'house/ 
an economy: Christ represents 'the 
franier of the house/ God Himself 

(«">- 3, 4X 

(2) Moses held the position of a 
servant» witnessing to tho future: 
Christ holds the position of a Son, 
and the blessings which He brings are 
realised now (w. 5, 6). 

Perhaps wo may see, as has been 
suggested, in the form in which the 
truth is presented— tho Fathor, tho 
faithful servant» the Son— some re- 
membrance of Abraham, and Kliexer, 
and Isaac. 

• Wherefore, holy brethren, par- 
takers of a heavenly calling, consider 
the Apostle and High-priest of our 
confession, even Jesus, * faithful to 
Him thai appointed Him, as also 
was Moses in all His (God's) house. 
J For He hath been counted worthy 
of more glory than Moses, by so 
much as He hath more glory than 
the liouse who established iL « For 
every house is established by some 
one; but He that established all 

III. ι] 



μέτοχοι, κατανοήσατε τον άπόαττοΧον και άρχιβρέα τη* 

ι κατατοήσατ*: jrararoVerc D s *. 

Primasius says: Fratres eoe vocat 
turn camo quam spiritu, qui ex eodem 
genere erant, eandemque fidem habe- 
bant This Is true in Iteelf, but perhaps 
doee not lie in the writer's thoughts. 

κλήσ*ω* inovpaplov] Comp. PhiL iii. 
14 της 5*ω κΚψτΐως. 

The Christian's 'calling' is heavenly 
not simply in the sense that it is ad- 
dressed to man from God in heaven, 
though this is true (comp. c, xii. 25), 
but as being a calling to a life fulfilled 
in heaven, in the spiritual realm. The 
voice from heaven to Moses was an 
earthly calling, a calling to tho fulfil- 
ment of an earthly life. 

Theophylact's words are too narrow 
when he says, treating heaven as a 
place not a state: Arc? ΙκλήΘημ**, 
μη&ίν ίντανθα ζητωμπ. Am ο μισθός, 
foe ι ή Ανταποδοσις. 

the word κ\ήσ« is found elsewhere 
in tho Ν. T. only in St Paul and 
2 Pet i. ία Comp. Clem. 1 Cor. vii; 

inovpaviov] C vi. 4 ; viii. 5 ; ix. 23 ; xl 
16; xii. 22. Comp. Bph. i. 3; PhiL ii. 
10; John iii. 12 note; and, for the 
lxx., Ps. lxvii. 15; (Dan. iv. 23); 
2 Maoc. iii. 39. 

μίτοχοι] Vn\g.participes. The word 
occurs again «.14 (του Χρίστου); vi. 4 
(πν*νματος αγίου) ; xii. 8 (ww&tiat) (else- 
where in Ν. Τ. Luke v. 7); Clem. 
1 Cor. xxxiv. Comp. ii. 14 μ€τίσχ<ρ 

As distinguished from Ko*w»wfe, 
which suggests the idea of personal 
fellowship (comp, c. x. 33 note), μβτο- 
χος describes participation in some 
common blessing or privilege, or the 
like. The bond of union lies in that 
which is shared and not in the persons 

κατανοήσατε... πιστό» orra] Ο. L. 
intuimini..fidelem esse (fidelem ex- 

istentem). Vulg. considerate qui 


thing• is God. » And while Most* 
wasfaittyd in all His (God's) house 
as. a servant, for a testimony of the 
thingg which thotdd be spoken, 
« Christ is faithful as Son over His 
(God's) house; whose house are we, if 
we hold fast our boldness and the 
boast of our hope firm unto the end. 

te. ι , 2. Tho thought of the majesty 
and sympathy of Christ, the Son, and 
the glorified Son of man, glorified 
through sufferings, which bring Him 
near to fallen man as Redeemer and 
High-priest, imposes upon Christians 
the duty of considering His Person 
heedfully, in His humanity as well as 
in His divinity. 

t. Wp] Wherefore, because 
Christ has taken our nature to Him- 
self, and knows our needs and is able 
to satisfy them. 

άΊΜίφοΧ ayiot] holy brethren. The 
phrase occurs only here, and perhaps 
in 1 These, v. 27. It follows naturally 
from the view of Christ's office which 
has just been given. This reveals the 
destiny of believers. 

The epithet &yuu is social and not 
personal, marking the ideal character 
not necessarily realised individually. 
(Compare John xiii. 10.) 

In this sense St Paul speaks of 
Christians generally as ayiot (e.g. Sph. 
ii 19). Compare 1 Pet ii. 5 1*ραηνμα 
aytov, id. It 9 1b\ot άγιο*. 

Hore the epithet characterises the 
nature of the fellowship of Christians 
which is further defined in the follow- 
ing clause. 

The titlo ιΐώλφο/ occurs again in 
the Rpistle t>. 12 ; x. 19; xiii. 22. The 
sense of brotherhood springs from 
the common relation to Christ, and 
the use of the title here first may have 
been suggested by ii. 1 1 ft, to which 
however there is no direct reference. 
Contrast iv. 1. Filil uniue cselestis 
Patris et uniue Ecclesite matris (Herv.). 



[III. a 

ομολογίας ημών Ίησοΰν, •πκ:τ<$ν όντα τφ ποιησαντι αύτον 

ΊψτοΟ* KABO # D/M, vg me the: Ί. Χριστά, syrr : Χρίστο* Ί. Γ. 

The sense is not simply : ' Regard 
Jesus.. .who was...'; hut 'Regard 
Jesus... as being....' AtieuUou is 
Axed upon the perfect fidelity with 
which He fulfilled His work, and that 
essentially, both now and always (oVra 
not γ*νόμ*νον). Οοηφ. L 3 «V 

For the verb καταροβιρ, which ex- 
presses attention and continuous ob- 
servation and regard, see c. x. 24; 
James L 23 £; Luke xii. 24, 27. 
Philo, Leg. All eg. iii. § 32 did r»p 
JpyuproprcxWriypftarapoovprff. I Clem. 

The use of the second person (κατά- 
νοήσατ*) is rare in Uie Epistle in such 
a connexion (oomp. vii. 4 ώα>ρ«ϊτ#). 
The writer generally identifies him- 
self with those to whom ho givos 
counsel (iv. 1, 11, 14, 16; vi. 1; x. 22 
£: xii 28; xiil 13, 15). 

top απόστολο» κα\ άρχιβρ4α] * Him 
who occupies the double position of 
legislator— envoy from God— and 
Priest' In Christ the functions of 
Moses an Aaron are combined, each 
in an infinitely loftier form. The 
compound description (ο άπόστ. ml 
άρχ.) gathers up what has been 
already established as to Ohrist as 
the last revealer of God's will and 
the fulfiller of mail's destiny. Comp. 
α viii. 6 note. 

Here the double office of Christ 
underlies the description of Christians 
which has boon given already. Ά•*ό- 
oroXor gives the authority of the κλησις 
faovpmnos and άρχι*ρ*ύς the source 
of the title £y«H. 

Bengal says admirably of Christ: 
qui Dei causam apud nos agit, causain 
nostram apud Deum agit. 

απόστολο»] Comp. John xvii. 3 etc. 
Theodoret, referring to Gal iv. 5, 
calls attention to the (act that the 
Father is said to have sent forth the 
Son ytpofif pop 4κ . γυναικός and not 
ywiabSu 4κ γυναικός. He is απόστολος 

in respect of His perfect manhood. 
For the idea of απόστολος compare 
Just M. Dial 75. Lightfoot Oala- 
tiaru pp. 89 ff. 

άρχ. της ομολογίας ήμ*ν] Old Lat 
principefnoonstitutionis nostras. The 
apostle and high-priest who belongs 
to, who is oharacteriiitic of our con- 
fession. In Christ our 'ooufossion,' 
tlie faith which we hold and openly 
acknowledge, finds its authoritative 
promulgation and its priestly applica- 

The sense 'whom we confess' or 
'who is the subject and sum of our 
coufcssiou' falls short of the mean- 

ομολ.] c. iv. 14; x. 23; 1 Tim. vi. 12 
f. Comp. 2 Cor. ix. 13 (itoin. x. 9). 
Comp. Philo do &mn. L § 38 (i. 654 M.) 
ο ρίγας apxuptvt [της ομολογία?]. 
Clem. I Cor. xxxvi Ίησον* Χριστό*, 
τον άρχιβρία rmv προσφορών ήμων...ΐά. 
IxL δΊα row άρχι* pirns κάί προστάτον 
των ψυχών ήμων Ίη,σον Χρίστου... id. 
Ixiv. 6ώ του άρχΜρ4ως κα\ προστάτον 
Ίησου Χριστού. 

The word is objective here like 
πίστις. Theod. όμολ. di ήμων τήν 
πίστιν 4κάλβσ€* (so Theophlct, Prim. r 

Ίησονρ] The human name of the 
Lord is chosen as presenting in brief 
the thoughts developed at the end of 
c. ii. The name Christ appears first 
in 0. 6. 

The use of the name is charactci - 
istio of the Epistle; see ii. 9 note, 
and Addit Note on i 4- It is of 
iuterest to notice that tho usage in 
the Epistle of Barnabas is similar 
(Kendall on Barn. Ep. ii. 6). The 
difficulty of the Hebrews aud their 
consolation turned on the Lord's hu- 

2• wurrop oWo rf ποιήσ. αύ."] faith- 
fid in His perfect humanity to Him 
who appointed Him to His author!- 

ΙΠ. 3] 



arc και ΜωγεΑε €N [<?λφ] τφ οΓκφ Αγτογ. *ΐΓ\*ιονοτ yap ovros 

4 om. ί\φ Β me the. 3 ovrm *φρ KABOD t : β. βντ. Γ Μ, Tg. 

tative and mediatorial office. Comp. 
1 Cor. ir. 2. 

Tf wouprairi] Old Lai ereatori suo 
(qui ereavil eum). Vulg. λ qui fecit 
alum. The phrase it capable of two 
distinct interpretations. It may be 
understood (i)of the Lord's humanity, 
or (2) of tho fjord's office. 

The language of i. 3 absolutely ex- 
cludes tho idea that the writer speaks 
of Christ Himself personalty as ποίημα, 
or κτίσμα. 

In favour of tho first view it is 
urged that the phrase is commonly 
used of the Creator in reforonce to 
men : e.a. Is. xvii. 7 (τφ *-. aM*)\ Ps. 
xdv. (xcr.) 6 ; Pa exlix. 2. 

And the fathers constantly speak 
of the Lord's humanity in these terms, 
as, for example, Athnnaeius de sent 
Dion. (L p. 496 Migne), though he 
appears to interpret this passage 
of the Lord's office as well as of His 
humanity: c Ar. ii. 7. 

In itself this interpretation is ad- 
missible, but such a reference to the 
Lord's human nature apart from His 
office seems to be out of place. 

It is better therefore to adopt 
tho second interpretation and refer 
the 'making' to the Lord's office: 
'who infested Him with His office, 
who appointed Him, who made Him 
Apostle and High Priest' corap. 
Acts ii. tf). This sense is porfectly 
natural (comp. 1 8am. xii. 6; Mark 
Hi. 14). 

80 Theodoret: rf woofaarrt avrov, 
tovtIotw απόστολο* καί άρχι*ρ4α-... 
ποίησιρ Μ ον τι)» δημιουργία* αΧΧα τήρ 
χιφοτονίαν κ4κληκ*ρ. And Chrysos- 
tom : ovMp ίντανθα π<ρ\ ουσίας ΦφτΙ ρ ι 
οΜ π*ρ\ rrjt 6*στητο* 9 άΧ\α rims π*ρ\ 
αξινμότω* ανθρωπίνων. 

Primasins refers the word to the 
Lord's humanity, being led astray by 
the Latin rendering of Rom. i. 3 : qui 
fecit ilium, juxta quod alibi dicitur 

qui factui est ei ex semine David 
secundum carnem. 

*\t κα\ M»wnjt] The former dis- 
cussion has prepared the way for this 
comparison of ' Jesus' with the founder 
of the Old Theocracy. 

b Skf τψ oUf] The point of com- 
parison lies in tho fact that Moses 
and Christ were both engaged, not as 
othor divine mossengers with a pnrt> 
but with the whole of the dirine 
economy. The prophets dealt sever- 
ally with this or that aspect of Truth, 
the Kings with another region of life, 
tho Priests with another. But Moses 
and Christ dealt with 'the whole 
house of God.' 

The words, taken from Num. xii 7, 
may go either with 'Moses' or with 
1 Jesus.' In either case the sense is 
the same. Perhaps the reference of 
avrov to God, and the emphasis which 
is naturally laid on the fact that the 
office of Christ was as wide as that of 
Moses, favours the connexion of the 
words with ' Jesus.' 

In their original reference to Moses 
the words were much discussed by 
Rabbinical writers, who found various 
deeper meanings in JOM3 (faithful), 
as one who could speak with authority, 
to whom the secrets of the Lord were 
entrusted. Comp. Philo, L*g. AUea. 
ili. 87a(i. i28M.);§8i(i. 132 M.). 

For the perfect faithfulness of 
Moses in his work see Ex. xl. 16. 
The nobility of his service is recog- 
nised when that of Christ is set above 
it Comp. 1 Clem. xvii. 5. 

τ» oUf avrov] His house, i.e. the 
of Γ " 

God, not of Christ or of 
Moses. This is decided in the original 
context: The Lord,.. said.. .My «sr- 
vant Moses.. .is faithful in all Mine 
house, where the Targums give the 
sense rightly 'in all My people.' The 
familiarity of the words left no room 
for misunderstanding to a Jew. 



[III. 3 

δόξης παρά Μωυσήν ηξίωται καθ* όσον Tckeiova ημην 

The 'house of God' ie the organised 
society in which He dwells. Israel 
was the type of redeemed mankind. 

Compare ι Tim. lit 15; 1 Pot iv. 
17; Eph. ii. 21 f.; Hoe. viil 1. 

Thie 'house' in relation to God ia 
essentially one, but in relation to the 
two agents, Moeee and 'Jesus,' through 
whom it is administered, it ia twofold 
in form. 

Compare Philo de Soma. L 8 32 
(L 648 Μ.) 6 αισθητοί οντοσϊ κόσμος 
ovbip &ρα SXko 4στ\» $ oUos dcov, μιας 
τώ* του forms ucov δυράμιω* καθ 9 ηρ 
ayauos fp (the reference i• to Gen. 
xxviii. 17). 

3, 4. The general affirmation of 
the dignity of Christ which has been 
included in the two preceding verses 
ia enforced by a view of His superior- 
ity over Moses. Moses was, so to 
apeak, lost in the economy which was 
.given through him : Christ was the 
author of that which He instituted. 
*Οση 9 φησί, νοήματος προς ποιητήρ dto- 
φορα τοσαντη Μωΰσέως προς top Χρισ- 
roV (Theodt). 

πλίίορος yap...] The duty of caroful 
regard is pressed by the consideration 
of Christ's preeminence : Regard... 
Jeeue„jbr He hath been counted 
worthy of more glory than Moeee... 
The fidelity of Christ in dealing with 
the whole house of God was as com- 
plete as that of the Lawgiver who 
was raised above all other men, and 
His authority was greater. 

For the use of πλύωρ compare c. xi. 
4 (not in St Paul in this usage). 

vXtiovot. . .naff Ισορ. . .] He hath been 
counted worthy of more... by eo much 
of... Old Lat ampliorem gloriam 
...coneecutue eet 9 guanto majorem 
honorem Ivabet domue quipratparavU 
ipeam... Vulg. ampliorie gloria... 
•dignue est habitue 9 guanto ampliorem 
h. h.a\ guifabricavit Ulam. 

ούτος] He, who is the one present 
object of our thoughts. Compare 0. 
x. 12 (vii. i 9 4). The usage is very 

common in St John (e.g. I 2; ι Johu 

W*r<u] The thought is of the 
abiding glory of Christ, aud not of 
the hUtorio fact of His exaltation 
(UuiBn). Comp. ii. 9 note. It is 
implied that that which was merited 
was also given. For άξωΰσθαι see o. 
x. 29; 1 Tim. v. 17. 

οάξιμ... τιμήν] glory... honour. Tho 
term is changed in tho secoud case 
to cover more uaturally tho appli- 
cation to 'the house.' 'Glory 1 is 
internal, as light flashed forth from 
an object : * honour * is external, as 
light shed upon it Comp. ii. 7, 9; 
and for &S£a, 2 Cor. iii. 7 ff. 

καθ* &σορ...] The remark is quite 
geueral. Here the force of the argu- 
ment lies in the fact that Moses is 
identified with tho system which was 
entrusted to him. He was himself a 
part of it He did not originate it 
He received it and administered it 
with absolute loyalty. But its author 
was God. And Christ is tho Son of 
God. Hence the relation of Moses to 
Christ is that of a systom to its author. 
The argumont is iudicatod but not 
worked out in the next verse. Ka\ 

αυτός, φησί, της oUlas %p. koX ovk 
ttw€P ούτος μ*ν γαρ bovkos ίκ§ΐΡος Of 
δεσπότης, άλλα tovto λαρφαρόντως dp- 
έφηρίρ (Chrys.). 

Some have referred 6 κατασκινασας 
to Christ, as the real Founder of that 
Kingdom of God of which the Jewish 
economy was a shadow. This thought 
is completely in harmony with the 
argument of the Epistlo, but it is not 
directly eipressed elsewhere. And ou 
this interpretation v. 4 must be taken 
as a parenthetical remark desiguod to 
guard the sovereign authorship of 
God in all tilings and His part in 
the ordering of the Law, a view 
which appears to be unsatisfactory. 
The compressed suggestiveness of the 
argument is not unlike John viil 31— 

III. 4—6] 



ίχει του οίκου ό κατασκεύασα? αυτόν* 4 πά* yap οίκον 
κατασκευάζεται υπό προ*, ό δε πάντα κατασκεύασαν 
θεός. *και ΜωγεΑε μεν itictoc iu ό"λ(ο τψ οΓκφ Αγτογ ων θβρ<£πωΝ 
61? μαρτύρων των \α\ηθησομενων 9 6 Χριστός ic ων υιόν 

4 rarraKABO^D/H,: + τ*'».Γ. 

ό κατασκ*νασας] he thai established, 
Vnlg. qui fabricavit. The word 
(κατασκινάζη*) expresses more than 
the moro construction of tho houso. 
It includes the supply of all necessary 
furniture and equipment. Comp. & 
ix. 2, 6 ; xi. η ; Num. xxi. 27. 

4. wat γάρ. . .] Tho general principle, 
that tlie framer is superior to the 
thing framed, admits of application in 
the caso of the Law. Evon here wo 
must not rest on the system; for 
every system, and this highest of all, 
has its framer; and finally every 
system is carried up to Ood as its 
Author, and 'Jesus 9 our 'Apostle and 
High-priest' is the 8on of God. 

Nothing is said here expressly of 
the unique relation in which Christ, 
as the Son, stands t» Ood. That is 
assumod, as having boon already laid 
down in the opening of the Epistle. 

πάντα] all things taken severally, 
and not the sum of all things (τα 
narra). Comp. ϋ IO. 

6t6t ] For the difference of 0*©* and 
ό foot see Additional Noto on 1 John 
iv. 12. The anarthrous form (6*6t) 
wherever it is used in tho Epistle 
suggests the thought of the character 
of God as God: i. 6; ii. 9 (note); 
9. 12 (6*ot {Av noto); vi 1, 5, 18 ; viii 
10; xi. 3, 16; xii. 23. The force of 
it will be felt by comparing vi. 1, 5 
with vi. 3; vi. 17 with vi. 18; xi. 3 
with xi. 4. 

5, 6. Tho superiority of Christ ovor 
Moses is shewn also by another argu- 
ment Moses and Christ are not only 
distinguished as standing to one an- 
other in the relation of an economy to 
its author ; but also in regard to the 
respective economies which they ad- 
ministered. The position of Moses was, 

by a necessary consequence, that of a 
servant acting in a certain sphere, tho 
position of Christ that of a Son over 
a certain sphere. And yet again, the 
Mosaic order pointed forward as pre- 
paratory to that which should come 
after: the Christian order includes 
the blessings which it proclaims. 

5. 4ψ 8λφ τψ οίκψ αντον] in all 
God's house, as before. The phraso 
which marks the inferiority of Moses 
to Christ marks at the same time 
his superiority to all the other pro- 

«it fopAnmv] Vulg. tanquam famulus 
(O. L. servusX Here only in Ν. T. 
Num. xii. 7 lxx. (nay); Jos. i. 2; 
▼Hi. 31, 33 ; Wisd. x. 16. Comp. Clem. 
1 Cor. α 43 (mo also cc 17, 51) ή 
ftaitapiot irurrfo 6*ρΑπ*ρ cV Skf τψ οΐκψ 
Μ-υσής. Qtpawmw suggests a porsonal 
service freely rendered Ασυλο* ex- 
presses a permanent social condition. 
The same person may be described 
by both words under different aspects. 
Comp. Ps. cv. (civ.) 26 ; Apoc xv. 3 
(ftovXor of Moses). 

tit μαρτ. rmv \αληθησομ*ρ*ν) for A 
testimony of the thing» which should 
be spoken by God through the prophets 
and finally through Christ (i. 1). Old 
Lat in testimonio loquendorum. 
Vulg. in testimonium eorum qua 
dieenda erant. The position of Moses 
and of the Mosaic Dispensation was 
provisional. Moses not only witnessed 
to tho truths which his legislation 
plainly declared, but also to the truths 
which were to be made plain after- 
wards. Tho Ο. T. in all its parts 
pointed forward to a spiritual antitype. 
Comp. Deut xviii. 15 ft 

The rendering, 'to be spoken by 
him' (Pesh.) or 'by the prophets of 



[III. 6 

4wl ton oIkon Αγτογ • ου οίκο* έσμεν ήμέις, έάν την παρρη- 
σία* και το καύχημα της ελπίδος [μίχρι τίλονς βεβαίαν] 

6 dcUoi ΚΑΒΟ: h oUot OJH t vg. 
M*AO (not disturbed in v. 14; τί. 3). 

tbo O. T.' wholly obscure* the con- 
tnuii of the Old and New. 

On the rarity of the future parti- 
ciple in the Ν. T. see Winer-Moulton, 
p. 438. 

6. XpurroroV] The uame is changed. 
The human title (0. ι % 1ησου») is re- 
placed by the * prophetic' title after 
the full description of the relation of 
the Incarnate 8on to Moses. Χριστός 
occurs again as a proper name without 
the article ix. 11,24. 

«it viw...] Moses and Christ were 
alike ' faithful ' (v. 2), but their porfect 
fidelity was exercised in differeut re. 
specta. Moses was faithful as a ser- 
vant in tho administration of God's 
houso : Christ was faithful as a Son as 
sovereign over Qod's house (i. 2). 
Comp. c. x. 21 ; Matt xxi. 37 ff. 

Tho form of the sontonce requires 
the extension of πιστός to Christ no 
less than iu υ. 2 ; and probably of the 
whole phrase morbs iv Ζ\ω τψ ο&φ, 
so that ως νΙος Μ τον οίκον corre- 
sponds with dt θ*ράπων *1ς μαμτ. των 

Μ τον οίκον αυτόν] over His, that is 
God's, house. The phrase necessarily 
retains one meaning throughout The 
Vulg. not unnaturally gives in domo 
sua (Old Lat ejus), making a contrast 
apparently between 'tn dtmoojus'md 
*in domo sua' 

For Μ (tho force of which is missed 
by the Latin version) compare e. χ. 2i. 

ov οίκος...] The writer might have 
said, taking up the words of the quo- 
tation, oZ 6 οίκος..., but ho wishes to 
insist on tho character (οίκος) and not 
upon the concrete uniqueness (ο οίκος) 
of the Christian society. Comp. L 2 
iv vlf. 

Christians are 'the house of God/ 
and no longer the Jews. They have 
the fulness of blessing in their grasp 

Air (K*) BD/M, vg: Uvwtp Γ 
om. μέχρι r. βφ. Β (no omission in v. 14). 

even if it is not yet maufifestod. Ou 
the reference of the relative to a re- 
mote antecedent (Bw v. 4), see c. v. 7 

JsV...] The spiritual privileged of 
Christians dopend upon their firm 
hold upon tliat glorious hope which 
the Hebrews were on the point of 

« την παρρησία*] Ο. L. Ubertatem, 
Vulg. fiduciam, c. x. 35, 19; iv. 16; 
Eph. Hi. 12. 

Παρρησία always convoys the idea 
of bolduess which fiuds oxpression in 
word or act 

το καύχημα της As*] Old IiOt 6JB• 
suiiationem sjtei, Vulg. gloiiam speL 

The Christian hope is one of cou- 
rageous oxultutiou. Comp. vi. 18 ff. 
This exultation is here regarded in 
its dofiuite concrete form (καύχημα 
boast) and not as finding personal ex- 
pression (καύχησις boasting). Contrast 
2 Cor. L 14 with 1 Cor. i. 12; Rom. 
til 27 with Rom. iv. 2. 

μίχρι τ«λ. /3«/3.] If tliis clause is 
genuine, and not an interpolation 
from v. 14, then της ίΚνΙοος must be 
taken with vapp. as well as καύχημα, 
the gender of β§βαία* being deter- 
mined by the former nouu. This 
connexion is unlikely, and so far the 
internal ovtdouco is agaiust tho au- 
thenticity of tho clause. 

μίχρι rikuvt) till ho|M) passes into 
sight Comp. c vi. 1 1 ; Apoc. ft 26 ; 
Matt, x. 22 ; 1 Cor. L 8. 

The conception of 'hope' occupies 
an important place in the Epistle 
(vi. 11, 18; vii. 19; x. 23, uoto). 
'Hope' is related to « Faith* as the 
energetic activity of life is related to 
Ufa Through hope the power of 
faith is seen in regard to the future. 
Hope gives distinctness to the objects 
of faith. 

III. 6] 



fl. The promise and the people 
under the Old and the New Dispen- 
sations (iii. 7— It. 13). 

The comparison of Christ with 
Motes lends naturally to a comparison 
of those who respectively received 
their teaching. The faithlessness of 
the Jews in the desert becomes an 
eloqnent warning to Christians who 
are in dangor of untaliof. Even the 
dato (about 'forty years' from the 
Passiou) seemed to give additional 
force to the parallel. At the same 
time the history of the past was fitted 
to prepare 'tho remnant' of Jewish 
believers for tho general faithlessness 
of their conntrymon. Tho Old Testa- 
ment is in fact a record of successive 
judgments of Israel out of which a 
few only were saved. 

The argument turns upon the 
Psalmist's interpretation of the dis- 
cipline of the wilderness (Ps. xcv.> 
(1) Faith is first laid down as tho con- 
dition of the enjoyment of the divine 
blessing (iii. 7—19); and then (2) it is 
shewn that the promise still remains 
to be realised by Christians (iv. 1— 


(1) Faith is the condition of the 
enjoyment of the dhine blessing (iii. 


The condition of Faith is estab- 
lished by (a) tho experience of the 
wildorocss (7— 11), which (ft) is ap- 
plied generally (12 — 15), and then 
(e) interpreted in detail (16—19)1 

The construction of the paragraph 
is by no means clear. It is uncertain 
whether vv. 12, 1 5 are to be connected 
with the verses which precede or with 
those which follow. On tho whole it 
seems to be simplest to take fiMwm 
(v. 12) as tho sequel of θιό (v. 7), treat- 
ing 00. 7 b — 1 1 as structurally paren- 
thetical ; and to join «. 15 with v. 13, 
treating e. 14 also as parenthetical 
In any ease the whole scope of the 
passage remains the same. 

(a) The example of the wilderness 

(7— 11). 

The xcvth Psalm serves perfectly to 

point the lesson which the Apostlo 
desires to draw. It contains an in- 
vitation to the people of Ood to wor- 
ship, and a divine warning against 

The Psalm has been used from the 
earliest times in the Synagogue ser- 
vice for the Sabbath, and as u the 
Invitatory Psalm" at Matins in the 
Western Church. 

It is assigned in the lxx (not in 
the Hebrew) to David (comp. c. iv. 7)» 
but this popular attribution cannot be 

The words which immediately pre- 
cede the quotation (8— 11) justify the 
application to Christians : 

We are tJis people of Hi» pasture, 
and the sheep of Hi» hand (Lk. xii. 
32 ιτοΙμ*ιον\ 

The particular interpretation of 
tliis claim gives also the particular 
interpretation of ' today.' The voice 
of Qod comes still to those who claim 
to be His. 

The quotation agrees with the 
lxx. text except by the insertion of 
θ«ι> and by the substitution of rovrg 
for Utlvji and of avro\ 6f for κα\ αυτοί 
in v. 10 ; [πιφασμου is the true read- 
ing of lxx.] and of iv οοκψησίο for 
/oW/Muro» (e. 9). 

' Wherefore— even a» the Holy 
Ghost saith, 

Today, if ye shall hear Hi» voice, 

1 Harden not your heart», a» in 
the Provocation, 

At the day of the Temptation in 
tlie wilderness, 

9 Where your fathers tempted by 

And saw my works forty years, 

M Wherefore I was displeased with 
this generation, 

And said They do always err in 
their heart; 

BtU they did not know my ways, 

" As I swore in my wrath, 

They shall not enter into my 

7. bu>\ Wherefore, because it is 
only by holding fast our hope that we 



[HI. 7, « 

κατάσχω μβν. 1 Αώ — καθώς \eyei το τη^ΰμα το r aytov, 

8 Μ»1 CKAHpYNHTC ric KApAtaC γΜΟ>Ν OX. k.H Τψ TTAp&TTIKp&CAMp, 

7... 1 1 3rp** t 
8 ναρ*π»ίρα*μφ•. πιρασμω Κ. 

gaii locaro Uie privilege of U10 diviuo 

The point of transition lie• in *. 6. 
The oonditiou of resolute fidelity sug- 
geete the consideration of the con- 
sequences of failure. 

The construction of the clauses 
which follow ie uueortain. It uiay 
be complete or incomplete. Iu tho 
former case two modes of construction 
are possible. The quotation from Ps. 
xcv. may be appropriated by the writer 
of the Epistle and made part of his own 
appeal, so that the words μή σκληρύνητ• 
... become the immediate sequel (tt6 
. . .μη σκληρ.). Or the whole quoUtion 
may be parenthetical, and Μ be 
connected immediately with β\ίπ€τ* 
in e. 12. 

It is a serious objection to the 
former view that the words μη σκλη- 
ρύνητ*... in the Psalm are spoken by 
God, and it is unlikely that the writer 
should so appropriate them, while 
long parentheses are not alien from 
his style; and further it may be urged 
that fiktwm by itself is abrupt as a 

If then the construction is complete 
we must connect v. 7 directly with e. 
12 ; but it is possible that tho sentence 
begun in t>. 7 is loft formally unfinished, 
so that «. 12 takes up again the main 
thought Such a broken construction 
may be compared with x. 16. 

«. Xfytt rh w¥. re 4y.] Oomp. Ix. 8; 
x. 15 ; Acta xxviii. 25. See also Mk. 
xtii. n ; Acts xiii. 2; xx.23; xxL 11; 
1 Clem. xiii. 1; xvi. 2. The same 
words are afterwards referred to 
•God': iv.4f. 

It is characteristic of the Epistle 
that the words of Holy Scripture are 
referred to the Divine Author and 

uot to tho liuniau iustruuioiit Tho 
phrase το «ιβΰμα τ6 ayw* occurs again 
c iz. 8 ; x. 15 : in dear contrast with 
πνινμα &yiov ii. 4 ; vi. 4. Comp. c. x. 
29 τΑ ννινμα της χάριτος. The forms 
το *ψ*νμα and rb ayiov wvcv/m, which 
are both used by St Paul, aro not 
found in this Epistle. It is however 
to be noticed that the form ro Sytow 
πηΰμα is comparatively very rare. It 
occurs Matt xxviii. 19; Lk. xii. 10, 
12; Acts i. 8; Ii. 38; ix. 31; xiii. 4; 
xvi. 6 (not ii. 33 ; x. 45 ; xv. 28) ; 
1 Cor. (vi. 19;) xiii. 13. 

σημβρον] Today. Oomp. 2 Oor. vL 
2. The word emphasises theimmediate 
necessity of vigilance and effort In 
old times the people fell away whon 
the divine voice was still sounding in 
their ears. 

ih* της φ.] The original may be 
rendered as a wish ' that today ye 
would...'; but tho structure of tho 
Psalm favours the rendering of the 
lxx. followed here, though, indeed, 
ia* is used to represent a wish (Pa. 
exxxiz. 19). 

της φω*ης αντου] J Hi voice, tliat is, 
the voice of God spokou through 
Christ as the Apostle applies the 
words. The application to Christ of 
that which is said of the Lord in tho 
Old Testament was of the highest 
moment for the apprehension of the 
doctrine of His Person. Comp. Acts 
ii.21. See Additional Note. 

8. μ) σκληρύνητ*. . .] Harden not. . . 
Unbelief, like faith, finds one element 
in man's self-determination. Tho 
issue of unbelief is his act On the 
other hand he is subject to adverse 
influences. It is alike true that he 
'hardens his heart 9 and also that 'he 
is hardened' (*. 13). Scripture recog- 

IH.* to] 



HAji t>Jm iWpAN το? neipACMO? in ΤΗ IptJfUKp, 

g of έπβ /pACAN 01 nAT^pCC ΥΜώΝ €N AOKIMACIA 

,β δ*ο προαοχθκΑ τιϊ r%Nc{ τα^τιηι 

9 ftrov D t # . iwitparar (M*)ABOD t *: Λτ. +/u Γ Μ, vg syrr me (so lxx.). 

*>0r : ftpfe A. *r *<*ιμα*ία M # (A)BOD t # U t me : 49οκΙμα*ά* μ* Γ (vg) foyrr) («ο lxx.). 
to «rfrf KABD/M, vg : fcclrf Γ ejtt me (so lxx.). 

nises man's responsibility and no loss 
the inexorable law of moral conse- 
quence by the working of which God 
hardens the heart of the disobedient 
and self-willed. In this respect the 
variations in the narrative of the 
Rxodns are most instructive. Pharaoh 
'hardonod his heart' (Ex. viiL 15, 32 ; 
ix. 34). 'The Lord hardened 9 Pha- 
raoh's heart (iv. 21 ; ix. 12; x. 1, 20, 
27 ; xi. 10; xir. 4, 8). Pharaoh's heart 
'was hardened' (viL 14, 22; ix. 7» 35)• 

The word σκΧηρύταρ, except in this 
context (00. 13, 15; iv. 7X is found in 
the Ν. T. only in Acts xix. 9; Rom. 
ix• 18. It is need in the lxx. of 
'the heart, 9 'the spirit' (Dout ii. y>\ 
'the back/ 'the neck.' 

ιταραπαφασμφ παρασμον] The 

original text gives the two proper 
namos : Am at Meribah, as in the day 
of Mateah in the wildernen; and 
perhaps the lxx., which elsewhere 
gives equivalents for proper names, 
may have intended Ιίαραπικρασμο* and 
Π*φασμοψ to be so taken. 

The two acts of faithlessness re- 
ferred to cover the whole period of 
the forty years (Num. xx. 1 ft; Ex. 
xviL 1 if.; comp. Deut xxxiiL 8). 

The rendering mm r. ij. {WO) ob- 
scures the distinctness of the second 
(first) event, but does not destroy it 

The preposition κατά is probably to 
be understood in a temporal sense (of 
the day.. Μ 13) and not of com- 
parison, like a$ on... secundum diem 
tentationis (Vulg.X id est, sequentes 
et imitantes diem et tempos in quo 
patres vestri me tentaverunt (Herv.)i 

πκρασμου] when the people 'tempt- 
ed' Qod: comp. Ps. lxxviii. 17 if. 

W.H. 1 

9. oS] where, Vulg. ubiy and not 
'in which' by attraction for f 

twwlp. iv δοκιμασία] The absence of 
a direct object in this clause accord- 
ing to the true reading points to the 
connexion of hntp. as well as Mow 
with τα tpya μου (Vulg. probaverunt 
etmderunt opera mea). This render- 
ing departs considerably from the 
Hebrew and from the lxx., but 
places in a more vivid light the cha- 
racter of unbelief The faithless 
people tried and tested not the in- 
visible Qod but His visible works. 
They found reason to question where 
they should have rested in faith. 

τα tpya μου] The Hebrew is singular. 
The many works of Qod in the wilder- 
ness were all one work, one in essence 
and aim, whether they were works of 
deliverance or works of chastisement 
Under tills aspect acts of righteous 
judgment and of mercy were parts 
of the same counsel of loving disci- 

τ<σσ*ρ. ίτη] In the original these 
words go with the following clause 
(and so in e. 17). Here they are 
transposed to draw attention to the 
duration of God's dieciplina The 
poriod had a significant coincidence 
with the interval which had elapsed 
since the Passion at the time when 
the Epistle was written. 

Jewish writers connected the 'forty 
years' in the wilderness with the time 
of Messiah. For example: R. EHeser 
said : The days of the Messiah are 
forty years, as it is said: Ps. xev. 10 
(Sanh. 99. 1, quoted by Bleek). 

10. &«...] Wherefore... The particle 
is inserted by the writer, who separates 



Αγτοι λέ of κ irn<uCaH Tic όλογε Μογ• 

"u>C tOMOCA & ΤΗ θρ|Τί ΜΟγ 

ΕΙ elceAeycoNTAi eic τ»)ν katattaycin μου — Ί 


tbe period of discipline from the 
sentence of rejectiou. 

νροσιίχθισα] I was wroth, vehe- 
mently displeased. The original term 
(Dip) expresses loathing. 

rj #cap^] in their heart, the scat 
of man'a personal character, of hie 
moral life. See Additional Note on 
c iv. ι a. 

αύτο\ 6Ί. . .]. But they. . .The partlole 
seems to involve a silent reference to 
the constant warnings and teachings 
of God: Ί ever shewed thorn my 
purpose, but they on their part re- 
cognised not my ways. 1 Comp. viii. 9. 

11. 4s Λμοσα] according as I swore, 
Vulg. sicut juravi, in that time of 
disobedience. Loqui Dei magnum 
est: jurare vero nimis metuendum 

The rendering so that is not re- 
quired by the original Hebrew, and is 
(apparently) unexampled in Greek. 
Comp. Winer p. 578 (Moulton's note). 

tl tlacXcwrovrat] They shall not 
enter... Compare Mark viii. ia (el 
δοθήση-ω); Gen. xiv. 23; Num. xiv. 
30; 1 Sam. ia 17. See Wlner-Moulton 
p. 627. 

tit τ)ν κατάπανσιρ] The rest was 
primarily Canaan (Deut xii. 9 f.), and 
then that divine kingdom and order 
of which the earthly Canaan was an 
im|iorfoct typo. At the first the 
occupation of the promised Laud was 
treated as being ideally the fulfilment 
of the highest destiny of Israel in 
perfect fellowship with God (Lev. 
xxvl 1 1 £). But the partial outward 
accomplishment of the national hope 
necessarily fixed attention upon the 
spiritual realities with which the im- 
perfect earthly blessings corresponded. 
The unsatisfying character of the 
temporal inheritance quickened the 

aspiration after a truer inheritance 
which the prophets cherished and 

The writer of the Epistle afterwards 
identifies the true rest with the rest 
of God after Creation (iv. 4)• The 
rest which God had proposed for His 
people was no other than that into 
which He Himself had entered. 

Primasius (translating Chrysostom) 
distinguishes these three rests: No- 
tandum tree requies ab apostolo in 
hac epistola conimemorari, uuain sab- 
bati, quo requiovit Deus ab oporibus 
suis; socundam PaUustiiiiu, in quam 
ingressi Israoliti» requloturi eraut a 
miseria et laboribus multU; tertiam 
quoque, qu» vera est requies, regnum 
videlicet ca3lorum, ad quam quos 
.pervenire coutigerit planiseime re- 
quicsccut a laboribus et Bjrumuis 
hujus srcculi. 

κατάπαυσα] In classical Greek the 
word means *a stopping/ 'a causing 
to cease,' literally or figuratively: in 
the lxx. 4 a rest* or 'rest' Comp. 
Deut xii. 9; Is. Ixvi. 1 (Acts vii. 49) ; 
2 Mace xv. 1. It is found hi the 
Ν. T. only in this context besides the 
quotation in the Acts. 

(b) The general application of the 
lesson of the wilderness (12—15). 

The words of the Psalm which have 
boon quoted at lougth aro now applied 
generally to Christians. Tho reality of 
the blessings which they havo received 
depends upon the faith with which 
they receive the present voice of God 
while it is still addressed to them. 

[Wherefore, I repeat,] " take heed, 
brethren, lest haply there shall be in 
any one of you an evil heart 0/ un- 
belief, in falling away from Him 
who is a living God; **but exhort 
your own selves day by day so long 

III. 13] 



**β\έπ€Τ€ 9 άδβλφοί, μη wore ίσται ίν τιιί υμών καρδία 
πονηρά απιστία* iv τω άποστηναι από θβον ζώντο*, 

a» ii it coiled Today, that no one of 
you be hardened by the deeeHfidneee 
of ein—^for we are become par* 
taker* of Christy if at Uatt we hold 
the beginning of our confidence firm 
unto the end—'* while it i$ eaid 

Today, if ye ehall hear Hie voice, 

Harden not your heart», a» in the 

12. PKiwm, Αο^Χφοί, fiif...] The 
word• take up the θιό of v. 7, en- 
forced and Illustrated by the teachings 
of the Psalm. This use of /SMim* μή 
(for opaw μή) is nndossical. It Is not 
unfrcquent in the Ν. T.: c xii. 25; 
Matt xxiv. 4; Acts xiii. 40, Λα For 
ΑΜΧφοΙ see v. 1. The argument 
which the title include• is written out 
me. 14. 

μή wort fcrrai] The construction, as 
distinguished from μή yewnrat, marks 
tho reality and tlio urgency of the 
danger. Comp. Mk. xiv. 2; Col. ii 
8; GaL iv. 11 (μή nut κικοπίακα). 

fp nn vpu] in any one of you. A 
single unbelieving soul might corrupt 
the whole body. 

«φ& π. Awurriat] The phrase is 
romarkabla Kapbia πονηρά go closely 
together, and Απιστία* charactorifies 
the Ovil-heart'; OS σώμα rtjt Αμαρτία* 
Rom. vi. 6; σώμα rfjt *ap*6t Col. I. 
22. Comp. Clem, r Cor. iii. 4. 

This thought of 'unbelief/ 'unfaith- 
fulness, 9 stands in contrast with the 
'faith fulness' which was the glory of 
Moses and of Christ (v. 2 «-terror h 
οΧψ r» oftry). 

'Unbelief {Απιστία) finds its practi- 
cal issue in 'disobedience' (oW&ta). 
Comp e. 19 (6V faun-law) ; a ir. 6 (6V 
mwtl$9ta»\ 8ee e. 19 note. 

h τψ όποστήραΐ] in falling away 
from... shewn In this apostasy (Acts 
Hi 26 iw τψ Αποστρίφ,ιρ). Unbelief 
might prevail at last even after a 
temporary victory of faith. The Vul- 

gate rendering is expressive, cor.... 

For άποστήναί compare Lk. viii. 13. 
It is construed commonly with Απο 
(Acts xv. 38), but also with the simple 
genitive (1 Tim. iv. 1). 

απο eVov ζ&ρτοψ] from Him Who 
i• a living God. The anarthrous 
title (oVor ζ•*), which is far more 
common than ΑΦ. Α ζ»ρ (comp. cc. ix. 
'4; x• 31; xii 22), always fixes at- 
tention upon the character as dis- 
tinguished from the 'Person' of Ood 
(o &or A {aw Matt xvi. 16; xxvi. 63; 
Apoe. xv. 7). In every case it sug- 
gests a ground for corresponding 
thought or action (s^r. Acts xiv. 15 
Μ Biow (Awra not top 6. tow ζ.; I Thess. 
i 9; Rom. ix. 26 lxx). The title is 
generally used of God, as the Creator 
and Preserver and Governor of the 
world (l)eut v. 26; Josh, iii to; 
1 Sam. xvii. 26 (a); 2 K. xix. 4, 16; 
(Jer. xxiii. 36); Dan. vl. 20, 26; 
(Ps. lxxxiv. 2), in contrast with the 
Idols ('vanities/ 'nothings,' Aol moo* 
Didache vi. 3) of heathendom. Here 
it suggests, among other thoughts, the 
certainty of retribution on unfaith- 
fulness. The title Is not found in tho 
Gospel or Epistlos of Rt John (but 
notice John vi 57 6 {mw πατήρ). 

In old times tho glory of Israel was 
the knowledge of 'the living God'; 
but now to fall back from Christianity 
to Judaism was really to revolt from 
Him (comp. vi. 5 tt), for as God is 
living so the revelation which He 
gives of Himself is progressive. On 
the one side He spake In His Son (i 2 
/ΚαΚψτ*ν\ and on the other side He 
is speaking still (xii 25 tow \a\ovwra). 

The phrase reappears in Herm. 
Vie. ii. 3, 2 <nl{*t σ€ ro μ) άποοτηναί 
σ* Απο eVov (mrrot...Com\). I Clem. ill. 
4 iw τψ AwoXarttw «Waerov riV φοβορ 
του foot. 


8 4 


13 άλλα 7ταρακα\€Ϊτ€ εαυτούς tcaff έκάστην ήμέραν, άχρι* 
ου το Σ»ΐΜ€ρθΝ καλείται, ίνα μη εκλΗργΝθ^ Γ τι$ 4ζ ύμών Λ 
άπατη της αμαρτίας* * 4 μέτοχοι yap τον χριστού «yeyo- 

13 •| ϊμΔ* τα. 

13 «oJUmu ι Kokur* AC. «λ. πι e? ο. ΚΑΟΗΜ, vg syrvg me; *kk. 4ξ v. τη BD t 
syr hi. φ αμ.ι e>aprfcuf D/. 14 τοΟ χμ. yrybv. ΚΑΒΟΟ,ΗΜ, vg : 717. roO χ/ι. Γ. 

13. άλλα παρακαλάτε iavroas...] 
But in place of undue confidence, of 
blindly reposing in die past, help, 
eucourage, exhort your own selves. 
The virtual negative of the former 
clause ('do not negloct U10 fresh 
voices of God...*) is naturally followed 
by άλλα. The use of iavrovt for the 
more simple «iXXijXov* (quisque se ip- 
sum et akerum Bengel) suggesls the 
dose unity of the Christian body. 
The similar usage of the pronoun in 
other places will repay study: 1 Pet. 
iv. 8, 10; Kph. ir. 32 tit αλλήλους, 
iavTOit} Ool. iiL 13 αλλήλων, iavroZti 
id. Hi 16; I Thee•, v. 13. 

For παρακαλ*ϊ* see c x. 25 ; Acts 
xiv. 22; Jude 3; Rom. xii 1. Ohry- 
sostom says bpa το ήμ*ρον col προσηνές, 
ούκ tiers» ίπιτψαη, άλλα παρακαλείτε, 
ovrms ήμα* χρή roir άπο oXtysmf βπκο• 
χωρονμίνοκ προσφέρεσΰαι. 

κασ* ίκάστηρ ήμεραν] day by day. 
There is continuous, daily need. 

fypit oZ τό 2ήμ*ρον καλείται] Vulg. 
donee hodie eognominatur. 80 long 
as the term 'Today' (το Ιήμερορ, not 
4 σήμερον) is still used: so long as, in 
the language of the Psalm, the voice 
of God is still addressed to you in its 
appointed time. 

In various connexions the term 
'Today' will have various interpreta- 
tions. For the Church it is the whole 
time till Christ's coming. For the 
believer the period of his own life. 
Thus Theodoret says: σήμερον top 
παρόντα κεκληκεν βίον, and Chryso- 
stom ; for eV vvw στήκο 6 κόσμος. 
Primasius gives various interpreta- 
tions Id detail: 

Hodie, idest in die Novi Testament!; 

vel omni tempore, quamdiu dicitur 
hodie, nolite obduraro oorda vestra: 
hodie namque pro sempitemo ponitur, 
donee mundus et vita prsasens manet 
Comp. Clem. Alex. Prot. 9 g 84 
μέχρι di σνντελείας καϊ ή σήμερον κα\ 
ή μάθησιε διαμένει, καϊ τστε ij ovrmt 
σήμερον, ή ανελλιπής του θεού ήμερα, 
τοις αίωσι συνεκτείνεται. 8ee also 
c. i. 5 note. 

Ίνα μή σκληρυνθώ tic. . .that no one. . . 
be hardened. The effect is hero 
attributed to sin while man is passive. 
In the Psalm the activity of man's 
opposition is marked : μή σκληρυνψε, 
v. 8 uote. The order of the words ro 
i£ ύμ*ν,>ΐζ υμών rtr, is doubtful, and 
involves a difference of emphasis not 
without interest 

άπάτ -Q r$f αμαρτίας] Sin is repre- 
sented as an active, aggressive, power : 
0. xii. 4. Comp. Rom. vii. 8, 11 ; (v. 
21; vi. 12; vii. 17, 20): 2 Those, ii. 
10 απ. dduttasi James i 15. 

The readers of the Epistle were in 
danger of entertaining false views of 
the nature of the promised salvation. 
It was in this form that sin assailed 
them, cloking itself under the dress of 
faithfuluoss to the past 

Theophylact gives a more general 
sense: άπάτην di αμαρτίας καλεί ή π)* 
άπάτην του διάβολου, τοντέστι τΟ μή 
ελπίζει» οτι 1σται άνταποσοσις, t) n)r 
αναλγησία*, τα yap λέγει» Οτι λοιπόν 
απα( ήμαρτον (leg. απ. ήμ λοιπόν) ουκ 
ϊχω ελπίσας, απάτη οντεη εΌτίν αμαρτία*. 

For Uie singular ή αμαρτία see α 
xii 4 note. Additional Note on i. 3. 

14. μέτοχοι γάρ...] Such an ex- 
hortation has a solid ground to rest 
upon, for toe are become par tahere in 


ναμεν, ianrep την άρχην τη* ύποστάσ€ως μέχρι re\ov* 

14 fororr.:+adro0 A vg. 

Christ, or, more strictly, in the 
Christ, the hope of our fathers. We 
have been united with Him and so we 
have been made now to partake in the 
fulness of Hie life (Vulg. partieipes 
Christi efecti sumus). The old pro- 
mises have found for as a complete 
fulfilment, though unbelief destroys 
Κ or hides it from us. The phrase 
can also be rendered partaken with 
Christ, i.e. Christ's fellows (c i. 95 
Luke v. 7); but this sense is far less 
natural here, and, as Car as it is ap- 
plicable, it is included in the more 
comprehensive idea. 

In either case the thought is of a 
blessing conferred (γτγόραμβν)^ and 
not simply of a blessing enjoyed 
(*σμ*ν\ For the form μ*τ. γτγόραμβρ 
as contrasted with μ*τ*σχήκαμ*ν (vii. 
13), soe c ii. 2 note 

The form ό χριστό* occurs again 
▼. 5; vi 1; ix. 14, 28; xi. 26. 8ee 
Additional Note on i. 4. 

For μ4τοχο% see r. ι nota Chry- 
sostom thus paraphrases the words : 
μττ<χομ*ρ αντσν, φησΙ», Ir tytpoas&a 
ifrmr κάί αυτό*% (frcp, adrot pip κ*φα\ή 
σήμα Μ i)jMif » συγκληρονόμοι κα\ συσ- 
σωμοί. And Primasius more folly: 
Christo participamur et jungintur, 
utpote unum et in illo existentes; 
siquidem hoc participamur ill! quia 
ipse caput nostrum et nos membra 
ilHus, oohfBredos et concorporales ill! 
secundum spiritalem hominem, qui 
croatns est in ipsa In eo etiam 
participamur, quia corpus et san- 
guinem ejus suminras ad redemp- 
tionem nostram. 

tfnrrp...] \f at tout... Tho particle 
is not found in tho lxx., and occurs 
again in N.T. in c vi. 3 (not e. 6) only. 
That which has been stated as a met 
(γτγό*αμ*ρ) is now made conditional 
in its permanence on the maintenance 
of faith. Tliis is the ever-present 
antithesis of religion. That which 

Ood has done is absolute; but man's 
appropriation of the gift must be by 
continuous effort Comp. Col- iiL 3, 5 
(dfrrAfrrrc..., ρψκρήσατ* oZp). 

iAmp r)p Αρχήν...'] if we holdfast 
the beginning if our confidence firm 
unto the end. Vulg. si initium sub- 
stantia ejus usque adfinemfirmum 
retineamus. The beginning of our 
confidence is more than our first 
confidence. It describes that which 
is capable (so to speak) of a natural 
growth; a principle which is active 
at first, and continues to be pro- 
gressively energetic Gomp. x. 32 ft 

There can be no doubt that υπόσταση 
is here need to express that resolute 
confidence, which opposes a strong 
resistance to all assaults. It is used 
in late Greek writers for firmness of 
endurance undor torture (Died. 81a 
ii. 557 1} h reir βασσροι* υπόσταση 
rjfr ψνχ^ν); and generally for 
courageous firmness of character 
(Polybi vi. 55, 2): and so for resolu- 
tion (Diod. 81c iL 57 «ire r*r tola* 
υπόσταση). The word occurs in a 
similar sense in 2 Cor. ix. 4; xi. 17. 
Compare cc i. 3; xi. 1 and notes. 

The Fathers give an objective sense 
to υπόσταση, as expressing that in 
virtue of which we are what we are, 
believers united with Christ» and this 
is expressed by the Vulgate (sub- 
stantia ejus). Thus Chrysostom: 
ri ίστη αρχή τη* νποστάσιωψ; τήν 
πίστη Xlyti, ©V $* ύπίστημβρ καϊ ys- 
γ«*{μ«Αι mil συρσυση16ημ*ρ % m* ά*ρ τη 
uiroc• And Theodoret: π>* όρχ^ρ τη* 
ύποστάσ*** [τήν πίστη] Μκληκ*ρ• bt 
aerfajff γαρ 4ρ*ουργήθημ*Ρ καϊ συνηφθψ 
μ*ρ τφ ο\σπότα χρη/τψ καϊ τη* τον 
παρογίου πριυματο* μ*τ9(λήφαμ*ρ χάρι- 
τος. And Theophylact: τουτίστητ^ρ 
πίστη, 6V αύτη* yap ύπ4στημβΡ καϊ 
σύσιοίθημιρ τήρ θ*(αρ καϊ πηυματικήρ 
σύσίωση καϊ άρα γ 4 ρ ρ ηση. 

And so Primasius more in detail : 



[III. i$ 

β€βαίαν Γ κατάσχωμβν 1 l *iy rip Keyeadcu 

ZrfMCpON Uh thc φωΝΗς Afroy AKofcme, 

ΜΑ ΟΚλΗργΝΗΤ€ TAC KApAtAC fjMON (!>€ 4n T<$ ΠΑρΑΠΙΚρΑΟΚφ. 
15 on. £t M,. 

Iuitium substantias dicit fidem Gbristi, 
per quaui subsistimus et renati suuius, 
quia ipee est fundamentum omnium 
virtutuiu. Kt bono substantiani earn 
vocat, quia sicut corpus auima sub- 
sists et vivificatur, ita anima fide sub- 
sists in Deo et vivit hac fide. Sub- 
etantia autem Obristi appellator fides 
▼el quia ab illo datur, vol oerie quia 
ipse per earn habitat in cordibus 

According to thie interpretation 
4 4PX7 *i* νποστάσ*** has the same 
general sense as has boou already 
given to vw&rrwnt alone. 

μίχρι ri\ovt] until the end. Tho 
'end' is not exactly defined. The 
writer leaves it undetermined whether 
the doso of trial is the close of tho 
individual life or of ' tho ago' itself. 
Comp. vi. ii. 

15. ir rf \4γ*σ$αι] The couuoxion 
of the quotation is uncertain. It has 
been taken closely with «. 16. But 
the question Ww γόρ, which marks a 
beginning, is fatal to this view. 

Again it has been taken with 0. 14, 
or, more particularly, with the con- 
ditional clause of it Ab'ir«p....This con- 
nexion gives a good sense, and brings 
the necessity of effort into close relation 
with obedience to every voice of God. 

Ghrysostom, followed by the later 
Greek commentators, supposed that 
the whole passage to. 15—19 is an 
irregular purouUiosis, and that tho 
sequel of v. 14 is in c. iv. 1. But the 
abrupt iv τψ \iy*auat, without any 
particle, followed by rtW γαρ • ;, is 
etroogly against this view, and also 
against the view that a new paragraph 
is begun in 1. 15, which is not formally 

. It is on the whole most natural to 
connect the quotation with v. 13. Ac- 

cording to this view v. 14 is paren- 
thetical, and brings out the real nature 
of the Christian privilege— a partici- 
pation in tho Messiah— aud the oou- 
ditiou 011 which it is kept. 

If this conueiiou be adopted the 
sense is : 'exhort one another so long 
as it is called today. ..while the voice 
of God is still addressed to you, and 
still claims loyal obedience.' 

(c) Detailed interpretation of the 
lesson of the Psalm (16—19). 

Tho general application of the 
warning of the Psalm to Christians 
is confirmed by a closer interpretation 
of the circumstances. Those who 
incurred the displeasure of God and 
who were oxcludod from the promised 
rest, were tho people who had boon 
dolivorod from tfgypt Unbelief and 
disobedience finally cut off from thoir 
goal men who hud entered on tho way. 
So It may be with those who have 
been joined to Christ 

16 For who when they heard did 
proooket Nay », did not aUtlury thai 
came out of Egypt by Moeeef *' And 
with whom woe He displeased forty 
year*? Woe it not with tftetn that 
tinnea\ whose carcases fell in the 
wilderness? •* And to whom did 
He swear tluU they should not enter 
into His rest 9 but to thetn thai were 
disobedient ? * And we see that they 
could not enter in because of unbelief 

1 6 — 1 9. Tho succession of thought 
is significant Tho vory people whom 
God Intel rescued provoked Him (0. 16). 
They sinned aud met with tho fatal 
consequences of siu (v. 17). They 
disobeyed and received the sentence 
of rejection (9. 18). Unbelief (comp. 
*. 12) made them incapablo of that 
rest towards which they had started 
by faith (*. 19). 



t6 rtves yap άκούσαντ& πΑρβπίκρΑΜΛΝ ; αλλ' οΰ iravrti οι 
4Ι~€\θόντ€ς 4ξ Αιγύτττου δια Μωνσ-βως ; % Ίτίσιν he npoc- 
ώχθιθ€Ν T6cc€pAKONTA 4Fth; οι/χί το& άμαρτήσασιν, ων τ& κώλΑ 
&t€ccn Αι τΛ ΙρΗΜφ ; ,8 τμγιι> δβ comoc€N Μΐ^ eSceAeyceceAi €IC τΑι 
katXttaycin Afro? ei /κι) rort άπςιθησασι ν ; ,9 καί β\ίπομεν 
οτι ουκ ήδυνηθησαν βίοβλθβΐΝ Si* άπιστίαν, 

17 rlw Μ : + «α/ Α. *>opr. : Aretha*» Α. frfrir ί frcw D r 

16. Ww yrfp...] The warning Is 
necessary. Christians hare need of 
anxious care. For who wore they 
who so provoked God in old times ? 
Even those whom He had already 
brought from bondage. 

rlmf. . .HOC ov nawrts. . .] For who. . . f 
Nay, did not,. J Vnlg. Quidam cum 
(rmit yap)...eed non univerei...For 
tome when they had heard did pro- 
voke (A.V.}, This rendering is quite 
alien from the context The vast 
mass who came out of Egypt could 
not be described as 'some.' On the 
other hand the interrogative com- 
pletely corresponds with the two in- 
torrogativcs which follow (Ww...rW 
...r /σατ...); and the three questions 
point to the three stages of the divine 
displeasure. Nor does tlio faith of 
Joshua and Calob Invalidate the 
general statement 

waptvUpavav] The verb occurs here 
only in N.T., but it is not unfroqnont in 
lxx. and Philo. It is used generally 
with ace. of object: Ps. Ixxvif. (Ixxviii.) 
17 παριπίκραραρ top νψιστον, bot also 
absolutely: Ps. Ixxvii. 8, ytwcfc σκολώ 
καί παραπικραίρουσα ; Bzek. ϋ. 5, 7, 8 Ac 

Λλ* ov...] Nay, such a question 
cannot be asked as if the answer were 
doubtful : toot it not. . . t 

For the use of iXXA compare Lk. 
xvil. 8 (AV ovy*.); Mk. xiv. 36; 
John xii 27. 

ol ίξ<\6όψτ€ς) The word marks the 
act of the people, the manifestation of 
faith on their part, as well as the act 
of Moses. They c came out' and not 
only 'were led out* (Acts yii. 36 φ- 
α viii. 9). 

but Mmwrlms] The fact that Moses 
had been the instrument of their 
deliverance should have kept them 
from ' chiding with him' (Ex. xvil a). 

17. The unbelief of the people 
shewed itself in open sin from first to 
last («,8). 

τίσιψ ώ νροσ.] And with whom.. J 
In this place the writer gives the 
connexion of ησσ. ίτη which is found 
in the Hebrew. From the beginning 
of the wanderings to the end (Ex. xvil. 
7; Num. xx. 13), the people sinned in 
like ways. In this verse and in the 
next (Απαθήσασιν) the reference is not 
to the general character of the people, 
but to the critical acts which revealed 

άμαρτήσασίρ] This is the only form 
of the aor. partic. in Ν. T. In the 
moods the form of ήμαοτον is always 
used except Matt xviii. 15 || Lk. xvii. 

4 (άμαρτηση); ^ om ' *'• *5• 

τα καλά] The word is borrowed from 
the lxx. (Num. xlv. 29). 

It seems best to take tho clause J» 
. . Λρήμψ, as a subsidiary element In the 
description and not as an independent 

18. tUtw W &μοσ•ρ ftrj tlatX.] The 
change of subject is unusual ('He 
aware that they...' and not ' He sware 
that He... 1 ). 

roit άπιύήσασν*] to them that die- 
obeyed, that were disobedient Vulg. 
qui inereduli (0. L. eontumaeee) 
fuerunt. Unbelief passed into action. 
Oomp. xi. 31 ; iv. 6, 11 ; Rom. xi. 30, 
32, contrast ee. 20, 23. 

19. κα\ β\ίπομ*ρ...] And we see... 
Tho conjunction introduces the gene- 



[IIL 19 

ral conclusion: 'And so on a review 
of the record (or of the argument) 
we see...' Έλέπομ•* may mean 'We 
aee in the familiar record of the Pen- 
tateuch,' or, 'We aee in the details 
just set forth.' The two interpreta- 
tions really pass one into the other. 

ούκ ήδννήθησα*] Their etdusion 
from Oanaan was not only a met (oik 
$ΙσήΧ6ο*), but a moral necessity. 

6V απιστία*] The failure of the first 
generation of redeemed Jews, who 
corresponded in position with the 

first generation of Christians, is traced 
back to its source. The faith which 
they had at the beginning failed them. 
They fell into unbelief; and unbelief 
issued in its practical consequences, 
disobedience, open sin. For the gene- 
ral relation of 'unbelief and 'diso- 
bedience' see Rom. ii. 8 (roU άτ«6ον- 
σι*); iil 3 W απιστία); Acts xiv. 2 
(οΙάπ<ι6^αρτ**'ΐου&αϊαί)\ six. 9(ipr«/- 
βουν); xxtfii. 24 (ήνίστουρ). Compare 
John iii. 36 (6 wurrwmp, ο awtiBmp). 


Additional Note on iii. 7. The application to Christ of words 
spoken in the Ο. T. of the Lord. 

We have already seen that words originally applied to ' the Lord' in the The im- 
Ό. T. are used of Christ hy the writer of the Epistle (i. 6; 10 f. note). g^JeT- 
The principle involved in this application of scriptural language was of potion 
great importance in the historical development of the doctrine of the to Christ 
Person of Christ. of words 

Three main types of national expectation appear to have prevailed SJ ^?-?' 
among the Jews at the time of the Advent, the expectation of 'a Davidic Three 
King/ of 'a day of the Lord/ of 'a Divine King and Judge.' Bach expecta- chief types 
tion was connected with the thought of a passage from 'this ago' of trial °f Mee- 
and suffering to 'the future age* of triumph and joy, through a crisis of ™^Ηοη 
travail-pains (see c i. 2 note). The ground of tho different hopes lay in a t the time 
the Scriptures, and it does not seem that they were united in any one of the 
consistent view. We read the Ο. T. in the light of the Ν. T., and it Advent, 
becomes difficult for us to appreciate the manifoldness of the aspects of the 
Divine Redemption which were offered separately in the prophets. But 
this manifoldness, £his apparent vagueness or inconsistency, as we might 
think, must be realised before we can form a right estimate of the revela- 
tion of Christ 

1. The first and most familiar portraiture of the expected Deliverer is 1• The 
as a King of the line of David (Is. xi. 1 ; Iv. 3 f. ; Jer. xxiii. 5 ; xxx. 9 ; Esek. ££**?** 
xxxiv. 23 f.; xxxvii 24). At first the prophetic imagery suggests a line of 

kings who shall fulfil the counsels of God. 'The tabernacle of David' is to 
U> restored (Amos ix. 11 f.; coinp. Acts xv. 16 f.); and 'shepherds' arc to 
be set over the regathered flock (Jer. xxiii. 4; comp. xxxiii. 17, 20 f., 26; 
14— 26 is not in lxx.). But in this royal lino one King stands out in glory, 
in whom all the promisee are concentrated, a King who shall 'execute 
judgment and justice on the earth' (Jer. xxiii. 5 ff. ; comp. xxxiii. 15 ff.), 
and realise in peace and safety the will of the Lord (w£), through the gift of 
His Spirit (la xi. 2 ff.). He is to come from the city of David (Mic. v. 2), 
and to bring peace to the divided kingdom (Zech. ix. 10) and to the heathen 
{id.); and His throne is to be everlasting (Is. ix. 6 f.). 

After the Captivity the thought of the Davidic King falls again into 
the background. Zechariah alone touches upon it (iii. 8; vi. 12 f. with 
reference to Jer. xxiii 5 f.). Tho people and not tho royal line is the 
centre of hope. And it must be added tliat in the second pert of Isaiah 
the name of David is only once mentioned, and that in a passage (lv. 3) 
which appears to indicate that the royal prerogatives of the ideal monarch 
are extended to the ideal people. 

2. Meauwhile another view of the divine interposition in favour of *. The 
Israel had been powerfully drawn. The prophets had said much of 'a day D*yof the 
of the Lord.' The phrase extends through their writings from first to last. 


from Joel (i. 15 ; ii. 1, 1 1 ; iil 14) to Malachi (iv. 5 [iii. 23]). On thie 'great 
and terrible' day it is said that Jehovah Himself will execute judgment, 
bringing victory to Hie own people and ruin on His enemies and theirs 
(Joel iii. 14 ff. ; comp. la ii. 12 ff.). The crisis is painted as full of gloom 
and anguish (Amos v. 18, 20), and fierce conflict (Esek. xiii. 5). The people 
confident in their privileges desire the coming of the day : the prophet, 
who knows that the Presence of the Lord is a moral judgment, turns them 
to the thought of its terrors. The revelation of deliverance is a revelation 
of righteousness (Amos /. a). In this conception therefore the idea of 
retribution for evil, of vengeance on the wicked, who are typically identified 
with the oppressors of Israel, prevails over every other (Is. xiii. 6, 9; Obad. 
15; Zeph. i. 7 ff., 14 ff.). The Lord Himself carries out His will. The 
thought of deliverance is counected directly with His action. No human 
agent is singled out for the accomplishment of His counsel. 
3. The 3• These two conceptions of the Davidic king and of the judgment of 

Divine Jehovah were united in the apocalyptic writings. In these the Saviour 
King. King is clothed with a supernatural character. Whatever may be the date 
of the Book of Daniel, there can be no doubt that it marks an epoch in the 
growth of the Messianic hopes of Israel. Henceforward the looked-for 
King appears under a new aspect, as the heavenly Fulfiller of the purpose of 
God. The image is mysterious and obscure in Daniel (vii. 13, 18); but it 
gaius clearness in the later works which follow out the same line of thought, 
the Sibylline fragments, the book of Henoch, and the Psalms of Solomon. 
In these the figure of the Divine King is presented with ever-increasing 
glory; and it was probably in the latest period of the development of 
Jewish hope, to which they belong, that the title of * the Christ, 9 ' the 
Anointed King,' which is used characteristically in the Ο. T. of the 
theocratic monarch, came to be appropriated to the expected Saviour. 
The influ- We are able to see now how these various hopes were harmonised and 
once of the fulfilled by Him whom we acknowledge as the Son of David, the Son of 

of Λ?* man > and ***° Son °* 0od • And m tlie firat age thev contributed to guide 

Lord's the apostles naturally, if the word may be used, to the apprehension of the 

coming on depths of His Being. In this respect it will be evident that the expecta- 

Apoetolic tj 0II f ti ie coming f the Lord was of critical significance. The work of the 

thoug 1 . B a p ti8fc wae recognjged as preparatory to this Divine Advent (Mk. i. 2 ; Lk. 

i. 76; Matt xi. 10 [Mai. iii. 1] ; Matt. xi. 14 ; xvii. 1 1 ; Mk. ix. 12 ; Lk. i. 16 f. 

[MaL iv. 5 f.]; and the remarkable change of pronoun in the first quotation 

from Malachi (before thee for before me) seems designed to point to the 

coming of the Lord iu One Who is His true Representative. The herald of 

the Lord was indeed the herald of Christ. This, St John tells us, was the 

Baptist's own view of his mission. He was sent to * make straight the way 

of the Lord' (Is. xl. 3; John i. 23; comp. Matt iii. 3; Mk. i. 2 f.; Lk. iii. 

4 ff.). And after the Resurrection and the descent of the Spirit, the 

apostles proclaimed that in Christ the promise of the Lord's coming was 

indeed fulfilled (Acts ii. 16 ff., 21, 36, 38; iv. 12; Joel ii. 28 ff.), and looked 

forward to His revelation in glory (Zech. xiv. 5; Matt xvi. 27; xxv. 31 ; 

Mk. viii. 38; 1 These, iii. 13; 2 These. L 10), when He should exercise the 

divine office of judgment (Acts xvii. 31; Pa ix. 8; 2 These, i. 7 f•; h~ 

Ixvi. 15). 


80 it wh that the apoetolio writers applied to Christ tlie prerogatives of 
tho Lord (Jer. xvli. ίο, Apoe. li. 23; oomp. Nam. χ!τ. ai, Apoe. I. 18; Pa. 
1. 16, Apoe. zi. 15), and His Sovereign' Name (Deot x. 17, Apoe. xix. 16; 
oomp Pa xzhr. 10, 1 Cor. ii. 8), and the accomplishment of His promises 
(la Ιτϋ 19, Bph. ii. 13 if. ; comp la lx. 3 ft, 19, Apoe. xxi. 24 ft> St Peter 
distinctly applies to Christ what was said of «the Lord of hosts' (1 Pet iil 
14» I•, *iu 12} 13). And 8t John in especial, looking hack from the bosom 
of a Christian Church, found deeper meanings in His Master's words (John 
xiH. 19, la xliii. 10), and discerned that the divine vision of Isaiah was a 
vision of Christ (John xiL 39 if. j Is. vi. 1 ft). The very phrase in which he 
expresses tho Gospel includes implicitly the declaration of the fulfilment 
of tho promise of tho Lord's dwolling with His people (John L 14; Lev. 
xxvL 11 f.; Esek. xxxvii. 27). 

From tho study of such passages it is not difficult to see how, as has 
been briefly said, the fact of the Covenant leads to the fact of the Incarna- 
tion. The personal intercourse of Ood with man is a prophecy of tho 
fulfilment of man's destiny: iv ίρχ§ jw 6 Xiyot 9 sol & Xoyoc fr wpkt rev Irar, 
col #fcf $r 6 \6γοψ...κα\ 6 λόγο* σίφξ fytwro «αϊ totcfprnavp fr four. 



IIV. ι 

IV, l Φοβηθώ μεν ουν μη wore καταλβιπομενης iway- 

ι χαταλνπ. ABO Μ,: «•ταλατ. fttD t »+rff' Λγ•77• I>r 

in both cases wu the Mine. But in 
the order of the Divine Providenoe 
Christians were placed in a more ad- 
vantageous position (viii. 6 S.) than 
IaraoL Belief and obedience were 
more easily within their reach when 
the former discipline had done its- 

' Let u$ fear, Uierefore, lest haply 
a promise being left of entering into 
Hi» rest, any one of you ehould eeem 
to have come ehort of it. • For 
indeed we have had good tiding* 
preached to us, even at also they; but 
the word of 'the message did not profit 
them, because it was not incorporated 
by faith in them that heard. 

ι. φοβηΰ&μ** ofr...] Let us fear 
therefore, since Israel, redeemed from 
bondage, never entered into the rest 
which wus prepared for them, for we 
have had good tidings preached to 
us even as they. Our position, like 
theirs, is one of trial The position 
of privilege is the discipline of faith. 
To have been brought to Christ is a 
boginuing and not an ond. In such a 
case 'four' is a motive for strenuous 

The writer uses the first, person 
(oontrast 4$ νμ»ν) in sympathy with 
the whole Christian society. 

κατάλ*ιπομ4νηί...] OS there iff Still 
now left (v. 6) a promise (Vulg. pof- 
Ucitatione) to enter (that one should 
enter)... The promise was left because 
no purpose of God can mil to the 
ground; and this was unfulfilled in 
the case of those to whom it was first 
given. Outwardly the promise was 
fulfilled afterwards, for the next gen- 
eration did enter Canaan; but that 
fulfilment did not exhaust the meaning 
of the promise (v. 8); and so in fact 
the promise was repeated. 

The tense of the participle («ατα- 
Xturofifafr) marks the present fact 
There is a slight difference between 

(2) iv. I— 13. The promise remain- 

It follows from the consideration of 
the history of Israel that the promise 
of God to His people was not fulfilled 
by the entrance into Canaan. 

There is, therefore, (α) η rest,» divine 
rest, η rest from earthly labour, pro- 
mised still and not enjoyed (1— 10). 
And (b) towards this rest Christians 
must strive, filled with the feeling of 
their responsibility (1 1 — 13). 

(a) The rest of God is prepared for 
believers in Christ (1— 10). 

The development of this main 
thought is somewhat perplexed and 
formally incomplete. The promise of 
the entrance into the divine rest is 
first assumed to apply to Christians 
(1,2); the present reality of the rest is 
then established by the record of crea- 
tion (3— s); and by the repetition of 
the promise to those who had entered 
into Canaan (6, 7); for that first rest 
could not satisfy the divine purpose 
(8—10). The writer takes for granted 
throughout that whatovor God in lite 
love has ever designed for man is 
brought within man's reach by Christ, 
•the heir of all things/ the fulAUer of 
human destiny. 

1,2. The fate of those who were res- 
cued from Egypt had a direct meaning 
for those to whom the Epistle was 
addressed. The people that were de- 
livered did not 'enter into the rest of 
God,' but perished in the wilderness. 
And the next generation who occu- 
pied Canaan still found the promise 
unaccomplished, and so it remained 
till the time when Christ again pro- 
claimed it for the vital appropriation 
of believers by faith. Thus, in other 
words, under one aspect the Israelites 
in the wilderness and the first Chris- 
tians were in the same position. Both 
had a message of glad tidings to make 
their own; and the end of the message 

IV. a] 



γ€λίας eiccAeciN etc tAm katXttaycw afrof ionry τι? i£ ύμων 
ύ(ΓΤ€ρηκέναι* % καί yap άτμ€Ρ evnyy έΚισμίνοι καθάπβρ 
κάκβΐνοι, αλλ* ουκ ωφ€\η<Γ€Ρ ό λόγο* τη* ακοής έκβίνοικ, 

nrakchnir6m and dvoXc 6r<o*e\u («0. 6, 
9). 'AvoXWswAu Is used from the 
point of eight of those who hare gone 
away; KaraXtlwtvSat of that which 
retains Its original position. 

μή.,.ίοκβ to...] lest any one should 
seem. . . Vulg. ne emstimetur aliqui*. . . 
The phrase Is less stern in expression 
than the simple wmpjj (GScum. &**αχ• 
6η τον λόγο* worn* ουκ wtwww ύσπρήανι 
(-») ΑλΛ 6oc£ Arr*p/ff •*), and yet It is 
more comprehenehre in warning. It 
suggests that the mere appearance or 
suspicion of failure, even though It 
may not he fully justified, for man's 
judgment is necessarily fallible, is a 
thing to he earnestly dreaded. Other 
renderings, 'lost any should be shown 
to...' or 'be judged to.../ or «think 
that he has.../ are loss natural and 
less forcible. 

arrcpfprfvat] to have come short, 
Vulg. dome, to hare Jailed to attain 
the promised rest In spiritual posses- 
sion. Tho tense marks not only a 
present (Rom. Hi. 23 wrrtpovrrai) or 
past defeat (a Cor. zil. ti νστίρησα) 
but an abiding failure. 

2. ml γαρ...] For indeed».. Comp. 
τ. 12; z. 34; xil. 39; xiii. 22. The 
omission of the pronoun (4m*'0 throws 
the emphasis upon ivpiw tvf /γ. (comp. 
xiii. to). * For indeed we have receiv- 
cd a mossage of good tiding*— a pro- 
miso of rest—even as also they (τ. 6). 
For ίσμ. ινηγγ. see rii. 2o; x. 2o notes. 

For the construction see Matt 
xi. 5 || Lk. τΙΙ. 22; 2 8am. xviiL 31; 
Joel H. 32; and compare riii. 5 
κιχμημάτισται Mmwrijf I the perfect 

[4σμ. η?τγγ.) marks the present con- 
tinnattco of tlio message, which was 
not simply one past announcement 
(v. 6 ol πρ. «vayyfikwBivrtt). 

The Vulg. renders the phrase Tory 
inadequately: etenim et nobis nunti- 

1 κοί wipoeptw 0*. 

often eeL It may be added that tho 
noun «voyyAtor, which is found In all 
St Paul's Epistles except that to 
Titus, does not occur in the Epistle. 

mrioWp] Elsewhere in the N.T. (not 
τ. 4) only In 8t Paul's Epistles (about 
15 times). 

ik\a...ToU dxowrwrtp] It Is possible 
that there is here some primitive 
corruption of the text (see Additional 
Note} At the same thne tho general 
drift of the passage is dear, and both 
the readings which have found ac- 
ceptance on adequate authority, (1) 
awiwupwrpjpovt [-μ «ρογι/νοντ], and 
(2) σν*κ*κ9ρασμ4ρος [•κ<ιφαμΐ¥θ*\ can 
be brought into agreement with it 

(1) If the former (ov*Kt*ipa<rp4povt) 
be adopted, the sense must be: 'But 
the mere hearing did not profit them 
because they were not united by faith 
with them that truly heard; 'with 
the body of the faithful,' or, perhaps, 
'with them that first heard; 'with 
those to whom the message was given' 
(comp. it 3), that is, Moses and Joshua 
and Caleb. - The verb σνγκ*ρα*ννσθ<ϋ 
is used of the intimate association of 
familiar friendship in classical and 
late Greek ; but this pregnant sense of 
ol itowrwmt after 6 Xoyot τηψ Aeo$f 
and ibw άκούσητ* of the Psalm appears 
to be unnatural. 

(2) If on the other hand we read 
erwKf «pwjwW there is a choice of 
two constructions. We may either 
(β) take rjy wltm t as the dative of the 
instrument joiningroic Acouowiy close- 
ly with σν9κ<**ρ*σμ**οι : ' the word did 
not profit them became it woe not in- 
corporated by faith in them that 
heard; 'because thoy wore not vitally 
inspired with the divine message 
though they outwardly recelTed it 9 
Or again (©) we may connect rj πίστη 
with σνΜΜ «ρασμάοτ, and regard roir 



[IV. 3 

μη ϊσννκεκβρασμένοςΐ τρ mtrrei τοις άκούσασιν. *Gcep« 

*υ¥κ*κιρα*μ4νο% [•*«φα#ιΑΌΐ] : awKtK*pa*p4wo\n [-KCKpapfrovt] : r«r deovraVr** 
D t # syrhlmg : see Addition*! Note. 

heard: I•, liii. ι (Rom. x. 16; John 
xii. 38); Jer. x. 22 φ»«) Aeofr (and in 
X These, ii. 13 λογός aicoijt) seems to 
mean 'a message of hearing/ that is, a 
menage not oommendod by any more 
authoritatire form of delivery. 

The argument remains the same 
in both cases whether the apostle 
speaks of 'the simple delivery of the 
message' or of 'the message which 
was simply heard.' 

μή *vr«f κ.] The subjective negative 
is naturally used with the participle 
which gives the suggested reason 
(' sinco thoy wore not...'); coinp. 0. 15 

σννκ*κ*ρασμ£?ος] The compounds 
οίκ<ρω>ννσθαι are constantly used from 
early times of the moral (and spiritual) 
uniou of porsotui. So (<rvyec«p.) Xou. 
Oyr, i. 4, 1 τοίϊ ήλικιωταΐί σννικίκρατο 
Joxf οίκιίως duufiaAu, (cyencp.) Ign. 
Eph. 5 rovt ίγκ*κραμ{*ου9 αντφ (ry 
άτΜπκάΐφ), («WfKp.) Pint ifcowi. p. 
36 Ρ Kaunas άτακραθίντνν hnyoydais 
T&v γη**. They are used also of the 
union of things or qualities: lOor. xii 
24 6 $§bt σν9€κ4ρασ*ψ το σώμα. Plat 
£*??. xii. c. 10, p. 961 κ r£r afrAfraf 
r« κνβ€ρνητικ$ yy σνγκιρασάμ*»οι... 
Menander, ap. Stob. Anthol. 45, 8 f 
speaks of λόγοι/ dura/ar ί}0*ι X/tyTf 
σνγκ*κραμί*η. Plut JVon JMftftf suae, 
eiw see. Epic ii. p. ι ιοί, β /SArior 
inm&px*i* r» κάί συγκικρασάαι rj w*p\ 
Bimv i6$Q kqwqv al&ovs κα\ φόβου 
waUQt... Oomp. Jgn. ad Smyrn. 3 
Kpauitrrts rj σαρκι αυτόν teal ry αίματχ 
(al. itm υμαπ), and Lightfoot ad loo, 

3—7. The preseut exporienco of 
Ohristians confirms the privilege of 
faith (3); The met that the rest itself 
is already realised is witnessed by the 
record of creation (4); Tho fact that 
the promise of the rest still remains 
is implied by the exclusion of the un- 

άκονσασ* as a dative of reference: 
1 the word did not profit them becauee 
ii wot not united with faith for them 
thai heard, 'because the word itself 
was not quickened by the power of 
faith so as to effect its vital work.' 
Of these two interpretations the 
former seems to be the simpler and 
more expressive; but both are open 
to the serious objection that it is 
strange that imlvovs and τοΙς άκουσα- 
<riv should be applied to the same 

On the whole however, if it be 
supposed Uiat the truo reading lias 
been preserved by our existing au- 
thorities, the former of those two 
renderings of the reading σν»*ιβ*ρασ- 
ptwot appears to offer the least dif- 
ficulty; and it may be urgod that 
the addition of τοκ ά*ούσασιν is re- 
quired to bring out the reference to 
the Psalm, while acffoow points the 
contrast with Ohristians. 

ούκ «ty&iprf»] The familiar facts 
carry the thought of the reader be- 
yond this negative result The word 
heard and not welcomed involved 
those to whom it was addressed in a 
tragic fate. 

ο Xoyor rfff άκοης] Vulg. eermo 
auditui. Syr. the word which they 
heard The phrase admits of two 
renderings. It may mean (1) 'the 
word of the messago hoard,' the 
simple proclamation of the divine 
tidings ; or (2) ' tho word of hearing, 1 
that is, the word as heard only, 
according as ακοή is taken passively 
or actively. The second sense which 
falls in perfectly with the context is 
justified by Eeelus. xii 23 (xlil 17) 
Xlyor άκοήί 'a simple rumour'; but 
the former sense is more in accordance 
with the general (passive) usage of 
ακοή itself for a message spoken and 

IV. 3] 



Xfacto tyap 1 elc [τΛι] katAtaycin ο! τπστβι/σαιτβϊ, κα0ώί 

*ϊρηκ€ν . 

Ώε ώΜ0€Α In τιί dopy Μογ 

Ει eiceAcycoNTAi elc τΑι κΑτάτ&γαΝ μου, 

καίτοι τώΝ ίρΓωΝ απο καταβολής κόσμου yevndevrwv, 

3 €ΐ*<ρχ6μ*6α ΚΒΒ,Μ,: de -ψχΑμβΦα Α(1τφχ.)0 (oomp. ▼!. 3 J Bom. v. 1 ; 1 Cor. 
χτ. 49). >*> BD t vg syr hi : o0r KAOM, me. rs> (i •) RAGM : om. BD t # . 

«f om. A: $ C\ *ar. jro : om. jtov # . 

faithful from it (5); And a freeh word 
of God points to the end not yet 
reached (6, 7). 

*For we that believe enter into the 
rent of Qod ; even at lie hath said, 

A$ I swore in my wrath, 

They thall not enter into my rest; 

although the work» were finished 

from the foundation of the world. 

« For He hath eaid a» we know (some- 

. where) of the seventh day on this wise : 

And Qod retted on the seventh day 
from all Hit workt ; 

*And in thit place again : 

*They thall not enter into my 

Seeing therefore it remaineth that 
tome should enter into it, and they to 
whom the good tidingt were before 
preached entered not in became of 
disobedience, 1 He again defineth a 
certain day, Today, toying in David, 
after to long a time at hath been 
told before, 

Today, if ye thall hear Hit voice, 
Harden not your hearts. 

3. 9ΐσ<ρχ6μ<θαγΑρ...] The apostle 
assumes that actual experience es- 
tablishes the reality of the promise 
tad the condition of its fulfilment 
• I speak without hesitation ' he seems 
to say 'of a promise left to us, for we 
enter, we are entering now, into the 
rett of God, we that believed..: The 
▼erb *1σβρχ&μ*θα is not to be taken 
as a future (Vulg. ingrediemur), bat 
as the expression of a present fact : 
John χίτ. 3, ι 8; Matt. xvil. 1 1 ; 1 Cor. 
iiL 13; Col. Hi. 6. Moreover the 

efficacy of faith is regarded in its 
critical action (wttrrtvaawrtt) and not, 
as might hare been expected, in its 
continuous exercise (wumvomt). 
Oomp. Acts It. 32; 2 These, i. 10; 
1 Cor. xt. 2. At the same time he 
does not say simply 'we enter in 
haying believed* (πιστινσαντπ); bat 
he regards 'believers* as a definite 
olass who embraced the divine revela- 
tion when It was offered (ol wumv- 
aarrtt). Comp. C. vi. 1 8 ο Ι καταφυ- 

tit τή* KoraMawrtw] not simply 'into 
reef but into the rett of which the 
Psalmist spoke, ' into the rest of God.' 

KaSmSt •ίρηκ*Ρ, "Of ύμοσα...] The 

words of the realm, as used here, 
prove that there is a rest and that it 
has not been attained. It follows 
therefore, this the writer assumes, 
that Christ has brought the rest with- 
in the reach of His people, as Indeed 
Christians know. This interpretation 
of the quotation seems to be more 
natural than to suppose that the 
reference is designed to contrast the 
faith of Christians with the want of 
faith which caused the rejection of 
the Jews of the Exodus. 

*1ρηκ*ν] Comp. v. 4 ; i. 13 ; x. 9 note; 
xiii. 5 ; Acts xiiL 34. The subject Is 
simply, ' God,' or 'the 8pirit,' and not 

καίτοι rmw Τργ*»...] although the 
workt (of God) were finished {done) 
from the foundation of the world. 
Vnlg. et quidem operibut ab inttitu- 
tionemundiperfectit; 8yr. although 




4 €ΐρηκ€ΐ> γαρ που irepl τη% έβδομης ούτως Και kat£ttatc€n ο 
Oedc In τι? ΗΜέρ^ tiJ &Aomh And it4nt<un τωΝ ίρτωπ afrof, 5 και ίι> 

ΤΌΙ/Τ^Ι 9ΓαλΐΙ> ΕΙ eiCCActcONTAi €IC Τ•¥ΐ ΚΔΤΑΠΑγαΝ ΜΟΥ. β ^7Γ€Ι 

ο5ι/ ΑτολβίττΈται τινάς eiceAeeiN dc αύτη ν, και οι πρότερο* 

4 i* tj...J /Μ. om. Α. 

the works qfQod... There wa• there- 
fore no failure on the part of God. 
The divine rest was prepared. God 
Himself had entered into it» though 
it etUl remained that His people 
should share it according to His 
purpose. Thus the rest was at once 
in the past and in the future. 

καίτοι] In the N.T. Acts xiv. 17 only ; 
κα /rotyf John iv. 2. The word is used 
with a participle in all periods of 
Greek literature: Simon, ap. Plat 
Prolog. 26 p. 339 ο καίτοι i^/mW. 
Bpict Di$$. L 8, 5. 

άπο καταβολής κ.] C ix. 26. See 
Matt xiii. 35 [P*. !»▼»• (lzxTiu) * 
Ar* αρχής lxx.]; χχτ. 34; Lk• xL 50; 
Αροα xiii. 8; xvii. 8. The phrase 
is not found in the lxx. Compare 
woo καταβολής κ. John xvii 24; Eph. 


The writer of the Epistle by this re- 
ference completes the conception of 
the promised rest 'The rest of God/ 
the rest which He had provided for 
His people, is no other in its last 
form than the rest which He Himself 
enjoyed. Of this the earthly inherit- 
ance was only a symbol 

4, 5. The quotations in those verses 
establish in detail the two conclusions 
found in the words quoted in v. y, 
that there is a rest already prepared 
(v. 4); and that Israel did not enter 
into it (0.5)1 

4. <Χρηκ<*] Oomp. 0. 3 note. 

που] Comp. ii. 6 note. This in- 
definite form of quotation is found 
nowhere else in the N.T. It occurs 
in other writers : Philo, Quod Deue 
immut. § 16, L p. 284 M.; De prof. 
8 36, I S7Si ■&* congr. er. gr. % 31, L 
544; C\em.KadCor.L 15. The sense 
of the particle is probably not local 

5 <l om. D t *. 

(eomewhere) but general ('as we know/ 
'to quote familiar words'). 

*<p\ της J/M.] It has been remarked 
that * the six days' are defined in the 
record of creation by 'the evening and 
the morning/ but to the seventh no 
such limits are given. See 9. 9 note. 

κατ4παν<τ<*] The vorb is used in an 
intransitive sense (though rarely) in 
classical Greek; and in the lxx.: 
Eoclus. v. 6; χ Mace ix. 73 Λα It is 
used in the commoner transitive sense 
below 9. 8. 

5. iv Tovrf πάλιν] SO. *\μηκ*ν 6 
Bios. The rovi -φ is neuter: in thi$ 
place, or phrase. 

waku>] again, on the other side. 
The failure of those to whom the 
promise was originally made to attain 
it, is a second element in the argu- 
ment There isarest; andyetfurther 
it has not been realised by men. 

6. But when we recognise failure 
it is not that we acquiesce in it. The 
promise once made will have a ful- 
filment Some must enter into the 
rest: those who were formorly called 
did not enter through disobedieuce; 
therefore another time was afterwards 
fixed when believers might gain by 
ready solf-surrondor that which God 
still offered. The couditioual tonus 
are thus two and not one; for the 
second clause («αϊ oi wpor. cvoyycX.) 
cannot be considered to be only ex- 
planatory of the first 

fori οδρ] See c. v. ix note. 

anoktinrrai] 9. 9; x. 2& This cer- 
tainty is left as a consequence of the 
unrepealed (though unfulfilled) pro- 

olwpartpw fvoyy.] they to whom the 
good tidings were before preached... 
Vulg. quibu* priorUm» annunciatum 

IV. 7, 8] 



€ΐ/α77€λι<Γ0€ΐτ€* ουκ elcAxeoN ίΓ άπύθϊίαν, 'πάλιν τινά 
ορίζει ήμίραν, Σημ€ρον, έν AaveiS λέγων μετά τοσούτον 
χρόνο ν > καθώς [ ιτρο€ίρηται Λ , 


8 €i γαρ αι/τοι /y Ίησον* κατέπανσεν, ουκ αν ττβρι άλλη* 


7 w* d>J{* Κ*• rpoc^roi KAGD,* vg syrhl 
8 a>: a>*B. 

6 dreifaar : drtrrtoM K # vg. 
β : τρκΙρψΜΡ Β : fTpyrat Γ. 

mC Only two generations are con- 
templated, that of Moses and that of 
Christ The second generation of 
Israel who entered into Canaan are 
not considered to have received or 
enjoyed the fulness of the original 

Κ Awtlufta*] O. L. propter con- 
tumaciam. The Vulgate rendering 
propter ineredttlitatem (and so v. 1 1 ; 
Rom. xi. 30, 32; Col. iii. 6 [O. L. dis- 
sidentia]; Kph. if. a; τ. 6: in iii. ia, 
19 απιστία is so rondored) oUsciiros tho 
important difference between the state 
of mind and the active expression of 
it Unbelief is manifostod in diso- 
bodionco (contrast iii. 19). Tlio two 
are placed in closo connexion Rom. 
xi ao if., 30 if. ; comp. John iii. 36. 

7. opi(u] O. h.prqfinivit... Vnlg. 
terminal... Tho Holy Spirit through 
tho writer of the Psalm (c. iii. 7) de- 
fineth a certain day, 'Today,' May- 
ing... It seems more natural to take 
'Today' as the explanation of 'a 
certain day,' than to connect it with 
'saying 9 as part of tho quotation. 

1w Δ. \iyuw\ eayiny in the person 
of David, who was regarded as the 
author of the whole Psalter ; and not 
'in the book of David' (the phrases 
lw Ήλ<? Rom. xi. a, h rf 'Οση• Rom. 
ix. 2$, are not exactly parallel). The 
expression, which follows the comnlon 
mode of speaking, is not to be re- 
garded by itself as decisive of the 
authorship of the Psalm. 

W.H. f 

frpocJpQTw] c ifi. 7, 15. 

8— ία The words of the Psalmist 
convey also another lesson. In one 
sense It might be said that in the 
second generation those who were 
rescued from Egypt did enter into 
the rest which was refused to their 
fathers. But Canaan was not the 
rest of God. The rest of God is a 
Sabbath rest which man also is destined 
to share, a rest after finished labour. 
Therefore tho Psalmist, in the troubled 
rest of Canaan, still points his hearers 
to an end unattained• 

* For if Joshua had given them 
rest, He would not have tpoken after 
this of another day. » There remain- 
eth then a sabbath rett for the people 
of God, "For he that i$ entered 
into Hie rett hath himself also retted 
from hie works at God did from Hie 

8. •/ γαρ. . *Ιησονς] For ifJothua. . . 
The Peshito defines the ambiguous 
name (Jesus): Jesus the son of 
Nun... (but not in Acts vii. 45). 

αυτούς] The antecedent is mentally 
suppliod: 'those in whom Christians 
find their counterpart' Comp. viiL 
8, xi. a8. See Winer p. 183. 

jrarAratMrf r] transitive (otherwise w. 
4 note, 10) as in Ex. xxxiii. 14 ; Deut 

ουκ αν atpl ShXnt MXtt. ..]//« would 
not have continued to speak after 
this, after so long a time (e. 7), of 
another day. 0. L. non de alio (?) 



[IV. 9 

i\d\ei μετά ταύτα ημέρας. 9 άρα απολείπεται σαββα- 

μβτά ταΟτα: μ*τ αυτά 0. 9 om • TerSa * # (■ α ΡΡ*• Α )• awoKHw€rai : drokeirai Β. 

(Lcf. de alii•) dixieeet poetera die. 
Vulg. nunquam de alia loqueretur 
posthac die. For the unusual and ex- 
pressive combination tl «orarauew 
υύκ fo...A<0ui, soo Additional Note 

It is assumed that if Joshua did 
not gain an entrance into the rest of 
God, no later leader did up to the 
time of Christ. No earthly rest in- 
deed can be the rest of Qod (xi. 9 £). 

9. apa mroX....] c. xiL 8. This un- 
classical uso of apa in the first place 
of a sentence as defining a conclusion 
from the previous words is found in 
the Synoptists (Matt xiL 28 ; Luke xi 
48) and in St Paul (Rom. x. 17; 1 Cpr. 
xv. 18 60.), especially in the form apa 
ofc (Rom. v. 18 &&), but it is not 
found in 8t John or in the Catholic 

σαββατισμή] a sabbath rut (0. L. 
requies, Vulg. $abbattimu* t Syr. to 
keep a Sabbath-rest)— λ rest which 
closes the manifold forms of earthly 
preparation and work (the Hexao- 
ineron of human toil): not an isolated 
sabbath but a sabbath-life. The change 
of term from κατάπαυσα is significant. 

The word is not quoted as used by 
any earlier writer. 2αββατίζω occurs 
not unfrequently in the lxx., and 
σαββατίσμάς itself is used in an enu- 
meration of superstitious observances 
by Plutarch: A superst. 3; ii. p. i66 a. 

The Sabbath rest answers to the 
Creation as its proper consummation. 
Such is the thought of Augustiuo at 
the eud of his Gntfestwn* (xiii. 35 1) : 
Doiuine Deus, pacem da nobis, omnia 
enini prmstitisti, pacem quietis, pacom 
sabbati, sabbati sine vespers. Omnis 
quippc iste ordo pulchorrimus rerum 
valde bonarum modis suis peractis 
transitorius est; et mane quippe in 
q\a factum e$t et vespera. Dies autem 
septimus sine vospera est nee habet 
occasum, quia sancUficasti oum ad 
permansionem sempiternam; ut id 

quod tu post opera tua bona valde, 
quamvis ea quiete fecerie, requievisti 
septimo die, hoc proloquatur nobis 
vox libri tui, quod et uos post opera 
nostra, idoo boua valdo quia tu nobis 
ea douasti, sabbato vitu* interna» ro- 
quiescamus in te. 

And again after giving a brief par- 
allel of the six days of Creation with 
the ages of the world, be closes his 
De cicitate (xxii. 30, 5) with the 
striking conception of the 'seventh 
day/ the 'Sabbath/ passing into an 
eternal 'Lord's day': De istis porro 
eetatibus singulis nunc diligeuter Ion- 
gum est disputare. Heec tamen sep- 
Uma erit sabbatum nostrum, cujus 
finis non orit vospera sod domiuicus 
dies, volut octavus ictoruus, qui Ohristi 
resurrectione sacratus est, o»temaui 
non solum spiritus varum etiam cor- 
poris requiem pnefiguraus. Ibi vaca- 
biuius et vidobiiuus; vidobimue et 
amabimus; amabimus et laudabiinus. 
Ecce quod orit in fiue sine fine. Nam 
qui* alius noster est finis nisi perveuire 
ad regnum cujus nullus est finis? 

The remarks of the Greek fathers 

are less suggestive: σαββατισμο* »w- 
μασ* η)» τω» σωματιχ** ϊργων απαλλα- 
γή» (Theodoret). And Chrysostom: 
J<nrf/> γαρ b τψ σαββάτω πάντων μίν 
των πονηρών άπ4χ*σβαι xcXciWi, ίκΰνα 
bi μόρα ylvtaBai τα wpat \arp*iav rov 
tfcov, iwcp ol UptU Arcr&ovi', καϊ δσα 
^υχήν «tyfXci καϊ μηΜν *Ttpov t ούτω 
καϊ τοτ*. 

Tlie Jewish teachers dwelt muoli 
upon the symbolical meaniug of tlie 
Sabbath as prefiguring 'the world 
to come.' One passage quoted by 
Schocttgon and othors may bo givou : 
'The people of Israel said: Lord 
of the whole world, shew us the 
world to come. Qod, blessed bo 
Ho, answered : Such a pattern is the 
Sabbath' (Jalk. Rub. p. 95, 4). In 
this connexion the double ground 

iv. ίο, 1 1] 



τισμο? τω \αφ τον Oeov* 19 ό γαρ ciceAfeoN etc τΛμ κατΛ- 


ino τωπ ΙΙίων ό ecoc. "Οττονδάαωμβν ουν etceAteiN etc Ικύνην 

ιι <1σ*\6<7* : +Μ<\φοΙ D/. 

which it given for the observance of 
the Sabbath, the rest of God (Ex. xx. 
1 1) and the deliverance from Egypt 
(Dent. τ. 15X finds its spiritual con- 
firmation. TTie final rest of man an- 
swer• to tho idea of Creation realised 
after the Fall by Redemption. Gomp. 
Schoottgon ad loc and on v. 3. 

τψ \a$ του θ\ου\ C. xi. 25. Gomp. 
1 Tot it to (Kaot θ*ον). Tlio phrase 
often oocors by implication (Rom. ix. 
25 f.; xi. 1 f. Λα). Gomp. GaL vi. 16 
(M top Ισραήλ τον 6βου) ; and contrast 
c. H. 17 (του Χαου); xiii. 12 (note); 
Apoc. xviii. 4. Israel was the type of 
the divino oommonwoalth. Sabbatis- 
mns non pancis rcservatur sed populo, 
id est riiagnte multitudini; nee tamen 
cnilibet populo, sed populoDei (Her?.). 

to. & yap # Ισ.] for he that is en- 
tered (enters), whoever has once en- 
tered, into His rest, the rest of God 
(iii. 18; iv. 1)... The general state- 
ment gives tho reason for tho ronmrk- 
ahlo title which has boon now given 
to tho rest (σαββατισμόή by reforonco 
tor. 4- 

Tho words may also bo understood 
(though this seems to be less likely) 
as unfolding the nature of the pro- 
mised rest 

The form of construction (eUrtXSmw, 
Kartwavatw) marks the perfectness of 
tho issue. The entrance and the rest • 
are coincident and complete. Gomp. 
Matt xxv. 21,23. 

κατ. άπο τω* toyrnv] Gomp. ApOC. 
xiv. 13. 

Jovcp awo των Ihiuw ο A] as God did 
from His own works, from tho works 
which, as far as man can conceive, 
correspond with His Nature, and 
which are spoken of as works, though 
wrought without toil. Gomp. 1 Gor. 
iii. 8 Kark τον tbtov κσπον. 

(b) Tho responsibility of such as 
have received the promise of the rest 
of God (n— 13). 

11— 13. Since the promise remains 
for Christians they must also heed 
the warning (v. 1 1). The Gospel must 
be received with a devotion which 
answers to the character of the Power 
by which it is offered (w. 12, 13). 

" Let us there/ore give diligence to 
enter into thai rest, thai no one/all 
after the same example of disobe- 
dience. n For the word of God is 
living, and active, and sharper than 
any two-edged sword, and piercing 
eeen to the dividing of soul and spirit, 
and of joints and marrow, and quick 
to judge the feelings and thoughts of 
the heart " j And there is no creature 
that is not manifest in His sight, but 
all things are naked and laid open 
to the eyes of Him to whom we have 
to give account 

II. σπονΜσωμιν olv...] Let fit 
give diligence (Latt Festinemu*\ 
strivo earnestly... boeauso 'tho prise 
is noble and the peril is great' There 
is need of active exertion that wo may 
secure what God has promised. So 
Ghrysostom: piyn piv ή πίστιψ καί 
σωτήριο* καί ταΰτηψ for ν ουκ ? w σω&ηναί 
two. αλλ* ουκ άρκιϊ καΰ* {αυτήν τούτο 
ίργασασθαι dWh & ΐ καί wokmlat ορθητ. 
And Primasius, following him: Fes- 
Unomus inquit quoniam non sufficit 
sola fides sed debet add! et vita fidei 
condigna. . . Herveius marks the situa- 
tion of the Hebrews more exactly: 
Festinemus ingredi nee in his torrents 
qu» nos Impediunt immoremur. Fes- 
tinemus fide et bonis operibus, quod 
illi non faciunt qui carnaliter adhuo 
legem observant et erga fldem et 
spiritualem eonversationom negli- 
gontos oxistunt 




[IV, la 

την κΔΤΛΠΑγαΝ, ίνα μη έν τω αντώ τις ι/ττοίβιγ/ιατι iron? 
της άπβιθβίας. Μ Ζών yap ό λόγος του 0eov kcu ενεργής 

om. rtt Η*• aw*$*lat: AX^feto D t *• 1 3 htpy^ti fraprrftB^ 

For mroMCtw see Eph. iv. 3 ; 2 Tim. 
ii. 15; 2 Pet i 10; iii 14. 

<fr ίκιΐνην iJjv κατ.] into that rut, 
that rest of God which is characterised 
by such absolute blessedness (comp. 
Matt vii. 22 iv arcing rjj ήμίρα; John 
xi. 49 note). 

ίνα μη iv τφ αύτφ.,.πίοηι...] 0. L. fid 
aliquU eodem exemplo eadat a veri- 
tate. Lcf. ne aliqui in idem ex. 
contumaeiat cadanL Vulg. ne in 
id ipsum quie ineidat ineredulitatie 
exemplum. Syr. that tee may not 
fall in the manner of those who did 
not believe. These two forms of 
rendering (Lcf., Vulg.; 0. L., Syr.;) 
represent two possible interpretations 
of the words represented roughly by 
'falling into' and 'fidling after 1 the 
same example. According to the first 
interpretation wim-civ iv aroft. is a 
compressed expression for 'falling into 
the same type of disobedience and 
thus exhibiting it 1 But πίπτιι» <h 
ύπόδιιγμα, which is involved in this 
explanation, is, under any circum- 
stances, an extremely strange ex- 

Ilouce it is hotter to follow tlio 
second view, in which wivrnv is taken 
absolutely in tho sense of 'fulling' 
'perishing 1 as opposed to 'standing* 
(comp. 1 Cor. x. 12; Rom. xL 11), and 
iv ύνο6. describes the lesson presontod 
by the falL 

Those who so fall become, in their 
punishment» an example like that 
offered by the Jews in the Wilderness, 
an example, that is, of the fatal con- 
sequences of disobedience fitted to 
alarm others. Unbelief (iii. 12) is 
here seen in its practical issue (v. 6 
note). The word νπόδηγμα occurs 
2 Pet ii. 6 with gen. pen. ('an example 
to deter them'). See also John xiiL 
1 5 ; and for a different use of the word 
c. viii. 5 note. 

Tho words rijs anu$<ias are placed 
at the end and isolated, so that atten- 
tion is fixed and rests upon them 
(comp. ix. 15; xii. 11). 

Tho parallel suggested by tho words 
was the more impressive whon the 
Apostle wrote, because the generation 
of the Kxodus had borno inuclt, like 
the llobrew Christians, before thoy 
fell at last And the spiritual trial of 
Jows and Christians was essentially 
the same: illi non crediderunt Deum 
sufficero ad dandam requiem term 
promissionis, et ieti similiter Christum 
ad dandam requiem porpotuam suf- 
ficero non credobant sine carnalibus 
obeervantiie (Ilcrv.). 

12. Tho necessity of earnest effort 
lies in the character of the divine 
revelation. It is not 'a vain thing 
forue: it is our life.' 

The main thought in tho description 
of 'the word of God' is not that of 
punishment, as it is taken by Chryso- 
stom, but of its essential nature as it 
enters into, permeates, transforms, 
every element in man. There is no 
question of an external rest apart 
from tho lmrmony of tho bolievor with 
God or, in tho figure of v. 2, ajMirt from 
tho vital union of tho hearer with tho 
word. Tho rest is tho oousummatiou 
of that divine fellowship of which the 
lifo in Canaan was a type. 

Thus Pbilo also saw in tho 'perfect 
light' of the sevonth day a symbol of 
'the light of virtue' in which the soul 
finds true rest: iv ταύτα τ§ φνσιι 
wavtrai ή τω* θνητών σνστασίί* κα\ 
γαρ ούτως ?χ#4* όταν avartikjj φίγγος 
της άριτης, το λαμπρό* και Btiov οΊττως, 
Μχ*τΜ (is checked) της ivavrlag 
φάκ«* ή yivtats (Leg. AUeg. i. § 8; i 

The five successive epithets ({£*... 
ivMpyrjt. . .τομάτιρος. . .ΰακνούμ€*ος. . .κρι- 
τικός...) applied to 'the word' mark 

IV. 12] 



with increasing clearness its power to 
deal with the individual souL There 
is a passage step by step from that 
which is most general to that which is 
most personal. Lifo is characterised 
by activity: the activity takes the 
special form of an internal examina- 
tion, which reaches to the very founda- 
tions of our organisation ; and this is 
not physical only but inspired by a 
moral force, All-pervading, all-discern- 
ing, for it is indeed the force of God. 
By 'the word of God' (6 Xoyor rov 
tfrov) we must understand the word 
which He speaks through His mes- 
sengers or immediately in the heart 
of each man. Here the thought is in 
the first instance necessarily of the 
word spoken by the Son Who has 
again offered to man the rest of God. 
Gomp. John xii. 48 (Dent zviii. 18 1). 
This sense is required by the whole 
course of the argument (iii. 7 \4y* t, e. 
15 b τψ λ/γισΑιι, iv. 2 ίσμίν *νηγ- 
γ*\ισμίνοι...ο Xoyor ri}r όκοης, V, 4 βΐρψ 
μ r, V. 7 iw Auvf Μ λίγ»*, Ό. 8 Λάλι 1). 

The language is not directly ap- 
plicable to the Personal Word Him- 
self, He cannot properly be likened 
to the sword. The sword 'issues from 
his mouth ' (Apoc. i. 16) ; and it may 
bo concluded yet further that the 
author of the Epistle did not directly 
identify the divine Λο>» with the 
Son (i. 2). At the same time, the 
truth that Christ is the Gospel which 
He brings is present to the writer's 
mind and influences his form of ex- 
pression. Thus the passage shows how 
naturally the transition was made 
from the revelation of God to Him 
Who was at once the Revelation and 
the Revealer. Gomp. 1 John L if. 

It is not howovor surprising that 
the passage was commonly understood 
of tho Personal Word by the Fathers : 
&f. Eusebius TheopK Oram. Cat. p. 
460; Athanasius c Ar. ii §§ 35, 72 ; 
Isidore, Cat. p. 459; (Ecumenius; 
Theophylact; Primasius; Herveius. 
The transition to this sense is given 
in Apoc six. 13• 

The passage offers an instructive 
parallel with Philo. Philo speaks at 
\engih(Quitrerumdiv.hmr.^26fi.; i. 
491 ff M.) of tho Logos as 'the divider' 
(ropMvt) of things, basing his teaching 
on an interpretation of Gen. xv. ία 
So the Logos divides material things 
into their indivisible atoms, the soul 
into rational and irrational, speech 
into true and false, formless matter 
into the elements, and so on. Two 
things only are left undivided : ' the 
nature of reason (rov λογισμού) in man 
and that of tho Divine Logos above 
us, and these being indivisible (άτμητοι) 
divide other things innumerable. For 
the Divine Logos divides and dis- 
tributes all things in nature, and our 
intellect (ww) divides into infinitely 
infinite parts whatsoever matters and 
bodies it recoives intellectually, and 
never ceases cutting them../ (L p. 
506 M.). 

So elsewhere the virtuous man is 
said to remove the sores of vice by 
Xoyor roprvf, the knife of reason (Quod 
det. pot. ituid. § 29, i. 212 M.). Com- 
pare D$ Cher. § 9 (i. p. 144 Μ-λ where 
the flaming sword of the Cherubim is 
explained of the Logos used by the 

Thus as far as the ' cutting,' ' divid- 
ing 9 power of the Divine Logos is 
concerned, it is, according to Philo, 
exercised simply in the realm of being. 
It has no moral qualities. The moral 
divider is tho human reason. Under 
other aspects however the Philonio 
Logos has a moral power {Quod Dm»» 
tit itnmuL § 28 ; i. p. 292 M.). 

There is a yet more fundamental 
difference between the writer of the 
Epistle and Philo in the conception 
of tho Divino Logos. With Philo it is 
characteristically tho divine thought 
(the Xoyor MMtrof): with tho writer 
of the Epistle the divine word (the 
Xoyor προφορικά), as it is with 
St John. 

The action of the word is regarded 
in relation to (1) man (e. 12), and (2) 
to all created things. It deals with 
man in respect (a) to his constitution, 



[IV. 12 

και τομωτβρος υπέρ πάσαν μάχαιρα» Κιστομον και Jmjc- 

both immaterial and material, and 
(Μ to hie activity, in feeling and 

1 2. ζων.. ,κα\ ivtpyqt *a\ ropoirtpot.. .] 
The Word— the revelation— of God is 
living (£«•*), not simply as 'enduring 
for ever/ but as having in itself 
energies of action• It partakes in 
some measure of the character of 
God Himself (iii. 12 &or ζω* note; 
x. 31). Oomp. Acts vii. 38 λόγια 
ζωρτα. John vL 63 τα ρήματα α 4γω 
\§Κάληκα νμϊν πρινμά iaraf κα\ ζωή 
Am* taken up by St Peter 0. 68 ρήματα 
ζωη£ αΐωνίον ?χ*4ΐ. 

With this 'living word' believers 
are incorporated. 

Compare Orig. de Prime. L 2, 3 
Undo ot recto iiiihi dictus vldotur 
sermo ille qui in Actibus Pauli scrip- 
tus est quia Hio (?) eti verbum ani- 
mal vivene (cf. Lipsius, Apokr. Apos- 
telgeech. ii. 1, 70 f.). 

Comp. Philo, Leg. AUeg. iii. §§ 59, 
6l (i. I20, 122 Μ.) όρ$ς τη* ψυχής 
τροφή* οία iarl. \6yos θ*ον (Ex. xvi. 
1$)...τ6 di /ήμα μ*ρος αύτον' τρ4φ(ται 
dc τώψ μ*ν Τ9\*ιστίρωρ ή ψυχή δλω τψ 
λόγφ, άγανήσαιμ*» ό* αν ήμβίί *1 καϊ 
μίρ*ι τραφ*ίημ<ν αύτον. 

The life of the Word is not only 
present, but it is also vigorously 
manifested. The Word is active 
(Awpyfo O.L. validum, Vulg. efficax). 
For fopyifc see 1 Oor. xvi. 9 θύρα... 
ivipyfji. Philem. 6 Swtas ή κοινωνία... 
ίηργής γένηται. The variant Ιραργη* 
(Β, Hier. in /sat. lxvl evident) repre- 
sents a very common confusion of 

The activity of the Word is not 
intellectual only but moral : it deals 
with conduct as well as with know- 
ledge. It is shewn in the power of 
the Word to lay Open the innermost 
depths of human nature. The Word 
has unrivalled keenness: it pierces 
in met to the most secret parts of 
man ; and that not as au instrument 

merely but as a judge of moral issues. 
It is sharper than the most formidable 
weapon of oarthly warfare: it finds 
its way through every element of 
our earthly frame : it scrutinises the 
affections and thoughts of which our 
bodily members are the present 

The image of the sharp cutting 
power (τομών* pot, Vulg. penetrabUwr) 
of the Word finds a striking parallel 
in a line of Phocylides (v. 1 1 8), 
δπλο* τοι λόγος dr&pl τομωτίρό* Am 

In this respect the word is com- 
pared with the sharpest of ma- 
terial arms, 'tho two-edged sword.' 
Comp. Apoc. i. 16 Ac roD στόματος 
αύτον βομφαΐα Μοτομος όξιια Anraptvo* 
μ4*η, ii. 12. Is. xlix, 2; (xi 4; IL 16; 
Hos. vi. 5). Schoettgen quotes a Jewish 
sayiug to the effect that 'ho who 
utters the Shema is as if he held a 
two-edged sword.' 

The phrase is common in classical 
writers, ejg. Eurip. IleL 989, 

Other examples are given by Wet- 

For μάχαιρα see Eph. vi 17 οΊξασΰ* 
...τήρ μαχαιραν του πηνματο* Ι ίστίψ 
βήμα θβοΰ (ζίφος is not found in K.T.); 
and for rojMtrcpor vnip Luke xvi. 
8; Jud. xl 25 ; c. iii. 3; ix. 2^(παρά). 

κα\ Ονχνούμινος άχρι μιρισμον...] 

The * dividing' operation of ' the Word 
of God 1 lias been understood as 
reaching to the separation of soul 
from spirit, and of joiuteyhwi marrow, 
or to the separation, in themselves, of 
soul and spirit, and of joints and 
marrow. The latter interpretation 
seems to be unquestionably right 
The Word of God analyses, lays bare, 
reveals iu their true nature, reduces 
to their final elements, all the powers 
of mau. Chrysostom mentions both 
views : W Am τούτο; φοβιρό* τι jjvi(aro. 
ή γαρ bri το ηνινμα tuupci άπ6 της 
ψυχής, Xryc 4* $ 5τι κα\ αϊτών (leg* 6V 


νούμενος άχρι μερισμού ψυχής καΐ πνεύματος, αρμών τβ 
καΐ μυελών, και κριτικός ενθυμήσεων και εννοιών καρδία** 

ret* 0*D t •. 

fvxfr καί MABCH vg eyrr me: ψ . +n' καί Γ D r 
mttrw.: to. τι D t # . 


avrup)rmp άσ*μάτ•Ρ ώι«ι« ΐται,οι) καΰάί 
ή μάχαιρα μόνοψτ&ρσωμάτωρ. Μκρνσα* 
...&Ti.,.8kow eV SKov &UKP11TCU top &*- 
0pmmop (leg. του Mpiiwov) (ad L\ 

The omission of the re in the first 
of the two doable clauses (ψ. καί π*, 
άρ. re mil μ.) causes some difficulty as 
to tlio construction. It has boon 
supposed that the first clause (ψ. καί 
π*.) depends on the second 'unto the 
division both of tho joints and marrow 
of soul and spirit'; and again that 
the second clause, understood meta- 
phorically, explains the extent of the 
penetrative power of the Word 'unto 
the division of soul and spirit, yea, of 
both spiritual joints and marrow in 
that internal frame.' 

The first of these interpretations 
presupposes a most unnatural con- 
struction ; and the second is harsh and 
forced, though Euripides (Hipp. 255) 
speaks of tho ακροτ μικλότ ψυχή* 

It is more simple, and free from 
objoction, to regard the two compound 
clauses as coupled by the rw t so that 
the first two terms taken together 
represent the immaterial elements 
in man ; while the two which follow 
represent the material elements. Thus 
the four in combination offer a general 
Wow of tho sum of man's powers in 
his present organisation. The divine 
revelation penetrates through all. No 
part of human nature is untouched by 

For this use of r§ compare Acts 
xxvt 30 ; Luke xxiv. 20. 

ψυχής jcoi m*vparot] Vulg. anima 
ae $piritu$. Compare 1 Cor. xv. 45 ; 
1 These, v. 23. Tho broad distinction 
between the two is given forcibly by 
Prhnasius: Anima vivimus, spiritu 
rationabiliter intelligimus : vita nobis 
earnalis cum bestiis communis est, 

ratio spiritalis cum angelis... Comp. 
Additional Note. 

όρμωρ τ* κα\ μν*\*ν] Vulg. COM- 
pagum quoqus ae medullarum. Syr. 
Of joints and of marrow and bonet, 
the most critical parts of the physical 
framework of man, and the Inmost 
media of his physical force. The 
words are not found elsewhere in the 
N.T. (Ecumenius notices their re- 
lation to what goes before : <1πω* τα 
άσθματα tfirt καί τα σ*ματιχά\ The 
plural μυ#λώ» expresses tho idea of 
the separate members in which the 
' marrow ' Is found. The rendering of 
the Peshito is a remarkable example 
of an interpretative gloss. 

κριτικές ίνθυμήσ*»* καί άνοιώ* κ.] 
Vulg. discretor (Ο. L. scrutator) cogi- 
tationum et intentionum cordis. The 
enumeration of the constituent ele- 
ments of man is followed by a notice 
of his rational activity as a moral 
being. Over this, over tho feelings 
and thoughts of his hearty the Word 
of God is fitted to exercise judgment 
The first word (Ιϊΰυμήσ***) refers to 
the action of tho affections, the second 
(ippoi&p) to the action of the reason. 
Olement has a remarkable parallel: 
ip*vnjrfc γαρ βστιρ (ο 6<bt) Jvpotmv κα\ 
Μυμήσιω» (ι Cor. xxi. 9). 

For ίνβνμησίί see Matt ix. 4; xil. 
25; Acts xvii. 29; and for frmo, 
ι Pet iv. 1. 

Both 'feelings' and 'thoughts' are 
referred to 'the heart,' which repre- 
sents tho seat of personal, moral life. 
It is of interest to trace the use of 
the word through the Epistle: iii. 8 
(Hi. 15, iv. 7); Hi. 10, 12; viiL to 
(x. 16) ; x. 22 ; xiii. 9. 

13. The thought of the pervading 
energy of the revelation of God in 
regard to man is now extended to 


,3 καί ουκ ίστιν κτίσις αφανής ενώπιον αύτον, πάντα $e 
γυμνά και τ€τραχη\ισμένα τοις οφθαλμοί* αντον, προ* 

1 3 «rfoti «pfatD t *. 

that of the universal Providence of 
God with regard to all created beings. 

Τι λέγω π*ρ\ ανθρώπων, φησίν 9 καν γαρ 
αγγέλους «α> αρχαγγέλους καν τα Xt- 
ρονβίμ «αϊ τά ΙβραφΧμ κάν οίανδήποτ* 
κτίσιν, πάντα. έκκΜκάλυπται τω όφβαλμφ 
tub*; (Chrya). Comp. Philo Leg. 
AUeg. iil 60 (L 121 M.). Timeamus 
ejus prmsentiam cujua acientiam nul- 
latenus eflugere valeamus (Primaa. 

There is aome difficulty aa to the 
antecedent of the two pronouns 
(ενώπιον avroVf roie άφΰαλμοίς αυτόν). 
Thoy roust ovidoutly rofor to tho 
same subject ; and since tho subject 
in the second case is unequivocally 
personal {'Him to Whom we must 
render account 9 \ there can be little 
doubt that we must understand ' Qod ' 
in both places, suggested by the 
compound subject of the former sen- 
tence, 'the Word of Qod.' Nor is 
there anything unnatural in the trans- 
ition from the manifestation of God 
through His Word to His Person. 

For κτίσις (creature) see Rom. i. 
25; viii 39; 2 Cor. v. 17. 'Αφανής 
does not occur again in Ν. T. 

The negative statement that nothing 
is hidden from the sight of Qod is 
supplemented by a positive state- 
ment that all things are stripped of 
every disguise which might conceal 
their true nature (γυμνά) and brought 
by an overmastering power into full 
view before His eyes (τιτραχηλισ- 

The gonoral sonso of ητραχηλισμένα 
(Latt aperta, Syrr. revealed, made 
manifeet) is clear, as it is given in the 
old versions (Hesych. τττραχηλισμένα? 
π*φαν9ρωμένα\ but it is by no means 
certain from what image the meaning 
is derived. The word τραχηλί(§ιν is 
not found in the lxx. It is fre- 

quently used by Pbilo in the sense of 
proetrating, overthrowing ; e.g. Qui$ 
rer. div. hatr. § 55 (L p. 512 Μ.) άνήρ 
ίντως τραχηλίζων ft Qege $) τραχηλί- 
(<σΰαί δύναται : d e vit. Mot, § 54 (ii. p. 
127 Μ.) τραχηλι(6μ§νοι ταις έπιθυμίαις 
πάνσ* νπομιρουσι dpav r« «αϊ πάσχον 
fobtorto collo pertracti'); and, with 
a more general application, de exeecr. 
§ 7 (U- 433 Μ.) αρξβταΐ ποτ* hianv** 
«ol άνακυπτ€ΐν ή ναλλα γυμνασΜισα «αϊ 
τραχηλισθιισα γη. So Jos. Β. JwL iv. 
6, 2. Oomp. Plut de Curios, ii. p. 521 β 
opart roy αθλητών ύπο παιδισκαρίου 
τραχηλιζύμανν (wliOIO UlO idea 18 of 

tho bond turned round to gaso, παρ*- 
πιστρ*φ6μ*νο¥ 9 and so, in the next 
sentence, τραχηλιζομένους «αϊ rtpioyo- 

The Greek Fathers were evidently 
perplexed by the word. Chrysostom 
appoars to understand it of victims 
hung up (by the neck) and flayed : 
το τττραχηλισμένα Λρηται άπο μ*τα- 
φοράς των δερμάτων των άπο των Uptivv 
έξιλκομένων. 4σπ*ρ γαρ itctiva, έπ*Μν 
Tit σφάζας άπο της σαρκός παριλκύση 
το δέρμα, πάντα τά tvbov αποκαλύπτεται 
«αϊ δήλα γίνεται τοις ήμβτέροις άφθαλ- 
μοϊς % ούτω «αϊ τψ $*ψ &ηλα πρόκειται 

Thoodoret interprets the word of 
victims prostrate aud lifeless : ro Μ 

ητραχηλισμένα τοις οφΰαλμοις αύτου έκ 
μεταφοράς τέβεικε των θυομένων ζωων $ 
α παντελώς άφωνα κείται, της σφαγής 
την φων^ν άφελομένης. 

(Ecumonius gives Ohrysostom's 
moaning and auothor witliout dociding 
between them : τετραχηλισμενα hi φησι 
τά γυμνά άπο μεταφοράς των προβάτων 
των έκ τραχήλου ήρτημένων «αϊ γεγυμ- 
νωμένων της δοράς, ξ το τετραχηλισμενα 
αντί του κάτω κύπτοντα, «αϊ τον τράχηλο» 
4πικλΙναντα λα το μή Ισχύειν άτενίσαι 
rj bo^g εκείνη του Χριστού «αϊ θεον 

IV. η] 



w ήμΐν ό \6yo*• Η *£χοντ€* ουν αρχιερέα 

μίγαν $ΐ€\η\νθότα τον* ουρανού* y Ίησονν τον υιον του 

νμϊ* (leg. ημ*ν) *Ιψτου. Theophylact 

prefers the interpretation of Chry- 

Tho word hits boon popularly ex- 
plained μ need of a wreetlor who 
seises tho nock and thrusts back the 
head of his adversary (resupinare) 
so as to expose it folly to sight ; bnt 
there is no direct evidence of the use 
of τραχηΚΙζω in this sense ; and the 
words of (Ecnntenius point to tho sense 
of pressing down the head, which 
agrees with the general idea of pros- 

wp&t h» i}/«r 6 Xayot] to whom we 
have to give account. (8o Syr.) O. L• 
mte quern nobis orotic etL Vulg. ad 
quern (Hier. de quo) nobis sermo. 
Comp. Ign. ad Magn. 3. Compare 
Chrysostom Oral, ad iUumin. 1 (ii. 
274 ecL Oanme) ov γΑρ irpo* rovt συ*• 
Mkovt ημΛΨ JtKXh irpAr τον A*<nr<5n/r 
Xoyos ivrt, κα\ τούτψ rat tv&vvat bwro- 
μ*ν rmw β*βί*μίν*ν anarruv. So ho 
rightly gives the sonso hero: f μΛ- 
\ομ*ρ bovwat tvSvpat τω* π*πραγμίν*ρ. 
Primasfns layn opon tlio ground of 
tho truth in impressive words: noc 
mirum si totus ubiquo totam suam 
agnoscat creaturam. 

iii. Transition to the doctrine of 
the High-priesthood of Christ, re- 
suming ii. 17 f. (14— 16). 

Having dealt with the relation of 
the Son of Man (iii. 1 Jesus) to Moses 
and Joshua; and with the relation of 
the promise which declares man's 
destiny to the people of God under 
the Old and New Dispensations, the 
writer now returns to the central 
thought of the High-priesthood, from 
which he has turned aside, and pre- 
pares for tho full discussion of it in 
tho following chapters (v.— x. 18). 
Briefly, he shews, we have a High- 
priest who has Himself entered the 
rest of God (v. 14); who can perfectly 
sympathise with us (ft 15); so that wo 

can ourselves draw near to God, with 
whom He is (0. 16). 

14 Having therefore a great High- 
priest^ Who hath passed throtigh the 
heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us 
ding to our confession; t$ fbr we 
have not a High-priest that cannot 
be touched with the feeling of our 
infirmities, but one thai hath been 
tempted in all points like as we are, 
apart from sin. "Let us therefore 
come with boldness unto the throne of 
grace, thai we mag receive mercy and 
find grace to help us in time of need. 

1 4. fyoircr ofo όρχ.. . .] Comp. x. 19; 
xii. 1. The words point back to ii 
17; iii i. The fear of final failure, 
the consciousness of weakness and 
partial failure, turn tho thoughts again 
to tho Mediator. 

Our High-priest, our Apostle, has 
done more than Aaron or Mosos pre- 
figured. Ho has entered into the 
rest which Ho foreshowed, so that Ho 
can also bring His people into it Ho 
is seated at the right hand of God. 
Bnt moanwhilo man has his part to 
do; and as we strive to secure the 
promised rest we must cling firmly to 
the confession in which lies the as- 
surance of success. 

The simple fact that we have a 
High-priest is stated first (Having 
therefore a High-priest), and then 
His character and position are de- 
scribed: Having therefore a High- 
priest, great in His essential Nature 
(i 1 ff.X and One Who hath passed 
through the heavens, and so come 
before the very Presence of God. 
The epithet piyat does not go to 
complete the notion of High-priest, 
but characterises his dignity. Comp. 
x. 21 5 (xiH. 20). Philo de somn. L § 
38 (i p. 654 Μ.) Λ firyer &ρχι<ρ<ν* [την 
έμολογ/<η]; de Abr. § 40 (ϋ 34 Μ.) 
& μ/γα* apxuptirt τον μβγίστου 0r σ6. 

δι#λ. r. ovp.] who hath passed 


deov, κρατώμ€¥ της ομολογίας• τ$ ού γαρ έχομβν αρχιερέα 

through the heaven», Ο. L. egressum 
catlos. Vulg. qui penetrant cados. 
Comp. Eph. iv. 10 (c. vii. 26 note). 
Christ not merely ascended up to 
heaven in the language of apace, but 
transcended the limitations of space. 
Thus we say that He 'entered into 
heaven' and yet is 'above the heavens.' 

The phrase points ont the superi- 
ority of Christ over the Jewish high- 
priest and over the Jewish mediator. 
He has passed not through the veil 
only but through the heavens up to 
the very throne of Qod (comp. ix. 
24; i. 3), and entered into the royal 
rest of God. 

Theophylact well compares Christ 
and Moses; ου rotovrof οίος Μωυσής, 
Jkiuos μ4¥ γαρ ovrf αύτ&ς ιΐσήλθιν tls 
τήρ κατάπαυσι* ovrt top λαορ €ΐσηγαγ*ρ• 
ούτος di dttkijkiMt tovs ovpayovf ovp- 
ffdpuSff ι τφ ΠατρΙ καϊ όνναται ήμΐν τι)» */r 
ovpavovf cUrobov bovpat καϊ της iv Ar- 
αγγ•λίαις καταπανσιως κληρονόμους ιτ<μ- 
rjacu. And Primasius brings out as- 
pects of μέγας: Magnum pontificem 
eum appellat qui habet seternumsacer- 
dotium, semper vivens 9 ad interpel- 
landum pro nobis (c. vii. 25). Sic 
euini dixit de illo angel us ad Mariam: 
Hie erit magnus et Filius aitissimi 
vocabitur (Lk. L 32). 

*ίησονρ top vlov row $tov] TliO two 
titles are placed side by side iu order 
to suggest the two natures of tlio 
Lord which include the assurauco of 
sympathy and power. For the use of 
Jesus see iL 9 note; and for the Son 
of Qod see vL 6; vii. 3; x. 29; and 
. Additional Note on L 4. Aud for the 
combination of the two see Acts ix. 20 ; 
1 These. i. 10; 1 John L 7; iv. 15; v. 5. 

κρατωμ*» της όμαλ.] Let u$ ding 
to our faith in Him, Whom we openly 
confess, as truly human, truly divine 
(Latt teneamue confessionem). ού το 
way τψ J«pct d/oW**, α*λλα καϊ τα irap* 
ήμ&ρ Ctrtif Xrfyt &ή τήν ομολογίαρ 


The phrase «pore tr της ομολογίας, as 
Contrasted with κατίχωμιρ την ομολο- 
γία* (c. χ. 23), seems to mark the act of 
grasping and clinging to that to which 
we attach ourselves, as distinguished 
from the act of holding firmly that 
which is already completely in our 
possession. Comp. vi. 18. Thus the 
words imply danger and incite to 

For ομολογία compare c iii. 1; x. 
23 note; 1 Tim. vi. 12 f. 

The writor ovorywhore iusists on 
the duty of the public confession of 
the faith. The crisis claimed not 
simply private conviction but a clear 
declaration of belief openly in the 
face of men. Comp. 1 John iv. 2 

15. ov γάρ] The apostle calls for 
effort, and he encourages it By the 
negative form of the sentenoe he re- 
cognises the presence of an objection 
which he meets by anticipation. The 
divine glory of Christ might have 
seemed to interpose a barrier between 
Him and His people. But on the 
contrary, the perfectness of His sym- 
pathy is the ground for clinging to 
the faith which answers to our needs. 
He is as near to us as the human 
high-priests (nay, nearer than they) 
whose huuiauity inspired the Jewish 
worshippers with confidence. For toe 
have not a High-priest such as can- 
not he touched... but one t/utf hath 
been tempted.,. 

μηδυράμ*ΡθΡ...π9π€ΐρασμ4νορϋ*'\ The 

power of Christ's sympathy is ex- 
pressed nogutivoly and positively. Ho 
is not such as to be unable to sympa- 
thise: nay rathor Ho has boon tried 
in all respects after our likeness, and 
therefore He must sympathise from 
His own experience. 

μή &ννάμ*ρο¥] such that he cannot... 
For μη with participles in this Epistle 
see iv. 2; vii. 3, 6; ix. 9; xL 8, 13, 
27; xii 27; (vi. 1; x. 25; xiii. 17 are 


μη Ζνναμενον σννπαθησαι rah άσθβνβίαις ημών, ireirtt- 

different); for ου xi. 1 (contrast 2 Cor. 
It. 18), 35. For other examples of 
participles with «J tee 2 Cor. if. 8 f.; 
GtL iv. 8, 27; Col. ii. 19; 1 Pet i. 8; 
it to (not Kph. τ. 4; Phil. iii. 3); 
Winer, pp. 6o6 ft 

σνητα^σαι] <o 60 touched with the 
feeling of. Vulg. compati... c. x. 34 
(rvpraAjf 1 Pet iii. 8. Vulg. compa- 
tien$\ Tlie verb ocenn in Symmachus 
Job ii. 1 1, and in classical writers from 
Isocrates downwards. It expresses 
not simply the compassion of ono who 
regards suffering from without, but the 
feeling of one who enters into the 
suffering and makes it his own. So 
Christ is touched with the feeling of 
our weaknesses, which are for us the 
occasions of sins, as knowing them, 
though not with the feeling of the 
sins themselves. Such weaknesses 
can be characterised by the circum- 
stances of the Lord's life, natural weari- 
ness, disappointment, the feeling of 
desertion, shrinking from pain (con- 
trast the sing. wrMvtia c vii. 28 note). 
From temptations through such weak- 
nesses the Hebrew Christians wore 
suffering. Comp. v. 2; vii. 28; xi. 
34. Clomont also combines the 
thought of Christ's High-priesthood 
with that of His help to man's weak- 
ness: ad Cor. i. C 36 αυτή ή odor, 
«lyuwi/iu /, iv j €νρομ*ν το σωτηριον 
ημών, 9 Ιησονν Χριστό*, τον αρχιςρία των 
προσφορών ήμων, τον προστάτην κα\ 
βση&ν της άσ0*ν*(ας ήμων. Compare 
Orig. in Matt. xiii. 2 "Ιησούς γονν 
φησίν Δια rovt άσΰςνονντας ήσΜνονν 
κάϊ bUa τους πβινωντας Ιπιίνων κα\ dta 
Tovt οΊ,φωντας Μφων, and Resch 
Agraphia p. 244. 

πτπιιρασμίνον Μ... χ. αμαρτίας] Ο. L. 
txpertum in omnibus (omnia) secun- 
dum simiUtudinem sine peccato. 
Vulg. teniaium anient per omnia pro 
eimilitudine absque peccato. Syr. 
Posh, tempted in everything as tee 
(are), sin excepted. 

The words are capable of two distinct 
interpretations. They may ( 1 ) simply 
describe the issue of the Lord's tempta- 
tion, so far as He endured all without 
the least stain of sin (c. τϋ. 26). Or they 
may (2) describe a limitation of His 
temptation. Man's temptations come 
in many cases from previous sin. 
Such temptations had necessarily no 
place in Christ He was tempted as 
we are, sharing our nature, yet with 
this exception, that there was no sin 
in Him to become the spring of trial 
The first of these thoughts is not ex- 
cluded from the expression, which is 
most comprehensive in form, but the 
latter appears to be the dominant idea. 
In this sense there is a reference to 
the phrase in the Chalcedonic defini- 
tion: Ίησοΰν Χριστόν...ΜΜσκομ*ν... 
κατά. πάντα 8μοιον ήμιν χωρίς αμαρτίας. 
Comp. c. ix. 28. 

We may represent the truth to our- 
selves best by saying that Christ as- 
sumed humanity under the conditions 
of life belonging to man fallen, though 
not with sinful promptings from with- 
in. Comp. c. if. 18 noto. 

Comp. Greg. Nyss. c. Bunom. ii. p. 
545 Migno: oMv άφηκς rijt φύσιως 
ήμων ο ούκ άνίλαβςν 6 κατά πάντα πς- 
πςιραμίνος καθ* ομοιότητα χωρίς αμαρ- 
τίας, ή 8Ί ψυχή αμαρτία ουκ άττΐ» άλλα 
δεκτική αμαρτίας Ιξ Αβουλίας έγίνττο... 
c. Apoll. xi. id. p. 1144 Anr«p yap τα 
του χοΐκου Ιδιώματα τοις l£ iiuivov Ιν- 
0f «pttrai, ούτως Ιπάναγκη, κατά τήν τον 
αποστόλου άπόφασιν, τον κατά πάντα 
πτπςιραμίνον τον ημττίρον βίου καν* 
ομοιότητα χωρίς αμαρτίας, ό Μ νους 
Αμαρτία ουκ /στ/, προς πασαν ήμων 
οίκιίως *χ*& την φύσα*, c. Bunom, vl 
id. ρ. 721. 

Atto, pursuing the thought of Pri- 
masius, says well: Venit per viam 
human» conditionis per omnia sine 
peccato, nihil secum afferens undo 
morti debitor esset, sicut ipse in Evan- 
gelio testatur (St John xiv. 30). 



[IV. 16 

ρασμίνον le κατά πάντα Kaff ομοιότητα χωρίς αμαρτίας. 
ι6 7Γροσ€ρχωμβθα ουν μβτά παρρησίας τφ θρόνω της χάρι- 

The Greek Fathers generally inter- 
pret the words χωρίς αμαρτία* in rela- 
tion to the facts of Christ's life: 4p- 
ταυθα κα\ 8λλο η αίρίτταοί, 5rc dvparop 
χωρίς αμαρτίας καΧ 4p θλίψ*σιρ Spra 
faityicf tr. JoTt col σταρ Xcyg 4p 6μοι4- 
ματι σαρκός οΰ τοντό φησι* brt ομοίωμα 
σαρκός JXK* οτ» σάρκα άτίλαβ: δια τί 
οδρ €Ϊπ<ρ 4ν ομοιωματίί π*ρ\ αμαρτωλού 
σαρκός fXrycp' άμοΐα yap fp η} σαρκΧ 
rj ήμιτιρα• rj pip yap φνσ#ι ή aMj 
fp fj/ur, rj Μ αμαρτία ούκίτι ή αυτή 

ως &ρβρωσος πύρα» τωρ ήμ*τ*ρωρ 
ΪΧαβ* παθημάτωρ μορης της αμαρτίας 
kaptivat αμύητος (Thood.). 

odre γαρ άπλως άμαρτίαρ €ΐργάσατο 4 
σ&τ* οτ€ ταντα 1νασχ*ρ άμαρτητικορ η 
t cSrcv fj Μρασιρ. ωστβ ούνασθ* καΧ 
ύμ*ϊς iw rait GkfyiaiP χωρ\ς αμαρτίας 
δίαγ*ρ*σσαι (Theophlct). 

νπηρασμίρορ] For the perfect, see 
ii. 18; xiL 3 notes. 

κατά πάντα] in all things, as in na- 
ture so in life. Comp. ii 17. 

Kaff όμο*.] c. viL 15. Comp. Gen. i. 
11 £ The words may mean 'accord- 
ing to the likeness of our temptations/ 
i.e. like as we are tempted (secundum 
similitudinem 0. L.); or 'in virtue 
of His likeness to us/ t.*. opououiU 
ήμΊρ (ii. 17 •, pro similitudine Yulg.). 

Primasius (compare Ohrysostom 
quoted above) interprets the words 
as if they were καθ* ομοιότητα σαρκός 
[αμαρτίας] (Rom. viiL 3): Pro simili- 
tudine carnis peccati absque peccato 
... In hoc enim quia homo foetus est, 
veram carnom habuit: in hoc vero 
quia carnem peocati non habuit sed 
absque peccato, similitudinem nostrae 
carnis habuit, quae est caro peccati, 
nam peccatum non habuit... Illius 
caro non futt peccati sed munditiae 
et castitati8 atque innocenti»; qua- 
propter non est tentatus in carne 
peccati ut peccatum faoeret sed in 
similitudine carnis peccati ut absque 

peccato maneret; and again on c. τ. 2; 
tentari potuit per omnia similitudine 
carnis peccati absque peccato. 

16. προσ€ρχ4μ*θα oSp. . .] The vision 
of the High-priest Who is not Priest 
only but King, Who is not only Sou 
of God but Son of man, suggests the 
conclusion that believers, clinging to 
their coufession, can and must use 
the infinite privileges which their 
Lord bss gained for them. The 
minds of writer and readers are full 
of the imagery of the Levitical system, 
and of the ceremonial of the High- 
priestly atonomont; and tlio form of 
the exhortation suggests the grandeur 
of the position in which the Christian 
is placed as compared with that of the 
Jew: 'Let us therefore, trusting the 
divine power and the human sympa- 
thy of 'Jesus the Son of God,' draw 
near, as priests ourselves in fellowship 
with our High-priest,— and not re- 
main standing afar off as the congre- 
gation of Israel,— to the throne qf 
grace, no symbolic mercy-seat, but the 
very centre of divine sovereignty and 
love... 1 

προσιρχάμιθα] The word occurs 
here for the first time in the Epistle 
(comp. vil 25 note; x. 1, 22; xi 6). 
It is used in the lxx. for tlio priostly 
approach to God in service: e.g. Lev. 
xxl 17, 21 ; xxii. 3, though it has also 
a wider application. That right of 
priestly approach is now extended to 
all Christians. Comp. Apoo. L 6; v. 
10; (xx. 6); 1 Pot ii. 5, 9, See also 

4γγίζομ€Ρ, vii. 1 9, note. 

The power of sympathy in our 
High Priest is made effective by the 
power of help: per hoc enim quod 
similia passus est potest compati; et 
per hoc quod Deus est in utraquo 
substantia potest misereri (Prinias. 
adc. v.). 

μπα παρρησίας] Latt Cumflducia. 
(The 8yr. Posh, gives, as elsewhere, 

IV. ιό] 



tos, ίνα Χάβωμεν έλ€σ? και χάριν έύρωμεν €«s ενκαφον 

1 6 tOpuutv ι om. Β. 

'with eye (fact) open. 9 ) So Acts ii. 
29; iv. 29, 31; xxviii 31. 8t Paul 
usee iv παρρησία Eph. vi 19; PhiL i. 
20; CoL it 15; 8t John παρρησία 
vii 13 &0.; 9 jii^f* irpor «J* πίστιν 
dumiforrf t, tj οτι νινίκηκ* τον κοσμον 
(John xvi 33), bffkov ουν ort νίκησα 
κα\ τον? νυν ήμας BXlfiovrat (QBcam.). 
Tho phraeo is perhaps used here in 
the primary sense, 'giving utterance 
to every thought and feeling and wish/ 
though the word παρρησία is used 
more generally olsowhoro in tho opistlo: 
Hi 6; x. 19, 35. 

th>°*f *%* χάρ*™*] Thophrasois 
compared with Bpovot σοξη* 
(Matt xix. 28 ; xxv. 31 ; ι Sam. ii. 8 ; 
Jer. xiv. 2 1 ; xHL 12 ; Ecclus. xlvii 1 1); 
ο Bpovot rqs μτγαλωσυνης (c. viii. i), 
Bpovot avopfat (Pa xciii. (xdv.) 20), 
Bpovot αΙσΒήσ*** (Prov. xii. 23). The 
gen. in each case seems to express 
that which is shewn in a position of 
soTereign power. Thus the 'throne 
of graco' is that revelation of God's 
Presence in which Ills grace is shown 
in royal majesty. Of this revelation 
the glory over the mercy-seat was a 
mint symbol. 

Philo speaks also of Acov βωμοί 
de exeecr. § 7 (ii 434 M.); and Clement 
describes Christians as having come 
υπο τον ζνγον Ttjt χάριτοΐ [του κυρίου] 
(I Cor. 16). 

Bpovot χάριτος i<mv (Pa CX. l) ου 
Bpovot fcplotmt νυν... Bpovot χάριτος 
Am» <«f κάθηται χαριζόμινος υ βασι- 
λ«&, όταν οΊ ή avrriXtta γίνηται, τότ* 
tytlprrai tit κρίσιν (Chrya). 

On this 'throne of grace' Christ 
Himself is seated: Ua μ) άκουσας 
αντον άρχι*ρ*α voplont Ιστάναι cvtemv 
αυτόν Μ τον Βρονον &γα, 6 Of Upwt ου 
καΒηται Λλ* ϊστηκιν (Chrya). 

tra Χάβωμβν Ζ. κα\ χ. *υρ*μ*ν) that we 
may receive mercy and find grace. 

om. «It D f •. 

The twofold aim corresponds with the 
twofold necessity of life. Man needs 
mercy for past failure, and grace for 
present and future work. There is 
also a difference as to the mode of 
attainment in each case. Mercy is to 
be 'taken' as it is extended to man 
in his weakness; grace is to be 
'sought' by man according to his ne- 
cessity. Ut misericordiam consequa- 
mur, id est, remissionem peccatorum, 
et gratiam donorum Spiritus Sancti 

For xapit oompare ii. 9; x. 29; xii 
15,28; xiu.9,25. 

For \αβ<ΐν oompare John i 16; xx. 
22; Rom. viii 15; 1 Pet iv. 10; and 
for «vpttp Luke i 30; Acts vii 46; 
2 Tim. i 18. 

fir cvKwpov fioqBwiav] Vulg. gratiam 
inveniamtti in auxilio opportune 
The help comes when it is needed 
and not till then (ii 18 rot* π*φα{ο- 
pivoit βοηΒησαι). Comp. Philo de 
migr. Abr. § 10 (i p. 44$ Μ.) ούκουν 
Sri κα\ wpot fioifBtuxv bvvaptt aptvybt 
tvTprtnjt tyf ftpeve ι πάρα Β•ψ κα\ avrot 
ο ήγ*μων iyyvripm ιτρόσι urir 4π % «tyc- 
\<iq των ά£1*ν άφ*\ιΧσ6αι bc&jkojrau 
The clause goes with all that precedes: 
'mercy' and 'grace' are always ready 
at the present moment Αν νυν προσ- 
A0&r, φησί, \4ΨϊΙ **Ι χάρι* Μ ^ IXtep• 
τύκαίρως yap προσίρχη• αν Μ τοτ* 
wpooiXBnt, ούκ(τι• hotpot γαρ τοτ* η 
πρόσοοΊ* (Chrya followed by tho later 

Comp. Gen. xxxv. 3. One of the 
names of Ahura Maada is 'the One of 
whom questions are asked' (Zenda- 
fwria&B.E.iip.24andnote). Phflo's 
description of 'the Divine Word' as 
High-priest in the soul of man is 
worthy of study: de prof, §§ 20, 21 
(i pp. 562 f. M.). 


Additional Note on the reading of iv. 2. 

There is evidence of a twofold difference in the earliest authorities an 
to the reading of this Terse. The difference in the forms σν*κ*ιαρασμ-, 
σνν**κραμ- may be neglected. The substantial differences which affect 
the interpretation of the passage lie in (1) -/ifor, -μάοι*, and (2) role 
βχονσασο', τ&ν άκονσάττ**, (roir Αεοιντ&ιιγι). 

(ι) (a) The nam. $ing. (σνρ**κ<ρασμ4Ρο*) is raid by Κ (vg non ad- 
miitut) d (non temperaiui) syr vg (becauu it toa$ not mixed) Oyr. Alex., 
Lcfr. (mm temperaius), (Prima*.). 

(6) The oceia. p/tcr. (o-vmcMpmr/rt'ovf) is read by ABOD,*M„ the 
great mass of later Mas., some Lat mss. (am. non admixtie), syr hi (text 
fur they were not mixed), me (quia non eonfuei $utU, Wilkins), Tbeod. 
Mops., Aug, Ohrys., Theodt, Theophct 

(2) (a) rut άκούσασι* is the reading of all the Greek use. with the 
exception of D 8 * and 71. 

(6) r&¥ άκουσά*τ*¥ is read by D,* (and this may be the original of 
auditorum in d Lcfr.), and by syr hi mg. 

(0) toU άκονσθιϊσι which appears to have been a conjecture of Theodore 
of Mopsuestia is read by 71, but the sense is given by the vg ex hie qum 

Thus four combinations which have early authority require to be con- 

(a) pjj σννκικιρασμίνος rg viurn rotr ακονσασικ 

Ο) μ) σν¥**Μρασμ*¥θϊ τ§ πίστη ruw άκονσά*τνν. 

(γ) μ$Ι σννκ*κ*ρασμ€¥ίηη τ§ wlaru τσι f άκούσασι». 

(d) μη αν¥Κ9Μρασμ*νοη rjj πΙστ€ΐ roif [άκουσθιισπ V. άΛονσμασιν\ 

Of these (β) may be set aside without hesitation. The variant tup 
άκσνσάντων is not unlike one of the mechanical cliangos of h t (see υ*, ι, 12, 
16), and it gives no tolerable sense. 

The other readings ((a\ (y\ (d)) give severally a good sense, though there 
are difficulties in each case (see Notes). 

The external authority for (d) is relatively so slight 1 that this reading 
can hardly be accepted unless the better attested readings are inadmissible. 
Moreover it simply gives in another form the thought which is conveyed by 
σν¥Κ*κ*ρασμί»οί η} niaru roir άκούσασν. 

Our choice then lios between (a) and (γ). The authorities for (a) though 
few in number cover a very wide field, and reach in each case to the 
earliest accessible date. And further, while the change from -/tmr to 
-/μ'""" *» natural both as a mechanical alteration and as the intentional 
correction of a scribe, the change from -fuVovt to -μένος is more difficult 
to account for. It would scarcely be made mechanically; and it is not 
obvious as a correction. 

On the whole therefore it seems best to accept the reading σννκ<κ*ρασ- 
μίψο* rjf %1στα rofc άκούσασιν as attested by varied ancient authority, 
adequately explaining the other readings, and giving a satisfactory ι 

1 Comp. tan. iii. 19, 1 nondum oommixti verbo Dei Patris. 


Some of the patristic explanations are worth quoting : 

Thkodobus More. (Oram. Cat. p. 177) : ov* yap foav κατλ t)p πίσην roit 
iwayyiXikwt συνημμίνοι* &6*v ovrmt άναγννστίορ, ' μ) σνγκ*κ*ρασμ*ρονς η} 
wlartt rocr deowoViow,' lie ctir» rait wpot αυτούς γιγινημιραι* faayytXlais τον 
eVov θιβ M»txr/«r. 

TnEODORKT : rt yap Ανησιν η τον Θιου inayytXta τουψ ταντην totfaUvovt, μή 
irurrmt oVfofifVovr mil tJ τον 6V0C ονκίμ*! τιθαρρηκότας καί οϊον τοις 6VoO 
Xoyotr &ρακρα$4ντας; ι 

CHRY808T0M : flra arayf ι ' Λλλ* ονκ £φ(\ησιν 6 \6yot της άκοήν Utivovt 
μι) σνγκ*κραμ4νοντ (βο 1188.; odd. -μίνης) rg irfortt rocr Acovewi»,' ftfixyvf 
*»* ο λόγο* ονκ 4φ*\ησ<ν, Ac yap του μι) συγκρα&ηραι ovV ωφ*\ή6ησαρ. 
Then afterwards ho goes on to say, ol οδν π*ρ\ Χά\*β κα\ Ίψτονν, Arc ιοή μ) 
ονν*κρ&6ησα» roU άπιστήοναη, τοντίστιν ου σνν*φ*νησαψ, οΊ4φνγον τ^ν κατ* 
intipmp 4ξη*χ6<ϊσαν τιμωρία*, καί ορα γ4 τι θαυμαστά*, ουκ fire», ον 
σνρψφύρηααρ Λλ* ον συΡίκράΦησαν, τουΗστιν, aaraauurrmt οΊίσιησ α*, Ικ*Ιρ*ρ 
narrmv μίαν καί τήρ αυτήν γνώμη* ίσχηκοτων. 

This latter is the opinion which Thbophylaot quotes and criticises as 

Aueusrnri, in commenting upon Ps. lxxvii. (lxxviii.) 8 no» e$t ereditus 
ewn Deo tjnritus ejut, writes: nt aatom cor cam illo sit et per hoc rectum 
esse poesit, acceditur ad eum non pede sed fide. Ideo didtur etiam in 
epistola ad Hebrews de ilia ipsa generatione prara et amaricante, Non 
profait sermo auditus illis non oontemperatis (so use.) fldoi eorum qui 
ohaudicrnnt {In P«. lxxvii. § 10); and again: ©rant illic etiam electi 
quorum fidei non contemperabatur generatio prara et amaricans (id. § 18) 1 . 

The note of Pbimabius is : non profuit illis, quia non fuit admistus et 
conjuncta* fidei, et contomporatiis fldoi ex his promisrionibus quae audio- 
runt Tunc enim prodessot lis sermo auditus si credidiseent qttoniam tunc 
eMct contomporatns fide (T fidei). Quoniam voro non crodidorant, non fuit 
conjunctus fldoi, ideoquo nihil ois profuit quod audierunt... 

Additional Note on iv. 8. On some hypothetical sentences. 

It is worth while for the sake of some young students to illustrate a 
little in dotail from the writings of the N.T. the various forms of the sentence 
which expresses the hypothetical consequence of an unfulfilled condition. 

Two main cases arise. In one (I) the protasis expressed by <l with the 
indicative is followed by the imperfect indicative with iv. The thought 
here is of a present or continuous result which would have boon soon now 
if the unfulfilled supposition had been realised. In the other (II), the pro- 
tasis expressed by *l with the indicative is followed by the aorist indicative 
with AV The thought here is of a past and completed result which would 
havo ensued if the unfulfilled condition had been realisod. 

1 This reference I owe to my very sometime Fellow of Trinity College, 
old friend the late Rev. A. A. Ellis, 


No uniform rendering in English is able to give the exact force of these 
two different forms of expression. It has become common to translate (I) 
by if (At?) had...{he) would... ; and (II) by if (he) had... (ho) would have... 
But if this rendering is adopted, the definite negation of the fact in the 
apodosis of (I) is commonly lost or obscured, and the statement appears to 
bo simply hypothetical and to suggest a possible fulfilment in the future. 
On the other hand if (I) and (II) are translated in the same manner, the 
suggestion of the present or continuous met in (I) is obliterated. 

Bach case therefore must be considered by itself in order that the 
translator may convey the truest impression of the original with regard to 
the context 

If we look at the two main cases more closely we shall see that each has 
two divisions according as # I is joiued with the imperfect or with the aorist 
in the protasis. Thus four typos of expression must be distinguished. 

I. (i) Ει imp. India imp. with &*. 

(a) El aor. India imp. with fr. 

II. (i) Ei imp. India aor. with ft. 

(2) El aor. India aor. with <fo. 

I. (ι) El with imp. ind. in protasis followod by imp. in apodosis. 

In this caso the hypothetic unfulfilled conditiou and tho cousoquonco of 
its non-fulfilment are both regarded (a) generally as prosont, or (6), if not as 
present» as continuous and not definitely complete in a specific incident 

(a) Hebr. viii. 4 «* ^...ritf *> 9»... (if he had been now invested with 
such an office... he would not be as he now is...). 

Hebr. viii. 7 *l jr... ουκ h» 1(ητ*ίτο... 

John V. 46 $1 /fTUrrfV«Tf.../fr4<JT*V€Tf &¥. 

— viii 42 9ΐ...^ρ...ήγαιτατ• fr... 

— ix. 41 <l $rf...oac cW «?x«rf. 

— xiv. 7 *l <*yycac«trff...cW flcW*. 

— xv. 19 W ^rc.&y ty&cc. 

— xviil 36 *l %ν...ήγ»ριζθ¥το &... 
Luke vil 39 <l ^...rfyliwMr a*... 

I Oor. xi 31 el &ι*κρί*ομ*ρ...ούκ h» Ικρ&υμιθα. 
Gal i. IO f Ι ή ρίσκο*... ουκ 6> ήρη*. 

With these examples must be ranged also John viii. 19 W §d*tr*...a* 

(6) Hebr. xi. 15 W ίμνημον*νν*...*Ιχον &*... (if they had continued to 
remember. . .they would all that time have had.. .). 

Matt. XxiiL 30 tl $μ*θα...ουκ &P ήμιθα... 
In this connexion may be noticed' 

1 John ii. 19 ci ήσα*...μ*μ*νηκ*ισα* civ... where the pluperfect suggests a 
continuous state limited at a point in the past. 

Sometimes an interrogation takes the place of the apodosis. 

Heb. vil 11 fJ...TcXfW»f .Jjp...tU in χρ•ία...; 
I Oor. xtt. 19 •ί to iJ*...irow re σώμα; 


Sometime• the 4» of the apodosis Is omitted (as indie, in Latin : Hot. 
OdL 11. 17, 27. 

John ix. 33 tl μη 1jp,..avK fjdtmiro... 
— xlx. II ούκ f?xft...ff μι) ?"••• 

The unconditioned apodosb seems to emphasise what is implied in the 

(2) El with tho aor. indie, in protasis followed by imp. in apodosis. 

The hypothetic unfulfilled condition Is placed as a definite incident in 
the pest» while the result of the non-fulfilment is regarded as continuous in 

Hobr. Iv. 8 *l κατ4παυσιρ...συκ fir lk&\u... (if rest had been gifen at the 
entrance into Canaan, God would not have continued to speak as He does 

GaL Hi. 21 it ίΜη.,.ί* *6μψ fir Jr... 

So LXX. Jer. xxiti. 22 ft Ϊ€ττψτα9...καΙ tl $«ονσατ...α> άπίστρ•φον. 

In this case also the fir of the apodosis is omitted : 
John xt. 22 d μ% ή\Θορ...ούκ *ϊχοσαν... 
Matt xxtL 24 χαλοτ fp... ft ουκ Ιγιψνήθη.,. 

II. (ι) Et with the imp. indie, in protasis followed by aor. in apodosis. 

The hypothetic unfulfilled oondition is regarded as continuous and not 
definitely complete in the past» while the consequence of its non-fulfilment 
Is specific and past: 

John xiv. 28 el ήγαπατι...1χ<φτιτ* &* (h* y© bad now been loving me. «.ye 
would at the moment of my saying. ..). 
John It. 10 ft jjbnt...<n> fir jjnprat. 

— xL 21, 32 tl $r...oAc fir άπίθωκρ. 

— χτΙΗ. 30 ft μι) I*— ofc fi> jropfMrapfft 
Acts xvill. 14 ft i|r...fir άρισχίμηρ. 

And here also we must place : 

Matt xil. 7 ft fyMfcftrf (real imp.)... ουκ fir «orffiucdVarf. 

— χχίτ. 43 I Lk. xii. 39 ft ght (real \τη\>.)...1γρηγό 1 ρη<ηρ fir... 

8ometimes the fir of the apodosis Is omitted: GaL It. 15 ft hvparfo... 

(2) Et with the aor. indie, in protasis followed by aor. in apodosis. 

The hypothetic unfulfilled condition and the result of its non-fulfilment 
are regarded as definite incidents wholly in the past 

I Cor. ii 8 ft *γτ«σατ...ονκ fir iaravprnrcar (if at the crisis of their trial 
they had known... they would not have crucified). 

Matt XL 21 ft fyfWro... πάλαι fir μβΤ9Ροησαρ | Lk. X. 1 3. 
— xxiv. 22 I Mk. xiiL 20 ft pJj AtoX4Wer...oat α» ίσωθη... 

So in LXX, Is. L 9 ft pi)...fyKarAarfr...fir ίγ*ψή0ημίρ. Rom. ix. 29. 

Compare also: 

Matt xxv. 27 I Lk. xix. 23 fiiA rl ov« &«καν ...«αγ4 A0Ar...fir...fVrpa£a... 

John xiv. 2 ft JW pj, ffirw fir vfuv... 

Hebr. x. 2 fVfl σύκ fir Αταυσαττο... 

W. H. f 8 


In some passages there appear• to be a combination of two forme of 
expression : 

Luke xvil. 6 W ίχβτ* ...Aryvrr &>..., as if the sentence would naturally 
have continued Xryfr«, but then the Ιχ<τι waa mentally corrected to c ?*«r« 
to meet the actual case. Ooinp. Winer p, 383 with Dr Moulton's note. 

John Tiil 39 f I... fort ...Aromrt (if this reading be adopted). 

It may be added that the construction ia relatively more frequent in 
St John's Gospel than in any other Book of the N.T. 

Additional Note on iv. 12. The origin and constitution of man. 

1. TheorU* The great mystery of the origin of man is touched in two passages of 
of the qrt- the Epistle which severally suggest the two complementary theories which 
(jin of man. j^^ Deen foghi one 4 m a one-sided manner as Traducianism and Creation- 
ism: & vii. 10; xiL 9. 

1 . Tra» In c vii. ίο (comp. 0. 5) the force of the argument lies in the assumption 
ducianUm. that the descendants are included in the ancestor! in such a sense that his 

acts have force for them. So far as we keep within the region of physical 
existence the connexion is indisputable. Up to this limit 'the dead' do 
indeed * rule the living.' And their sovereignty witnesses to an essent i a l 
truth which lies at the foundation of society. The individual man ia not a 
complete self-centred being. He is literally a member in a body. The 
connexions of the family, the nation, the race, belong to the idea of man, 
and to the very existence of man. 

2. Crea* But at the same time it is obvious that if this view gives the whole 
tioni$M. account of man's being, he is a mere result He is made as it were a mere 

layer— tradux—o( a parent stock, and owes to that his entire vital force. 
He is bound in a system of material sequences, and so he is necessarily 
deprived of all responsibility. Thus another aspect of his being is given in 
c xii. 9. Here a distinction is drawn between 'the fathers of our flesh/ 
of our whole physical organisation, with its 'life,' and 'the Father of 
spirits/ among which man's spirit is of necessity included. There is then 
an element in man which is not directly derived by descent, though it may 
follow upon birth. And in the recognition of tliis reality of individuality, 
of a personally divine kinsmanship, lies the truth of Oreationism. We are 
not indeed to suppose that separate and successive creative acts call into 
existence the ' spirits' of single men. It is enough to hold that man was 
so made that in his children this higher element should naturally find a 
place on their entrance into the world. That such an issue should ensue 
when the child begins his separate life is neither more nor less marvellous 
than that the power of vision should attend the adequate preparation of an 
organ of vision. So also, to continue the same illustration, the power of 
vision and the power of self-determination are modified by the organisms 
through which they act, but they are not created by them. The physical 
life and the spiritual life spring alike from the one act of the living God 
when He made man in His own image; through whatever steps, in the 


nufoldiog of time, the decisive point was reached when the organism, duly 
prepared, was fitted to receive the divine breath. 

But without attempting to develop a theory of Generationism, as it may Recogni- 
ta called, as distinguished from Traducianism and Creationism, it is enough *">n of the 
for us to notice that the writer of the Epistle affirms the two antithetic com ?!?l 
facte which represent the social unity of the race and the personal responsi- [ruths! 7 
bility of the individual, the influence of common thoughts and the power of 
great men, the foundation of hope and the condition of judgment 

The analysis of man's constitution given by implication in the Epistle II. Comti- 
corresponds with the fundamental division of St Paul (1 Thess. v. 23 body, tution 0/ 
soul, spirit). man • 

The body is noticed both in its completeness (x. 5) and in respect of the 1. Body : 
conditions of its present manifestation (fie$h y v. 7, x. 20, xii. 9 ; blood and-fl*** 1 - 
Jleshy ii. 14). It is unnecessary to repeat what has been said in the notes on 
these passages. A comparison of c. v. 7 with c. x. 5 will place in a clear 
light the difference between 'the body,' which represents the whole 
organisation through which the growth and fulness of human life is 
represented according to the conditions under which it is realised (notice 
I Cor. XV. 44 σώμα ψυχικόν, σ&μα πΡ€υμαηκόν\ and the 'flesh/ which 
represents what is characteristic of our earthly existence under the aspect 
of its weakness and transitoriness and affinity with the material world. 
The moral sense of * flesh,' which is prominent in St Paul, does not occur in 
the Epistle. 

The soul, the life (ψυχή), is an element in man which from the *• Soul. 
complexity of his nature may bo very difforotitly conceived of. His 'lifo' 
extends to two orders, the seen and the unseen, the temporal and the 
eternal, the material and the spiritual. And according as one or the other 
is predominant in the thought of the speaker ψυχή may represent the 
energy of life as it is manifested under the present conditions of sense, or 
the energy of life which is potentially eternal This manifoldness of the 
ψυχή is recognised in c. i v. 1 2. ' The Word of God ' analyses its constituent 
parts and brings them before our consciousness. So it is that we have 
'to gain our life,' 'our soul' in the education of experience inspired by 
faith (x. 39 ήμ€κ...πίστ*ως tit π*ριποίησι* ψυχής' comp. Matt X. 39; 
xi. 29 ; xvi. 25 1 1| Mk. viii. 35 f. || Lk. ix. 24, xvii. ^3 ; xxi. 19 κτήσισθ*). 
In the sadnesses and disappointments and failures of effort (c. xii. 3 rait 
ψυχαι* 1κ\υόμ**οι) we have 'hope as anchor of the soul, entering into 
that which is within the veil' (vi. 19). And it is for the preservation of 
this harmonious sum of man's vital powers that Christian teachers watch 
unweariedly (c. xiii. 17 άγρυπ*ουσν wrip τών ψυχών). 

little is said in the Epistle on the 'spirit' (πν*νμα) by which man holds 3• Spirit. 
converse with the unseen. Just as he has affinity by 'the flesh* with the 
animal world, so he has by 'the spirit' affinity with God. God is iudeed 
'the Father of spirits' (c. xii. 9), aud in His presence we draw near to 
'spirits of just men made perfect' (xii. 23). 

These three elements have in themselves no moral character. They are 4. Heart. 
of the nature of powers to be used, disciplined, coordinated, harmonised. 
' The expression of the moral character lies in ' the heart/ Men in a mere 
enumeration can be spoken of as 'souls/ but 'the heart' is the typical 



centre of personal Ufa It it the 'heart' which receives its strong assurance 
by grace (c. xiii. 9). 'Unbelief has its seat in 'the heart' (c. iii. 12 καρδία 
πονηρά απιστίας). In Christ we can approach God 'with a true heart' 
(0. x. 22 μ€τα αληθινής καρδίας), offering Him the fulness of our individual 
being which we have realised for His sendee, having severally 'had our 
hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience ' (id. fapamaptvot τάς καρδίας άπο 
σνηώήσ€ως πονηραχ). See also c iii. 8, 10, 15 ; iv. 7 (Ps. xcv. 8, 10) ; iv. 12 
(note); viil 10 (note); x. 16 (Jer. xxxL 33). 
5. Con- For man has a sovereign power throned within him through which the 

icience. divine law finds a voice. He has a 'conscience 1 (σνηίδησις) whose 
judgments he can recognise as having final authority. He has ' conscience 
of sins' (c. x. 2). He knows that certain acts are evil and that he is 
responsible for them. In such a state he has an ' evil conscience' (c. x. 22 ; 
contrast c. xiii. 18 καλή σν**ίδησις\ The conscience feels the defilement of 
4 dead works/ which counterfeit the fruits of its righteous claims on man's 
activity (c. ix. 14) ; and it furnishes the standard of that perfection towards 
which man aspires (c. ix. 9 κατά σντιΐδησι* rcXciarcu. Additional Note). 

Of the words which describe man's intellectual faculties διάνοια (' under- 
standing') is found in a quotation in viiL 10; x. 16 (Jer. xxxi. 33); but iow, 
which occurs in each group of St Paul's Epistles, is not found in this 


V. f Πάς yap άρχ&ρβνς 4ξ ανθρώπων λαμβανόμενος 

III. Τβι High-piumthood op 


In the last two chapters the writer 
of the Epistle has shewn the general 
superiority of 'Jesus,' the Founder 
of the New Covenant, over Moses and 
Joshua ; and, further, that tho divine 
promise partially fulfilled by tho occu- 
pation of Oanaan still awaits its com- 
plete and absolute fulfilment He is 
thus brought back to the thought of 
Christ's High-priesthood, in virtue of 
which humanity finds access to the 
Presence of God, ' His rest,' pursuing 
in detail the line of argument sug- 
gested in it 17, 18 and resumed in iv. 

In this section the Apostle deals 
with the general conception of Christ's 
High-priesthood. He treats of the 
accomplishment of Christ's High- 
priestly work in the next section. 

The section consists of three parts. 
Tho writer first briefly characterises 
tho work and tho qualifications of a 
Uigh-priest; and shows that tho 
qualifications are possessed by Christ 
in ideal perfection, and that He 
completes the (theocratic) type of the 
Aaronic High-priest by adding to it 
the features of the (natural) type of 
the High-priesthood of Molchizodok 
(v. 1 — 10). Then follows a hortatory 
passage in which the duty of con- 
tinuous and patient effort is enforced 
as the condition of right knowledge 
of the Christian revelation (v. 11— 
vi). Having thus prepared the way 
for a fuller exposition of the truth 
with which he is engaged, tho writer 
unfolds through tho imago of Mel- 
chizodck a view of the absolute High- 
priesthood of Christ (viL). 

Thus we have shortly : 

i. The characteristics ©/ a High- 
priest fulfilled in Christ (v. 1—10). 

ii Progress through patient effort 
the condition of the knowledge of 
Christian mysteries (v. 1 1 — vi.). 

iii. The characteristics of Chrut 
as absolute High-priest shadowed 
forth by Melchizedek (vii.). 

i The characteristics of a High- 
priest are fulfilled in Christ .(v. 
1— 10). 

This paragraph falls naturally into 
two parts. (1) The characteristics 
of a High-priest are first laid down 
(v. 1—4); and then (2) it is shewn 
that these were perfectly satisfied by 
Christ (5—10). 

(1) The characteristics of a High- 
priest are drawn from a consideration 
of his office (v. 1); and from the 
qualifications which its fulfilment re- 
quires in regard to men and to God 


'For every High-priest, being 
taken from among men, is appointed 
for men in the things that pertain to 
€hd,that he may offer both gifts and 
sacrifices for sine; ■ being able to 
bear gently with the ignorant and 
erring, since he also himself is com- 
passed with infirmity^ sand by 
reason thereof is bound, as for tJte 
people so also for himself, to offer for 
sins. *And no one taketh the honour 
to himself, but being called of God, 
even as was Aaron. 

1. Tho general purpose of the * 
institution of the High-priesthood. 

wot yap—] This section follows 
naturally from that which precedes. 
The perfect sympathy of our High- 
priest (iv. 15) satisfies one of the 
conditions which are necessarily at- 
tached to the office universally. On 
tho ground of this fundamental corre- 
spondence between Christ's Nature 
and tho High-priosthood, the writor 
proceeds to develop the idea of the 
High-priesthood before he applies it 
to Christ The yap is explanatory 
and not directly argumentative ; and 
the Mosaic system is treated as 
embodying the general conception 
(irof); but oven so the type of 
Melchisodek's priosthood is not to 


vrrip ανθρώπων καθίσταται τα προς τον 0eoV, ίνα προσ* 
φέρ*[ δωρά [re] και θυσίας \hrkp αμαρτιών, * μετριοπαθέϊν 

ι *£/>4™ KAOsyrhl: om. η Β vg syr vg me : TtdfyaD,*. 

be forgotten. The words recur c 
viii. 3. 

i( Μ. λαμβ. vwip Mp. καθ....] being 
taken from among men... Tho human 
origiu of the High-priest is marked 
as a ground of the fitness of his 
appointment A High-priest being 
himself man can act for men : comp. 
Ex. xxviii 1 (from among the chil- 
dren of Israel). He is 'of nion' and 
' on behalf of men ' (for thoir service), 
and in the original these two phrases 
correspond emphatically. Καρτψρομψ 
οΛκ ayytkos vwip ανθρώπων Upartvtw 
Μχθη άΚλ* Μρωπος vwip ά*θρώκ»ν 
(Thood). Chrysostom (followed by 
later Fathers) remarks: τούτο kqu>6p 
τψ Xpwrf. The present participle 
(kapfJavontrot, Yolg. assumptus, in- 
adequately) suggests the continuity 
of the relation (▼. 4 καλονμ€*ος, Vulg. 
[6 καλ.] qui vocatur). 

It is unnatural and injurious to the 
argument to take 4$ άνβρ. \αμβα*6μ€¥ο* 
as part of the subject (Syr. every 
high-priest that is from men). 

καθίσταται] i$ appointed, Vulg. 
constituitur. Καθίστασθαι is the ordin- 
ary word for authoritative appoint- 
ment to an office : c. vii. 28 ; viii. 3 ; 
(Tit i. 5) ; Luke xiL 14 ; Philo, de vU. 
ifot.lL 1 1 (iL 151 M.). 

τα νρος top θ*όν\ c. ii. 17 note ; Deut 
xxxi 27 (ijul). 

fro νροσφ.] Oomp. viii 3 *h rh 
προσφ4ρ<ιν. In a considerable number 
of passagos tm and *h τό occur in close 
connexion: c ii. 17 note; 1 These, 
ii. 16; 2 These, ii. 11 1 ; iil 9; 1 Cor. 
ix. 18; 2 Cor. viii. 6; Rom. i. 11 ; 
iv. 16; vii. 4; xi• 11; *▼. 16; PhiL 
L 10; Eph. L 17 f. 'Iki appears to 
mark in each case the direct and im- 
mediate end, while fir το* indicates 
the more remote result aimed at or 

*ροσφ('ρο] The word προσφίριιν U 

commonly used in the lxx. for tho 
'offering' of sacrifices and gifts, and 
it is so used very frequently in this 
Epistle (19 times). It never occurs 
in the Epistles of St Paul, and rarely 
in the other books of Ν. T. Matt v. 
23f. (comp. ii. 11); viii. 4 and paral- 
lels ; John xvL 2 ; Acts vii. 42 ; xxL 
26. Compare άταφίρα* c vii. 27 note. 

Tlus usage of προ*φίρ<ι* appears 
to bo Hellenistic and not Classical. 

tepa τ€ καί θυσίας) 0. L. munera 
et hostias, Vulg. dona et sacrificia. 
ampow can be used comprehensively 
to describe offerings of all kinds, 
bloody and unbloody : viii. 4 (comp. 
xi. 4). Tho same offering indeed 
could becalled,undor different aspects, 
a 'gift' and a 'sacrifice.' But when 
'gifts' and 'sacrifices' are distin- 
guished the former mark the 'meal- 
offering' (Π(φρ) and the latter the 

bloody offerings. Comp. viii. 3; 

In this narrower sense the 'sacri- 
fice' naturally precedes the 'offering' 
(comp. Ps. xl. (6), c. x. 5). It is possible 
that the transposition is made in order 
to emphasise the thought that man 
needs an appointed Mediator even to 
bring his gifts to God. The particu- 
lar referenco is to the offoriugs of the 
High-priest on the Day of Atouomont, 
' the Day ' (Joma) as it is called in 
the Talmud, which oouoontrated all 
the ideas of sacrifice and worship, as 
the High-priest concentrated all the 
ideas of personal service (Lev• xvL ; 
Num. xxix.). 

The clause Mp άμαρτιω* is to be 
joined with θνσίας (sacrifices for 
sins) and not with προσφίρν as refer- 
ring to both nouns. The two ideas 
of eucharistic and expiatory offerings 
are distinctly marked. 

For νπίρ see α vii. 27; x. 12 ; (ix. 




ΰννάμβνοτ toU dyvoovn και πλανωμένοπ, iirei και αι/τσ? 

% Aral KdU : galydp D t *. 

7); t dor. xt. 3 (Gal. L 4). More 
commonly ira pi Is mad : v. 3 ; c. x. 6, 
8, 18; xiii. π; 1 Pet Hi. 18; 1 John 
iL 2; It. 10; Rom. rill. 3. 

2—4. From the office of the High- 
priest the writer passes on to his 
qualifications in regard to man and 
God. He must have sympathy with 
man (2, 3) and receive his appoint- 
ment from Qod (4). 

2. The capacity for calm and 
gentle judgment fits him for the 
fulfilment of his office in behalf of 
his fellow men. He oftors sacrifices 
as one 'able to bear gently* with the 
ignorant and erring. 

prrpwnaB^] to fed gently towards f 
to bear gently with. Vulg. eondolere. 
Ambr. qffiei pro... Syr. to make 
himself humble and enffer with. The 
proper idea of μιτριοποΜίΡ (/itrpio- 
roftfc, μ*τρΑσπάθ*ια) is tliat of a tem- 
perate focling (of sorrow and pain 
and anger) as contrasted with the 
impassibility (άπάθιια) of the Stoics 
(Diog. Laeri § 31 Arietotelet : Ζφη dJ 
rhw σοφορ μή that μίρ απαθή μττρω- 
πανη dt). Tho word is froquontly need 
by Philo : de Abrah. § 44 (H 37 M.) 
μήτ* wktlm top μττρίου σφασαζιιρ... 
μητ* άπαθίία ...χρησθαι, τό W μίσορ προ 
τ•* &κρ*ν ί\όμ*Ρ0Ρ prrpumaBup *«- 
ρασθαι. de Joe. § $ (iL p. 45 Μ.) μνρία 
αυτός ΖπαΒορ τώ* άρηκίστωρ ίφ* Λ, 
waifcvfoh μ*τρισπαΰ<ιρ, σύκ ίγράμφθηρ. 

de epee. legg. § 17 (it 3*5 Μ., joined 
with Arwiiafr). id de nobil § 2 (iL 
p. 439 M., opposed to ή aprrpla τ&ψ 

Camp. Jos. AntL xiL 3, 2, Plat 
<fe /toil, am. p. 489 ο if φύσα to**<p 
ήμίρ πραότητα κα\ prrptowaBtiat firyo- 
ροψ ά*ρ*£ικακίαρ. Clem. Alex. Strom. 
Μ• 8, § 39 (p. 450 P.); *▼• 17• S »°° 
(p. 611 P.). 

In the Law no special moral quali- 
fications are prescribed for the priests. 
Here the essential qualification which 
lies in their humanity is brought out 

Their work was not and could not be 
purely external and mechanical even 
if it seemed to be so superficially» 
Within certain limits they had to 
decide upon the character of the 
facts in regard to which offerings 
were made. 

toU άγροουσι κα\ vkapmpJpott] Vulg. 
tie qui ignorant et errant The 
compound description may either in- 
dicate the source (ignorance) and the 
issue (going attray) of sin; or it may 
describe sinners, so far as they come 
into consideration here, under two 
main aspects. Wilful, deliberate sin 
does not fall within the writer's scope, 
nor indeed within the scope of the 
Levitical Law. Such sin required in 
the first instance the manifestation of 
a sterner judgment Oomp. Num. 
xv. 22—31 (sins of ignorance and sins 
of presumption). 

For the use of rfytwtr in lxx. 
( n #> *i$) >ee 1 Sam. xxvi. 21 ; Eiek. 
xlv. 20 (Alex.); Lev. iv. 13; v. 18; 
Lev. iv. 2 (Π}#3 W?0» «*. «Wpn* 
foowrto, Aqu.,Symm.dyi>o/f). Ecclus. 
v. 15. Compare &ypota, Gen. xxvi. 10; 
Ecclus. xxviii. 7; xxx. if; xxiiL 3; 
άγρσημα c Ix. 7 note. True knowledge 
implies corresponding action. Comp. 
1 John IL 3 note. 

For wXojw&u, which is compara- 
tively rare in the general sense of 
'going astray' (sinning), see c iiL 10; 
Tit iiL 3; (James v. 19; 2 Tim. iiL 13; 
Apoc xviii. 23). The full image is 
given Matt xviiL 12; 1 Pet IL 25 
(Is. MIL 6). 

In iv. 15 our High-priest Is de- 
scribed as one bvpApepot σνμΜαθησαι 
toif avfapt (ate, while here he generally 
is required μ*τρ*απαθ•ιρ τοΐ* &γροουσν 
κα\ πλαρφμίρΌΐς. The one phrase de- 
scribes his relation to the source of 
transgression, the other his relation to 
the transgressor. It is necessary that 
the true High-priest should be able 



[V.J, 4 

ΤΓβρΙκβιται dadeveiav, *και δι* αύτην οφείλει, καθώς irepl 
του λαον, ούτως και περί έαντον προσφέρει* irepi αμαρ- 
τιών. 4 καί ούχ έαυτφ tis λαμβάνει την τιμήν, άλλα 

3 4V αύτ+ ΚΑΒΟΜ),•; *4 ταύτψ rsyrhlmg. forntf ΚΑΟ: ainoO 

(αύτοΟ) BD/. wept άμ. KABO*D,• : top Α/*. Γ. 4 λβ*/Μ*« τ» D a . 

to sympathise with the manifold forms 
of weakness from which sins spring, as 
himself conscious of the nature of sin, 
but it is not necessary that he should 
actually share the feelings of sinners, as 
having himself sinned. Towards sin- 
ners he must have that calm, just feel- 
ing which neither exaggerates nor ex- 
tenuates the offenoe. It may further 
be noticed that Christ, as High-priest, 
has no weakness, though He sym- 
pathises with weaknesses (τϋ. 28; 
It. 15). 

Arf The particle is unusually fre- 
quent (9 times) in this Epistle (io 
times in St Paul), while on causal 
only occurs in quotations (c. viii. 9 ft). 
Seer. 11 note. 

ν«ρίκ*ιται άαθ,] V. L. gsilai inftrmi- 
tatem. Vulg. circumdatu* est ι iyfr- 
mUaU. Syr. clothsd with ittfrmity. 
For the use of π*ρΙκ*ψα^ compare 
(& xii. 1); Acts xxviiL 20 την Ζλυσι* 
ταύτηρ vtpUtipai. Clem. 2 Oor. I 
άμανρωσιν wepuulpuvoi. Ign. ad Trail. 
12; and for the general thought see 
c. Til. 28 Ιχοντα* <2o-0t iw iot. The image 
is common in Greek literature from 
the time of Homer: IL xviii. 157 Ar*- 
ίψίροι άλκήν. Comp. Lk. xxiv. 49; 
OoL lii. 12. Eltes rd μίτρον τη* dr- 
θρωπίνη* Ασ$*ν*ία* /φ' ϊαυτψ iwtprrpci 
«αϊ τ)ν σνγγνάμην (Theoph.). 

The exact opposite to wtpuctla&u is 
mpuXttv (c x. 11). With the sing. 
(do&vcta) contrast the plural c. iv. 15. 

3. καΐ oV αυτήν] and by reason 
thereof, Is. of the weakness. This 
clause may be an independent state- 
ment, or depend upon Arc £ On the 
whole the form (καί cV αυτήν instead 
of di Ijv) is in favour of the former 
view; which is further supported by 
the fact that weakness does not ab- 
solutely involve sin, so that the weak- 

ness and the sin even in the case of 
man, as he is, are two separate 
elements. * 

In the case of the human High- 
priest weakness actually issued in sin. 
In tliis respect the parallel with 
Christ fails. But it has been seen 
(iv. 15) that a sense of the power of 
the temptation and not the being 
overpowered by it is the true ground 
of sympathy. Comp. vii. 27. 

tyc Act] As i$ bound in the very 
nature of things, in virtue of his 
constitution and of his office. He 
must obtain purity for himself before 
he can intercede for others. Comp. 
c. ii 17 note. 

vipllavrov] Tbo ceremonies of the 
Day of Atonement are still foremost 
in the writer's thoughts (Lev. xvL). 
Philo (Quit r*r. div. hmr. § 36» 
L 497 M.) regards the daily meal- 
offering as the offering for the priest 
(Lev. vL 20), as the lamb was the 
offering for the people. 

νροσφ. vtpH άμαρτιΑν] The constant 
use of the singular in the sense of 
« gin-offering ' (x. 6, 8; xiii. 11 *<p\ 
αμαρτία* and lxx.) seems to shew 
that here ntpl άμ. is to be takon 
generally 'for sins/ while προσφ. is 
absolute as in Luke v. 14, though not 
elsewhere in this Epistle. Sooalso 
Num. vii. 18. 

4. A second qualification for the 
High-priesthood lies in the divine 
call. He must bo man, and he must 
be called by God. The fact of human 
sinfulness naturally leads to this com- 
plementary thought Of himself a 
man could not presume to take upon 
him such an office. Ho could not 
draw near to Qod being himself sin- 
ful : still less could he draw near to 
Qod to intercede for others. At the 




καλούμενος ύττο του θβον, καθώ(τπ€ρ και Ααρών• *Οϋτως 

κα\σύμ(*ο% KABC*D, syr hi ι + *' «βλ. Γ vg syr vg. «αΛ&στφ Κ• ABD,• s 

««Mrcp Γ Κ•. om. ««i D s # vg iyr vg. 'Aapfe KABCD,: +*' Ά. Γ. 

most he could only indicate in action 
the desire for fellowship with God 

iavrf λαμβώκΐ] The idea of bold 
presumption does not lie fa the phrase 
itself (Luke xix. 12), but in the 
context Tho unusual form ούχ Ιαυτφ 
riff corresponds with ούχ iavrfo which 

τ^9 τιμή*) Latt honorem, tho office 
80 ή τιμή is nscd of tho High-priest- 
hood by Josophns : 04. Anit. iii 8, 1. 

ik\a κάΚούμ.] but being catted (as 
caned) ho taketh it (ΚαμβΖ™ is to be 
supplied from the preceding \<yi0tfm 

The word κηΚησθαι (comp. c xL 8) 
is specially used for the ' call' to the 
Christian Faith: c ix. 1$ (especially 
by 8t Panl and 8t Peter). 

καΜσπ*ρ κ<ύ Άαρω*] Ex. xxviii. 1 5 
Num. xvi.— xviii Even Aaron him- 
self, though specially marked out be- 
fore (Ex. xvi. 33), did not assume the 
office without a dofinite call 

Aaron is the dirine type of the 
High-priest» as the Tabernacle is of 
ritual service. He is mentioned in 
the N.T. besides only ce. vii. 11 ; ix. 
4; (Lk.i. 5; Acts vii. 40). 

From the time of Herod tho suc- 
cession to the High-priesthood bo- 
came Irregular and arbitrary and not 
confined to the line of Aaron (Jos. 
Antt. xr. 2, 4; xx. 9). Therefore the 
writer goes back to the divine ideal. 
Tho notoriousness of the High-priestly 
corruption at the time could not fail 
to give point to the language of the 

8choettgen quotes from Bammid- 
bar Re. xviii. : Moses said [to Rorah 
and his companions] : If Aaron my bro- 
ther had taken the priesthood to him- 
self ye would have done well to rise 
against him ; but in truth God gave 
it to him, whose is the greatness and 
the power and the glory. Whosoever 

therefore rises against Aaron, does 
he not rise against Godf (Wftnsche, 
P. 441). 

(2) Having characterised the office 
and qualifications of a High-priest 
generally, tho writer now goes on to 
shew that Christ satisfied tho quali- 
fications (5—8), and fulfils tho office 
(9, 10). 

The proof is given in an inverted 
form. The divine appointment of 
Christ is established first (5, 6); and 
then His power of sympathy (7, 8); 
and lastly His office is described (9, 

This inversion, in an elaborate 
parallelism, is perfectly natural, and 
removes the appearance of formality. 

s£b Christ also glorified not Him- 
se\f to become High-priest, but He 
that spake unto Him, 

Thou art My Son, 

I have today begotten Thee: — 

*Even as He saith also in another 

Thou art a priest for ever, 

Afler the order of Metchieedek:— 

f Who % in His days ofjlesh (or in 
the days of Hisfiesh) having offered 
up, with strong crying and tears, 
prayers and supplications unto Him 
that was able to save Him out of 
death, and having been heard for 
His godly fear, 9 though He was 
Son yet learned obedience by the 
things which He suffered; *and 
having been made perfect He became 
to all that obey Him the cause of 
eternal salvation, "being addressed 
by God as High-priest after the order 
of Mekhizedek. 

5 — 8. The qualifications of Christ 
for the High-priesthood are estab- 
lished by His divino appointment 
(5, 6\ and by His human discipline 
which became the ground of perfect 
sympathy (7. «)• 




και ό χριστό* ούχ εαυτόν ίΐόξασβν γβνηθήναι αρχιερέα, 
αλλ* ό \α\ή(τας προς αυτόν 

Yldc μου cT ct *Υω cMuepoN γ€Γ^ννηκα ce* 
6 καθώς καϊ έν έτβρω \eyet 

5 y&pisifyag ΙΥ * 7"***•* Α • ^ έτέρφ + πέλ» D f # . 

5,6. The divine appointment of 
Christ is exhibited in two passages of 
the Psalm• in which the Lord who 
declare• Him to be Hie Son declare• 
Him also to be 'High-priest after the 
order of Mekhiaedek.' 

These two quotations from Pa il 7; 
Pa ex. 4 establish tho source of the 
Lord's sovereign dignity as * Son/ and 
mark the particular form in which 
this dignity has been realised. They 
correspond in fact to the two ideas 

Μζασι* and γ**η$η*αι άρχιιρία. The 
first passage which has been already 
quoted (i. 5) refers the glory of the 
Risen Christ* the exalted Son of man, 
to the Father. This glory is not ex- 
actly defined, but the position of son- 
ship includes every special honour, 
kingly or priestly. He to whom this 
had been given could not be said to 
'glorify himself The second quota- 
tion (Pa ex. 4) defines the particular 
application of the first The kingly 
priesthood of Melchiaodek was pro- 
mised to Christ Such a priesthood 
naturally belongs to the exalted Son. 

5. ovrus καϊ 6 χριστοί] So Christ 
(the Christ) also... The title of tho 
ofllce emphasises the idea of the 
perfect obedience of the Lord even 
in the fulness of His appointed work, 
It is not said that 'Jesus' glorified not 
Himself, but 'the Christ,' the appoint- 
ed Redeemer, glorified not Himself 

Comp. iii. 14; vi 1; ix. 14, 28; xi. 
26 (6 χριστός); and iii. 6; ix. 11, 24 

ούχ iav. 4Μξ. γβρ.] Vulg. nonsemet- 
ipsum clarificavit ut pontift» fieret. 
This fuller phrase, in place of the 
simple repetition of the words used 
before, 'took not to Himself the 
honour/ gives a distinct prominence 

to the general character of Christ's 
work, ' He glorified not Himself boom 
(in the assertion of this dignity) to 
become High-priest* Christ, as sinless 
man, could approach God for Him- 
self; but He waited for His Father's 
appointment that He might ap- 
proach Qod as Son of man for sinful 
humanity. Comp. John viiL 54, 42 ; 
Acts iii. 13. 

The High-priesthood, the right of 
mediation for humanity, was a 'glory' 
to 'the 8on of man.' Comp. John 

αλλ' ο λαλ. wp6s avrow] but His 
Father glorified Him, that He should 
be made High-priest, even He that 
spake unto Him... (Pa. ii. 7 Kvpun 
•Imv προς μι). 

σήμιρο* γ*γ4**ηκά σ«] Comp. L 5 
note. Hoc est dicere Ego semper et 
mternaliter manens semper te habeo 
filium coreternum mihi. Hodie nam- 
que advorbiuin est prasseutis temporia 
quod proprie Deo compotit (Prim., 

In connexion with the quotation 
from Pa ii. 7 it must be observed that 
the lxx. translation of Pa cix. (ex.) 3 
gives a thought closely akin to it : c« 
yourphs προ εωσφόρου rycVwjaa at, 
which was constantly cited by the 
Greek fathers as a true parallel. 

6. καΰάς καϊ...] The absolute de- 
claration of tho 8onship of Christ 
found a special application in these 
words of another Psalm. The definite 
office of Priesthood is a partial inter- 
pretation of the glory of the Son. 
'The Fathor glorified tho Son to be- 
come High-priest, even as in fact(fcoi) 
He expressly declares.' This glorify- 
ing was not a matter of general de- 
duction only but definitely foreshown. 


Σι iepefc elc ton aIoina katA tJn taIin Μελχιοβλέκ. 
σ^ +ff vg syrhl me. 


ηώ»* ice/] ι These, v. 11 ; Eph. It. 4. 

iv Μρφ] probably neuter, in an- 
other place (Ps. ex. 4). Comp. if. 5 ; 
1 Clem. TiiL 4 iv Μρψ τοπ* Xeyfi. 

Psalm ex. describes the Divine 
8avk>nr under three aspects as 

King (1—3); Priest (4); Conqueror 


It is quoted in tho Ν. T. to illustrate 
three distinct points in the Lord's 

(1) His Lordship and victory: 
Matt. xxii. 43 Λ And parallels (c hrtv 
κύριος τψ κυρίψ μου ...El oSv ΔαικΜ 
καλά αυτόν κυρών...); I Cor. XV. 255 
C X. 12 f. 

(2) His Exaltation at the right 
hand of Ood {κάβου 4κ &*(*&ν μου...): 
Actsii. 34 f.; c. i. 13. 

And this phrase underlies tho many 
references to Christ's 'sitting' (Matt 
xxvL 64) and taking His scat (Mark 
xvi. 19 Mourn) at tho right hand of 

(3) His Priesthood (2ύ Icpcv* ck 
row αΙΔνα): «. 10 and in cc vL vii. 

κατά rijv τά£ι* Μ.] Vulg. secundum 
ordinem. Syr. after the likeness (cf. 
VU. 15 κατά n)y ομοιότητα) — after the 

order, to occupy the same position, 
as priest at once and king (Hobr. 

*rr)?Yty. Porr^ir see 2 Mace ix. 

18; the word is used very widely jn 
classical Greek for the 'position, 9 
'station' of a slave, an enemy Ac 
Comp. Philo, de mt. Mos. iii. § 21 (il 
p. 161 Μ.) ου μία rdjir τ&ν Ιιρωμ4νων. 

It is worth whilo to summarise the 
characteristic note in which Primasius 
enumerates three main points in which 
the High-priesthood of Christ was, 
like that of Melchisedek, contrasted 
with tho High-priesthood of Aaron: 

(1) It was not for tho fulfllmont of 
legal sacrifices, sacrifices of bulls and 
goats; but for the offering of bread 
and wine, answering to Christ's Body 
and Blood. Animal offerings have 
ceased: these remain. 

(2) Melchisedek combined the 
kingly with the priestly dignity: he 
was anointed not with oil but with 
the Holy Spirit 

(3) Melchisedek appeared onoe: 
so Christ offered Himself once. 

Gficumenius, in almost the same 
form, marks the following points of re- 
semblance in Melchisedek to Christ: 
hri ov* oV (ΚαΙου f Jr \*ρ*σννψ ΙχρΙσόη ο 
Μ?λχισ«θ€« aft *Aap4v 9 καί 3τι od rat 
6V αίματος προσήγαγ* Θυσίας, καί art 
των fuvmv if ν Apxuprvt, καί οτι 6Υ άρτου 
καί οίνου ηΰλόγησ** τον * Αβραάμ. 

Two features in Melchizodek's priest- 
hood appear to be specially present to 
the mind of the writer, (1) that it was 
connected with the kingly office, and 
(2) that it was not made dependent on 
any fleshly descent, or limited by con- 
ditions of timo. Molchisodok had no 
recorded ancestry and no privileged 
lino of descendants. He represent- 
ed a non-Jewish, a universal priest- 
hood. In relation to the Priesthood 
he occupies the position which Abra- 
ham occupies in relation to the Cove- 
nant Comp. Zech. vh 13. 

No early Jewish writer applies this 
promise of the priesthood to Messiah. 
Justin (Dial cc. 33, 83) and Tertullian 
(adv. Mare. v. 9) mention that the 
Psalm was referred by the Jews to 
Heaekiah. Compare Schoettgen, li. 
645. The Aboth A Nathan from 
which he quotes an application of the 
words to Messiah is In its present 
form probably of post-Talmudical date 
(Zuns Chttesd. Vort. 108 f.; Stein- 
Schneider Jewish Literature, 40). 

The Chaldee paraphrase of tho verse 
(referring it to David) is remarkable : 
'The Lord has determined that thou 

shalt be set Princo («?"$) over the 

world to come, for thy desert, because 
thou art an innocent king. 9 

<U τον al&va] Christ is a Priest for 
ever, because He has no successor, 
nor any need of a successor. His High- 


7 as iv τα& ήμεροι* της σαρκός αύτον, iefoeis re και 

7 df + up D a *. om. r< vg (syr yg) me. 

priestly Sacrifice, His High-priestly 
Entrance «with Hie own blood' 
into heaven, to the presence of God, 
are 'eternal' acta, raised beyond all 
limits of time. Oomp. ix. 12, 14; 

Here therefore there is no possi- 
bility of repetition, as in the Levitical 
sacrifices. All is 'one act at once/ 
while for men the virtue of Christ's 
sacrifice is applied in time. 

OBcumenius understands the phrase 
of the perpetual memory of Christ's 
offering: ov yap τήρ προς άπαξ y§po- 
μίρηρ vwh $ιοΰ θυσία* καί προσφορά* 
f trey &> tit top αΙωρα, άΚΚ' α)φορωρ (It 
τους ¥vp Ιερουργούς 6V ip μΑσωρ Χρίσ- 
τος ΙιρουργΛ καϊ Itpoopywat, 6 καί 
παρόδους avroU ip τψ μνστικψ Μπρψ 
top τρόπο* της τοιαύτης Upovpyiat. 

Theopjiylaot in much more careful 
language says: πως cfa το tit top 
almpat or ι καϊ vw μιτα του σώματος - 
& Mp ήμ£ρ ίβυσςρ arvygdVtt vvip 
ημ£ρ τψ θ*ψ καΧ πατρΙ...$ ση ή κασ* 
Ικάστηρ γιρομίρη καί γβρησομ4ρη «fc top 
almpa προσφορά dta τ&ρ τον 6*ου λ«ιτ- 
ovpymr αύταρ Ιχ#« άρχαρία καί Upia 
top κύριο», καί Upttow iavrop vvip ήμ&Ρ 
αγίάζοντα καϊ κΧάμίρορ καϊ δΜμβΡΟΡ. 
οσάκις yap ταύτα ylrerai ο Θάνατος του 
κυρίου KttTayyiXXrrau 

7 — 10. The complicated sentence 
is divided into two main propositions 
by the two finite verbs (1) &ς... 
προσς»τγκας καϊ ιΐσακουσθιίς. . .ϊμαθ*ρ, . . 
(2) καϊ rfXcitt&lr iy4p*ro. The first 
sentoncedesoribestho divino disciplino 
through whicli Christ was perfected 
in His human nature : the second, the 
efficacy of the work which He was 
fitted to accomplish in His perfected 

The great statement of the first 
sentence (ος ip raU ήμίραις της σαρκίς 
αυτού.. Λμα$*ρ αφ* Λρ hraBtv τηρ ύπα• 
κοήρ) is enlarged by two subordinate 
statements which illustrate the char• 

actor of the divine disciplino (αΊήσιις 
τι καϊ 1*(τ....α)λαβ<1ας), and Christ's 
unique nature (καΙπ*ρ »p vioc). Of 
these the first is again elaborated in 
detail. The character (ο***. καΧ Ut τ.), 
the object (προς top d. σ. αν. Ικ Β.), 
and the manner (μ. κρ. Ι κ. 6\) of 
Christ's prayers are vividly given; 
and the answer to them is referred to 
its moral cause (άπ6 της •νλ.). 

If the words are arranged in a 
tabular form their symmetrical struc- 
ture is at once evident: 
f in His days cf flesh, 
tiaving offered up, 
teith strong crying and tears, 
prayer• and supplications 
unto Him Utat was able to eave 
Him out of death, 
and having been heard 
for Hie godly fear, 
8 though He wa$ Son, yet 

(1) learned obedience 

by the thinge which He eufered; 

9 and, 
having been made perfect, 

(2) He became to all them that obey 

Him, the cauee of eternal sol- 
»• being addressed by God, as 
High-priest after the order of 
7, 8. Christ— the 8on, the priest 
'after the order of Melchisedek— has 
been shewn to have fulfilled one con- 
dition of true High-priesthood by His 
divino appointment: IIo is now shown 
j to have fulfilled the other, as having 
learnt through actual experience the 
I uttermost needs of human weakness. 
7. fo] The relative goes back to 
the main subject of v. 5, Christ, who 
has been more fully described in the 
two intervening verses. Here there 
is no difficulty. Oomp. 2 These, ii. 9 ; 
1 Pet iv. χ 1. In c iii. 6 the ambiguity 
is greater, but there oZ is to be re- 




Ικ€τηρία% irpo* τον Ζυνάμενον σωζειν αντον έκ θάνατον 
μετά κραυγής ισγυρα* και δακρύων προιτενέγκας και 

ferrod to God and not to Χριστό* 
Comp. v. 11 note. 

fr rotr if/i. r. σ. α.] Vulg. mi diebut 
eamie $uaf t Bjr. when He toot clothed 
with fieeh. The pronoun may be 
token either with της σαρκός or with the 
compound phrase, in the day* of Hie 
fie$h\ or in Hie days of fieeh. The 
general meaning of the phrase is well 
given by Theodoret aa describing 'tho 
time when He had a mortal body' 
(ήμίρας θΊ σαρκός top της ΰνφόαμο ν 
ίφη καφό* 9 τουτίστιρ ηψίκα Θνητών *1χι 
τδ σώμα. Quamdiu habitavit in cor- 
pore mortali. Prlmas.). 

'Flesh' here describes not that 
which is essential to true humanity 
(Luke xxiv. 39), but the general con- 
ditions of humanity in the present 
Hfe: Gal ii. 20; Phil i. 22, 24 : 1 Pet iv. 
2. Comp. 1 Cor. xv. 50; and (perhaps) 
c. x. 2a 

ovx tbrrv ήμίρας σαρκός ah ίΛψ 

άποόιμίρου αυτοί rfjw σόρκα. airayf* 
fyfi γαρ αυτήν cl κα\ άφθαρτον' αλλ* 
ήμίρας φησ\ σαρκός οΙορ τας h η} 
σαρκική (*jj αυτού ήμίρας (GScum.). 
Comp. 2 Clem. τ. 5 4 ^Λημία ή iv τψ 
κόσμψ τουτψ της σαρκός ταύτης μικρά 
iorxv καί S\tyr>xpotnot. 

Wo can indeed form no clear con- 
ception of 'immortal/ 'incorruptible' 
flesh ; but the phrase represents to 
us the continuance undor new con- 
ditions of all that belongs to the 
perfection of our nature. 

The words cV r. ήμ. r. σ. stand in 
contrast with rAcu»0cir. It is not 
said or implied that the conflict of 
Christ continued in the same form 
throughout His earthly life. A con- 
trast Is drawn between the period of 
His preparation for the fulness of 
His Priestly work, and the period of 
His accomplishment of it after His 

ra?f ήμίραις] The use of the term 
'days' for 'time' or 'season' seems to 
suggest the thought of tho changing 

circumstances of life (comp. Matt 
xxviii. 20). 

Compare also c x. 32 ; i. 2. 

For tho plural see c i 2; x. 32; 
Bph. τ. 165 2 Tim. Hi. ι (ΐσχαται 
ήμ.); James τ. 3 (Ισχ. ήμ.); ι Pet. Hi 
20; 2 Pet iii. 3; Apoc. 1L 13 4c 

προσ. καί €ΐσακονσθ<Ιί] These parti- 
ciples hare been interpreted as pre- 
paratory to tpafop ('after He had 
offered... He learnt O, or as explana- 
tory and confirmatory of it (*in that 
He offered.. .He learnt'). Usage and 
the gradual development of the 
thought favour the first view. The 
'obedience' of Christ was slowly y 
fashioned through prayer, which was ^ί 
answered for His reverent devotion. ^ 

otifacir r* καί Urr.] Vulg. precee 
eupplieationeeque. Tho first word 
οΊησις is the general term for a definite 
request (e.g. James v. 16). The second 
ΙκβτηρΙα (bore only in Ν. T. in which 
no other word of its group is used) 
describee the supplication of one in 
noed of protection or help in some 
overwhelming calamity. The one 
(οΊησις) is expressed completely in 
words : the other (Ixrnjpio, properly 
an olire branch entwined with wool 
borno by suppliants) suggests the 
posture and external form and em- 
blems of entreaty (comp. Mark xiv. 


The two words are combined Job 
xL 22 (lxx.) (xli. 3); comp. Philo de < 
C%*r.§ 13(1 p. 147 M.). The difference \ 
between them is shewn strikingly in 
a letter of Agrippa given by Philo, 
Leg. ad Caium § 36 (Ii. p. 586 M.) y 
γραφή όΊ μηρνσιι μου τηρ dc ijow fyv Wt 
ΙκττηρΙας wporthm. Comp. 2 Mace Ix. 

προς top dvr.] The clause has been ' 
taken with 6*ήσης mil Umfplat, but 
the general structure of the sentence, 
which appears to mark each element 
in tho supplication separately, points 
to the connexion with the participle 




\(*poa<ptytuit)\ and the unusual con- 
/struction of προσφ. wp6s (for dot) 
I may be compared with γ*ωρ*ζ4σ$ω 
' πράι (PhiL iv. 6 with Lightfoot'e 
• note). The prayer• of the Son were 
\ directed Godward, each thought was 
\ laid open in the eight of Him whouxu 
[able to «at* out of death. 

σω((ΐ» U Θα*.] to save out of death, 
Vulg. salvum facers a morte. Syr. 
to quicken him from death. The 
phrase covers two distinct ideas, 'to 
aare from physical death so that it 
should be escaped/ 'to bring safe out 
of death into a new life. 1 In the 
\ first sense the prayer recorded in 
\ John xii 27 was not granted, that it 
1 might be granted iu the second. 
~ 2ωζ*ί» Ac does not necessarily im- 
ply that that is actually realised out of 
which deliverance is grauted (comp. 
2 Oor. L 10), thongh it does so 
commonly (John xiL 27; and exx. 
in Bleek). 

In <rei(*i* 4κ (James v. 20; Jude 5) 
the dominant thought is of the peril 
in which the sufferer is immersed 
(contrast σωζ<* *U 2 Tim. It. 18); in 
σ»ζ<ι* άπά (Matt i 21 ; Acts ii. 40; 
Rom. τ. 9λ of the peril from which 
he is rescued. Compare λυτρονσβαι 
ικ 1 Pet i 18; \ντρ. άπά Tit ii 14; 
and βνσασΰαι 4κ Luke i 74; Rom. 
τϋ 24; 2 Oor. L 10; CoL i 13; 
1 These. i 10; 2 Tim. iii. u; 2 Pet 
ϋ 9; βνσασΰαι άπά Matt vi 13; 
Rom. xv. 31; 2 These, iii 2; both 
constructions are found together 2 
Tim. iv. 17, 18. 

The force of the present σ»ζ§ι* will 
be seen in contrast with σέσαι Luke 
xix. 10. 

μβτά κραιτγη§ Ισχ.] Vulg. cum da- 
more valido. The passage finds a 
striking illustration iu a Jewish say- 
ing : 'There are three kinds of prayers 
each loftier than the preceding: 
prayer, crying, and tears. Prayer is 
made in silence: crying with raised 
voice; but tears overcome all things 
['there is no door through which 
tears do not pass'] 9 Synopsis Sohar 
ap. Schoettgen ad loe. 

There can be little doubt that the 
writer refers to the scene at Geth- 
semane; but the mention of these 
details of 'the loud cry* 'and tears' 
(John xi. 35 4δάκρυσ*¥•, Luke xix. 41 
Ικλανσ -fyX no less than the general 
scope of the passage, suggests the 
application of the words to other 
prayers and times of peculiar trial 
in the Lord's life. Compare John xi. 
33 ft; xii. 27 f.; (Matt. xxviL 46, 50). 

There is a tradition that originally 
the High-priost on the Day of Atone- 
ment, when ho offered the prayer for 
forgiveness in the Holy of Holies, 
uttered the name of God with a loud 
voice so that it could be hoard far off. 
Comp. Maimon. ap. Delitssch, Heir. 
ii p. 471 (K Tr.). 

κραυγή] The loud cry of deeply- 
stirred feeling of joyful surprise: Le. 
i 42; Mt xxv. 6; of partisan ap- 
plause: Acts xxiii 9; of grief: Apoc 
xxi 4 (not Apoc. xiv. 18); of anger: 
Eph. iv. 31. Compare Ps. xxii 24 
(lxx.); and see also κράζω in Gal. 
iv.6; Rom. viii 15. 

μ<τά... δακρύων] C XU lf\ Acts XX. 

31 (not Mk. ix. 24). Compare Hoe. 
xii 4. 

Epiphanius (Ancor. 31) seems to 
use Ι«λανσ< as a general periphrasis 
of the passage in St Luke (xxii. 43): 

01? furor γαρ τα ήμ£* βάρη ά*Μ(ατο 
vwip ήμων 4λΰώ* 6 Sytos Aoyos άλλα 
κα\ vtrb άφήν 4y4*tro καΐ σάρκα ϊλαβ*... 
άλ\ά κα\ ΐκλανσ*' μ trot 4* τψ κατά 
Λονκα* €ναγγ*\1ω iv rait cttiopoWoif 
ά*τιγράφοις...καΙ γ**άμ4*θ£ iv αγωνία... 
κα\ Λφ$η iyycXot 4νισχύ<αν αυτόν, 

Tlie question has been asked for 
what did Christ pray? (wtpl τί*ω* 
4&€η$η; mp\ των π*στ*νατάντων «1ϊ 
αυτά* Chrys.). Perhaps it is best to 
answer generally, for tho victory over 
doath the fruit of sin. This was the 
end of His work, and to this end 
every part of it contributed. Under 
this aspect the conditional prayers 
for His own deliverance (Matt xxvi 
39 and parallels ; John xii 27) become 
intelligible. And the due connexion 
is established between the prayer at 




€ΐ<τακοι/σ0€<? από τζ* ίύΚαβίΙας, *καίπ€ρ ων t/tos, ίμαθίν 

direu^e/f D t # . 

the Agony, and tho High-priostly 
prayer which preceded it The general 
; truth it admirably ex pr e ss ed by the 
Latin commentator•: Omnia autem 
quae ipee egit in carne preces sup- 
plicationesquo faerunt pro peocatia 
humani generis. Sacra vero sanguine 
ojna effnsio clamor fnit Talidtu in quo 
exanditna est a deo patre pro ana 
revereutia, hoc est, voluntaria obe- 
προσ*ψ4γκαψ] Gomp «. 1, note. Per• 

• haps the use of the ritual word 
(wpoeWyxar) of the Lord's prayers on 

^ earth points to the true sacrificial 

κ character of spiritual service: c. xiii. 

15. The combination προσφίριιν 

Μησ& occurs in late Greek writers. 


f Ισαχονσώ if άπο της tvkafieSat] Aae- 
ing been heard for Hi* godly fiar, 
O. L. exauditn» a metu (alL ab illo 
metn v. propter timorem\ Vulg. ex• 
nttditui est pro sua reterentia. Tlio 
Syr. transfers the words *V£ rqt α/λ. 
from this clause to tho next, learnt 

• obedience from fear and the tufer- 
' ing$ which He bore. True prayer— 
' the prayer which must be answered — 
" is the personal recognition and aocep- 
1 tanceofthedifino will (John xiv. 7: 

comp. Mark vi. 24 Attyfrrc ). It follows 
that the hearing of prayer, which 
teachos obedience, is not so much tho 
granting of a specific petition, which 
is assumed by the petitioner to be 
the way to the end desired, but the 
assurance that what is granted does 
most effectively lead to the end. Thus 

• we are taught that Christ learnt that 
every detail of His Life and Passion 

'• contributed to the accomplishment of 
tho work which He came to fulfil, and 
so He was most perfectly 'heard.' In 
this sense Ho was 'heard for His 

ι godly fear' (#νλ<$<ια). 

The word <ν\άβιια occurs again in 
& xfl. 28 (only in N.T.) and the verb 

in 0. xl. 7. It is very rare in the lx*. 

Josh, xxil 24 (HJIfl); Pror. xxviii. 

14; Wied. xvii & The a4j. ^fkafi^t 
is found Lev. xv. 31; Mie. viL a, * L 
The verb «vXctfcurAu is more frequent 
and represents no less than a dosen 
Ilobrow words. Εΰλιί0# «1 marks that 
careful and watchful reverence which 
pays regard to every drcumstance in 
that with which it has to deal. It 
may therefore degenerate into a 
timid and unworthy anxiety (Jos. 
Antt. vi. 2, 179); but more commonly 
it expresses reverent and thoughtful 
shrinking from over-boldness, which 
is compatible with true courage: 
Philo, Quit rer. dio. haw. § 6 (i 
476 1£) «rftArct irdXiv Sri €v\afit(a to 
Bappuv avmUttparoL• id. p. 477 μήτι 
4w» tv\afi<tat παρρησιά(9σβαι fujrc 
άπαρρησώστίΗ tvXafittadai. Here the 
word in its noblest sense is singularly 
appropriate. Prayer is heard as it is • 
'according to God'a will' (1 John v. '< 
14 f.), and Ohrist by His ηίλά/3«•α 
perfectly realised that submission 
which is obedience on ono side and 
fellowship on tho othor. 

Primasius has an interesting note: 
pro eua reeerentia: hoc est propter 
voluntariam obedientiam et perfectis- 
simam caritatem...Notandum autem 
quia reverentia, secundum sententiam 
Cassiodori, accipitur aliquando pro 
amore, aliquando pro timore : hie vero 
pro summa ponitur caritate qua Filius 
Doi nos dilexit et pro summa obedien- 
tia qua fuit obediens Patri usque ad 

The Greek Fathers take a less wide 
view. Ejff. wkfy μ*Ι re Ιμορ (Κλήμα 
<ΙλλΑ rh *6w..jw mt άΚηΰωψ πολλή* 
νί\αβ€ΐας...€ΐσηκσυσ6η roiVvr 6 Χριστοί 
ου* απο τη* wapatrfauit &Kk* Aro rijt 
ruKafitUtf ((Scum.). 

The sense 'heard and set free from 
His fear' or 'from the object of His 
fear' is wholly untenable. For the 


αφ' ων ivaQev την ύπακοην 9 9 κα1 τβλβιωθβπ iyivero 

use of άπο see Luke xix. 3; xxiv. 41 ; 
Acts xli. 14; xxii. 11 ; John xxi 6. 

8. talwtp fa vtis. . .] though He woe 
&oft...The clause has been taken with 
the words which precede (' being heard 
not as Son but for His godly fear*), 
\- and with those which follow ('though 
Son went through the discipline of 
' «offering to obedience'). The latter 
connexion is most in accordance with 
the whole scope of the passage. 
Though Son and therefore endowed 
with right of access for Himself to 
the Father, being of one essence with 
the Father, for man's sake as man 
Ho won the right of access for hu- 
mauity. In one sense it is truo that 
the idea of Sonship suggests that of 
obedience; but the nature of Christ's 
Sonship at first sight seems to exclude 
the thought that He should learn 
obedience through suffering. 

For Kafatp see c. vil 5; xii. 17; 
Phil. iii. 4; 2 Pet i. 12, 

Iu v. 5 the title 'Son* has been 
used of the Sonship of the exalted 
Christ in His twofold nature. Here 
it is used of the eternal, divine re- 
lation of the Son to the Father. 
There is a similar transition from one 
aspect to the other of the unchanged 
Personality of the Lord in L 1—4. 
The Incarnation itself corresponds with 
and implies (if we may so speak) an 
immanent Sonship in the Divine 
Nature. Thus, though it may be true 
that the title Son is used of the Lord 
predominantly (at least) iu oonnoxion 
with the Incarnation, that of necessity 
carries our thoughts further. Oomp, 
John v. 19 ff. 

Chrysostom gives a personal appli- 
cation to the lesson: «i «*«W vi&r ων 
Mpdaviv awe των παθημάτων π)* άτο- 
κοι)? ποΧΚψ μάλλον ημάς. 

1μα$€Ρ,..τήν virtue.] learned obedi- 
ence... The spirit of obedience is rea- 
lised through trials, seen at least to 
minister to good. Sufferings in this 
sense may be said to teach obedience 

as they confirm it and call it out 
actively. The Lord 'learned obedience 
through the things which He suffered,' 
not as if the lesson were forced upon 
Him by the necessity of suffering, for 
the learning of obedience does not 
imply the conquest of disobedience 
as actual, but as making His own 
perfectly, through insight into the 
Father's will, that self-surrender which 
was required, even to death upon the 
cross (oomp. PhiL ii. 8). 

The Lord's manhood was (nega- 
tively) sinless and (positively) perfect, 
that is perfect relatively at every 
stage; and therefore He truly ad- 
vanced by * learning' (Luko ii. 52; 
40 *\ηρονμ€»»ν\ while the powers of 
His human Nature grew step by step 
in a perfect union with the divine in 
His one Person. 

τ)ν ύπακοήν] obedience in all its 
completeness, the obedience which 
answers to the idea. It is not said 
that the Lord 'learned to obey.' For 
the difference between tpoB^v τ)ν 
virax. and f/t. άτακ. see 1 John iii 10 
note; and contrast 2 Cor. x. 5 cfc r^v 
vjtojc r. χρ. with Rom. i. 5 fir vrcuc. 
wurr. The word Obedience' contains 
a reference to the occasion of sin. 
Man's fall was due to disobedience: 
his restoration comes through 0- 
bedience. Oomp. Rom. v. 19. 

The alliteration in the phrase taab\v 
άφ* J* twaBtv is common in Greek 
literature from the time of Herodotus 
downwards: Ildt L 207 τα 6t μ*π tra- 
θήματα ittvra αχάριστα μαθήματα ytyo- 
vtv. JSsch. Agam. v. 177 νάΰιι μάβος 
(oomp. v. 250); Philo, de Somn. ii. 
§ is (i. 673 Μ.) άραφβέγξτται h (so 
read, not ο) πά6ων άκρφω* 1μαθ*ν. de 
epee, leg. 6 (it 340 Μ.) fa U row παβά* 
μάΰξΐ. Wetstoin has colleotod many 
examples. N 

9, ία Christ, it has been seen, f 
satisfies the conditions of High-priest-lf 
hood. He has received divine ap- 
pointment: He is inspired with the 


iratriv toU υπακούουσα αύτω αίτιο* σωτηρίας αιωνίου, 

9 irflw τ. for. αύτφ KABOD, vg ijrr me : r. for. ad. xbrt» Γ. 

completest sympathy. Bat Hi• High- 
priesthood goes immeasurably beyond 
that of the Leritical system in its 
efficacy. As Ho is in His humanity 
superior to Moses (c. iii. 1 ff. note), so 
He is superior to Aaron. The one 
fact has been affirmed directly (iii. $£): 
the other fact is shewn in a type 
(Molchixodok). And this superiority 
is further shown in tho action of 
Christ as High-priest. Tho Leritical 
High-priest entered into the Holy of 
Holies through the blood of goat* and 
calve*, but Christ through Hi* own 
blood to the presence of Ood Himself 
(comp. c. ix. lift). Tet further, the 
reference to Pa ex. necessarily includes 
the thought of the Royal priesthood 
which is developed afterwards. 

9. κα\ rfXrM90f/f...] and having 
been made perfect... Vulg. et contum- 
tnatue... Syr. and thus woe perfected 
and... Comp. ii 10 note. 

This perfection was seen on the one 
side in the complete fulfilment of 
man's destiny by Christ through ab- 
solute self-sacrifice, and on the other 
in His exaltation to the right hand of 
Ood• which was in the dirine order 
its due consequence. Comp. c. ii. 9 
οΊα to πάθημα. Phil ii. 9. Thus the 
word, which carries with it the con- 
ception of Christ's complete prepa- 
ration for the execution of His priestly 
office, suggests the contrast between 
His priestly action and that of Aaron. 

ίγίψττο) became in the fulfilment of 
what we conceive of as a natural law. 
It is said 'became 9 and not 'becomes' 
or 'is,' because on the divine side 
' and in the eternal order the issue of 
Christ's work is complete. For ytWcr- 
An see v. 5 ; i. 4; ii. 17 ; vi 20 5 yii 

Comp. Rom. riii. 29 f.; CoL iii 1 ff. 

πασιν roU υπακουουσι»] to all that 
obey Him, Qentiles as well as Jews. 
Comp. John i 7. In this connexion 

W. H. f 

continuous active obedience is the 
sign of real faith (contrast iv. 3 of 
numwravrtt). The obedience of the 
believer to Christ answers to the 
obedience of the 8on to the Father. 
By obedience fellowship is made com- 
plete. 81 obedientia Filii causa est 
salntis human», quanta nobis necessi- 
tas est obodire Doo, ut dignl invent- 
amur ejus salntis quam nobis per 
Filium proprium donavit (Atto). 

alnot cot. al»r.] the cause of eternal 
ealvation, Lati cauea ealuHe osternm. 
In ii 10 the word corresponding to 
αίτιος is Αρχηγό*. There the thought 
was of Christ going before the 'many 
sons' with whom He unites Himself. 
Here the thought is of that which He 
alone does for them. In the former 
passage He is the great Leader who 
identifies Himself with His people: 
in this He is the High-priest who 
offers Himself as an effectual sacrifice 
on their behalf. η 

The word atnot does not occur else- ~ ' 
where in N.T. Comp. 1 Sam. xxti. 22 ; 
2 Maccxlii. 4; Bel 42. 

Tho phrase αΐτωι σωτηρία* is used 
by Philo of the brazen serpent (De 
agrie. § 22, i. 31$), and of Noah in 
relation to his sons (De nobil. § 3, ii 
440). Comp. De vU. eont. § 11 (ii 
485 M.). It is found not unfrequently 
in classical writers : ejg. Demosth. De 
Rhod. libert. § 4 (p. 191) μόροι των 
πάντων τη* σωτηρία* αυτοί* atrtou 

σωτ. οίων.] This spiritual, eternal, 
divine deliverance answers to the 
external and temporal deliverance 
which Moses wrought The phrase is 
not found elsewhere in Ν. T. 

Comp. la xlv. 17 'Ισραήλ σωζ*τα§ 
υπό κυρίου σωτηρία* aMvtov (nyHPlJI 


The phrase corresponds with £«m) 
aUnot (comp. 1 John v. 20, Addit 
Note). Compare also c vi. 2 κρίμα 


lo 7rporayop€v6eh ύπο του deov άρχιβρβνς κατά tAn ταΙιν 

ίο ifx* + dt τον oiQva' (syr hi) me. 

aUivwv. ix. 12 ofeiai Xvrpturtf. 15 
η aUvwt κληρονομιά, xiii 20 διαθήκη 

The words with which aiaVior U 
used in other book* of tho Ν. T. 
throw light upon its meaning : πνρ 
Matt. XYiii. 8; xxv. 41 (ro % «•. το of.); 
Jade 7 (*-, of.); βολασι* Matt xxv. 46; 
σκηνή Luke xri. 9 (al al σχ.); βασιλέα 
2 Pet i. 11 (ή al β.); &<θρος 2 These. 
L 9; παράκληση 2 These, ii. 16; χρόνοι 
Rom. xvi. 25; 2 Tim. L 9; Tit i. 2 ; 
$* 6s Rom. xvi. 20 (ό αί. A) ; κράτος ι 
Tim. ?L 16; 6o£a 2 Tim. ii 10; 1 Pet 
Τ. IO (ή at A); cvayyAioi» Apoc. xi?. 6. 

The doable eorreepondeneo of 
σωζαν, υπακοή* (v9. 7, 8) with wro- 
«ovoiHriy 9 σωτηρίας is to be noticed. 
Three brief notes of Greek commen- 
tators deserve to be quoted : 

τ§\*1ωσι* π)? άνάστασνν κα\ την 
αθανασία* AmSXcot' rovro yap της 
οίκονομίας το πίρας (Theod.). 

Αρα oil» τιλιίωσις ώα τι•» παθημάτων 
γίνιται• fr£f o»V v/ifif ονσχςραίνητς έπϊ 
rait reXtioiroiOif θλιήτισιν; (Theoph.). 

opff οσα irtpl άτακοζ* oVaXcycnu 
fllarc rctoWAu αυτούς ; οοβοΰσ* γαρ 
|μμ σν*•χ•>* otyipMatfU' «al rolf Xcyo- 
μΙιόι* μ? frapajcoXovdc ΐ* (Chrys.). 

I a «-pooayopf v6M* . . . αρχ. ] &*ήφ 
addressed by Qod as High-priest... 
0. L• toeaiui (pronunciatus) eacer- 
doe (princeps saeerdotum). Vulg. 
twcate* pont\fex. The title (utyA- 
priest) is involved in the words of 
Pa. ex. v. 4 and e. 1 taken together ; 
comp. vL 20. A royal priesthood is 
there combined with admission to the 
immediate Presence of God (sit... 
at my right hand), which was the 
peculiar privilege of the High-priest 
At the same time the peculiar cha- 
racter of this priesthood (after the 
order 0/ Mekhizedek) includes the 
pledge of its eternal efficacy (sternal 
salvation). Comp. α vii. 16 f. The 

word wpovayopivtt* (here only in 
N.T.) expresses the formal and solemn 
ascription of the title to Him to whom 
it belongs ('addressed as/ 'styled 1 ). 
Comp. 1 Mace xiv. 40; 2 Mace. iv. 7; 
x. 9; xiv. 37 ; 1 Clem. 10, 17. Philo, de 
migr. Abr. § 24 (ii. 19 Μ.) πατήρ μίν των 
3Κων ο ftcVof, ot iv ταΐ£ UpaU γραφαις 
κυρίω ονόματι Kakurai ο *Ων, al ft* frap* 
Ixartpa πρ*σβύταται καϊ εγγύτατοι του 
ovrot OWdfwr, Ζν ή μίν ποιητική ή ό* 
αδ βασιλική προσαγοριύιται' καϊ ή μ*ν 
ποιητική θ•ός...ή Ac βασιλική κύριος.., 

11 Progress in patient effort (v. 
11— vL 20). 

The general view which has been 
given of tho Divino High-priost, of 
His office and of His qualifications, of 
His power of sympathy and of His 
direct appointment by God, leads 
naturally to a consideration of the 
obligations which this revelation im- 
poses upon those to whom it is made. 
The highost truth is not to bo muster- 
ed at once, nor without serious and 
continuous effort It can ouly be 
grasped in virtue of a corresponding 
growth in those to whom it is ad- 
dressed. There is always, in the case 
of those who nave learnt somewhat, 
the danger of resting in their attain- 
ment which is a fatal relapse. Yet 
we are encouraged by past experi- 
ence to hold our hope firmly; and the 
promise of God remains sure beyond 
the possibility of failure. 

These general thoughts are unfold- 
ed in four sections. (1) Tho mention 
of Melchixedek calls up the difficulties 
connected with his priesthood which ' 
the Hebrews were not prepared to 
meet They had become stationary 
and therefore had lost the power of 
receiving higher teaching (v. 11— 14). 
(2) Such a condition illustrates the 
paramount duty of Christian progress, 
and tho perils of relapse (vi. 1— %\ (3) 


" Περί ου πολντ ήμ&ν 6 λόγος καΐ ΰνσζρμηνςυτοτ 

it +κ«Γ (πιρΙ) D t *. out ο' (Myor) D f •. 

At the same time the frank recogni- 
tion of danger does not exclude the 
consolation of hope (vi. 9—12). And 
(4) though God require* patience 
from men, His promise can never 
fail (13—20). 

It is of deep interest to observe 
that here for the second time the 
writer pauses when the subject of 
Christ's priestly work rises before 
him. He announced this subject in 
H. 17, and directly turned aside from 
it to enforce the lessons of Israel's 
failure. Ho returned to the subject 
in It. 14, and, after a fuller exposition 
of its outlines, he now again interrupts 
his argument to insist on the strenu- 
ous labour which boliorers must under- 
take that they may rightly enter into 

Chrysostom says justly: Spa yww 
αυτοί» σν**χ*ψ dolvorra top wtp\ tvv 
apxupfmt ιΐσαγαγιϊρ λόγον iral άι\ oW- 
βαΧ\6μ(Ρον...€πΑ ον* τοσαντάκις φ- 
κρσνσθη, ωσαψΑ Απο\ογούμ<ρόί φησιν ή 
αΙτία παρ* υμάς. 

(ι) Stationariness in religion* Itfe 
and its consequences (v. 1 1 — 14). 

The life of faith is like the natural 
life. It has appropriate support in 
its different stages. Healthy growth 
enables us to appropriate that which 
wo could not hare receired at an 
earlier stage. But this general law 
carries with it grave consequences. 
(<i) The period of first discipleship 
may be misused, as by the Hebrews, 
so that wo remain still mere ' babes' 
when it is past (11, is)l And so (0) 
when the time comes for maturer in- 
struction we may be unprepared to 
apprehend it (13, 14). 

n Qf whom (which) we hate many 
things to eay and hard of interpre- 
tation eince ye are become dull in 
your hearing. "For when ye ought 
to be teachers by reason of the time, 
ye again have need that some one 

teach you the elements of the first 
principles of the erodes of Ood; 
and ye are become in need of milky 
(and) not of solid food nFor every 
one that partaketh of milk is without 
experience in the word of righteous- 
ness, for he is a babe. «But solid 
food is for full-grown men, even those 
who in virtue of their state have their 
senses exercised to discern good and 

(a) The Hebrews hare failed to 
grow with years (1 1, 12). 

1 1 1 The difficulty of unfolding the 
truth of Christ's High-priestly office 
typified in Melchisedek is due to tho 
spiritual state of the Hebrews. They 
are still babes when they ought to 
have advanced to ripe intelligence. 

The character of the complaint 
seems to indicate clearly that the 
Epistle could not have been addressed 
to a large body as a whole, but to 
somo section of it (comp. xih*. 17) 
consisting, as it appears, of men in 
the same general circumstances of 
age, position and opinion. 

II. wwp\ συ wokvt ij/ii* 6 λόγο*...] 
Qf whom (which). Vulg. De quo 
grandis nobis sermo... The relative is 
ambiguous. It may mean concerning 
which, ie. the High-priestly dignity of 
Christ, or concerning whom. In the 
latter case the antecedent may be 
Christ (wfpl ου χριστον Gficum.) or 
Melchizedek (Posh, about this Mel• 
chizedek) or (as a complex subject) 
Christ a High-priest after the order 
of Melchizedek (vL 20 ; comp. St 

The reference to Melchisedek 
simply appears to be too limited. 
Although Melchisedek is afterwards 
spoken of in detail (vii. 1 £), the 
mysteries to which the apostle refers 
do not lie properly in his person, but 
in Him whom he foreshadowed ; and, 
again, the reference to Christ gene- 




[V. is 

Xefyciy, iwel νωθροί yeyovare τάι* άκοαϊς* η καΙ yap 

rally is too vague. Henoe it seem* 
best to iuterpret the o£ of Christ as 
typified by Melchisedek, or of Mel- 
chisedek as a type of Christ Christ's 
Priesthood and Sacrifice is the main 
and most difficult subject of the 
Epistle; and this is foreshadowed in 
Melchisedek, whose significance was 
overlooked by the Jewish interpret- 
ers (eg. Bereshith R.).. In regard 
to the general sense it makes no 
difference whether the oZ be neater 
or masculine (witli tliis reference), 
but the nouter is less in the stylo of 
the Epistle. 

It will be observed that, while the 
writer of the Epistle recognises the 
difficulty of his theine, he declares no 
less plainly that he must deal with it 
Ho speaks of the discourse, the teach- 
ing (4 \oyos\ which (he implies) it is 
his duty and his purpose to doliver. 
There is uo indication that the fulfil- 
ment of his design is contingent on 
those whom he addresses. His part 
must be done, however hard it may 
be to do it In this respect he identi- 
fies himself with the society which he 
represents (ήμΐ*\ 

&υσ<ρμη»*ντος] hard of interpre- 
tation: Vulg. ininterpretabilie ad 
dicendutn: hard for a writer to ex- 
press» so that it will be fully under- 
stood. The difficulty of the interpre- 
ter lies in the small capacity of his 
audience. The addition of \4yuv, 
which corresponds with the imago in 
ratf hocus, shows decisively, as is 
otherwise most natural, that the diffi- 
culty is considered with regard to 
him who has to make the eiposition 
and not to those who have to receive 

The sense is rightly given by the 
early commentators: bra» ns προς 
ανθρώπους ίχβ (I. \eyg) μή παρακολον 
Bavrras μηΜ τα \§γομ*να voovvras 
Ιρμηνιυσαι καλώς αύτοϊς ου δύναται 

Difflcultas interpretandi...non fuit 

in ejus ignorantia cui revelata sunt 
mysteria aseoulis absconditased potius 
in illorum tarditate qui inibecilles, i.e. 
infirmi in fide...(Priuias., Hervji 

Philo speaks of seeing the unchang- 
ing beauty of the ideal world, άλίκτω 

TuA κα\ &νσ•ρμηνιύτω $ia (De Somn. 

i.§32;i.6 4 9M.). 

Λτ•1 νωθροί ycyOMire...] fines ye are 
become dull of hearing, Vulg. quo- 
niam imbecilUe/aeti eetie ad audien- 
dum... The difficulty of which the 
apostlo has spoken came from the 
fault of tho Hobrows. Thoy had bo• 
como with years less quick in under- 
standing and not more quick accord- 
ing to a natural and healthy develop- 
ment Compare Cbrysostom : to άπαν 
Arc Ι νωθροί y*y6var< rals άκοαι* οηΚονν- 
ros %v δτ• πάλαι vytawov καΐ ήσαν Ισχυ- 
ροί, rjf προθυμία (iovrn (c. χ. yi\ 
κα\ υστιρο* αντονς τοντο παθΰν μαρ- 


As yet however this dulness had 
not extended to action though such 
an issue was not far off (c vi. 12; 
couip. 2 Pet ii. ao). m Opa ft, writes 
Ohrysostom, πώς μίχρι* d*orjs τήν 
νωθρότητα ϊστησ*. 

For νωθροί see c. vi. 12. The word 
is found iu lxx., Prov. xxii. 29; 
Ecclus. iv. 29; xi. 12. The plural al 
άκοαί expresses the powers of hearing. 
Oomp. Mk. vii. 35. 

4π*ί] since, teeing. The conjunc- 
tion is of frequent use in the Epistle, 
in which tho strengthened form Arcioty 
is not found. See ii. 14; iv. 6; v. 2 ; 
vi 13; ix. 17, 26; x. 2; xi. 11. It 
expresses a fact which influences a 
result, yet not so that the result is 
the direct and necessary consequence 
of it (Sri). 

12. The fault of the Hebrews is 
clearly defined. When by reason of 
the time— because they had been 
Christians so long, — they ought to have 
been teachers, they were themselves 
in need of elementary teaching. For 
κα\ γαρ see iv. 2 note; for tycAojrct, 

V. 12] 



όψβίλοντβς είναι Ιώάα;κα\οι δια τον χρόνον, ιτά\ιν 
Xpeiav ίχ€Τ€ του $ώάσκ€ΐν υμάς τινά τα στοιχεία της 
αρχής των Χογ'ιων του θβον, και yeyovaTe χράαν ίχοντετ 

13 \oyUtw : Xfryw D s * (vg syrr me). 

Η. 17; v. 3 notes; and for δια top 
χρ&ον compare 0. 14 διλ r^r Ζξιν. 

On διδάσκαλο* Bengel says 'vocabu- 
lum non munoris sed facultatls.' 

ft. xptla» ϊχ*τ€ του did. νμας τι*α τα 
στ.] y* Aaw lie*! <φ<ηη ίΛβ! torn* on* 
teach you the dementi... The nra is 
ambiguous. It may be treated as 
an interrogative (Wra): 'that one 
teach yon what are tho rudiments...' 
(so Vulg. Syr. Orig. Cyr.), or as the 
indefinite pronoun {rum). In spito of 
the ancient authority for the first 
rendering, the second seems to be 
preferable (comp. 1 These, iv. 9)/ It 
gives a sharper antithesis to διδάσ- 
καλοι tffiti!. And it coutd hardly be 
said the Hebrews required to learn 
what tho elements of tho Faith were. 
They knew what they were though 
they did not know them. 

The constructions of xptla» fyew» are 
singularly varied. The phraso is used 
absolutely (Mk. il. 25 ; Acts it 45 ; 
1 Cor. xii. 24 * Eph. iv. 28 ; 1 John 
lit. 17); with an object in the genitive 
(γάλακτος, α χ. 36 &c.) ; with the 
simple infinitive (1 These, i. 8; v. 1 ; 
Matt iii. 14 &c); with ha (John ii. 25 ; 
xvi. 30; 1 John ii. 27); and here only 
with tho infinitive and article. 

The phrase re στοιχιια της αρχής 
τ&ν XoyU* του Btov (Vulg. elementa 
exordii sennonum Dei) is very re- 
markable. Even • the beginning/ the 
simplest fruitful presentation of the 
Gospol, is complex. The divine mes- 
sage includes from the first distinct 
elements whioh require to grow to- 
gether. It is one, not as monotonous, 
but in virtue of a vital unity. 

'The beginning of the oracles of 
God' corresponds with ' the beginning 
of Christ' (vi. i\ Ttjt Αρχής is not in 
either place to be separated from the 

genitive which follows as if it could 
have one adjectival sense, 'the first 
elements,' 'the first teaching.' 

τα στοιχ* ία] the rudiments, the first, 
simplest, elements of which anything 
consists : ' the alphabet ' of a subject. 

The word occurs elsewhere in the 
N.T. of the material olements of the 
universe: 2 Pet iii 10, 12; and 
metaphorically: GaL iv. 3, 9; CoL il 

TMPXoy/«i>Tov0fov]Rom.iii.2. Comp. 
1 Pet. iv. 1 1 ; Acts vii. 38. The phrase 
might refer to the new revelation 
given by Christ to His apostles (οοπιμ 
α i. 2); but it seems more natural to 
refer it to tho collected writings of the 
O.T. which tho Hebrew Christians 
failod to understand and so, through 
mistaken loyalty to tho past, were in 
danger of apostasy. 

For the patristic use of λόγω?, 
which is common in lxx, see Buseb., 
Ά Β. iii. 39; 1 Olom. 19, 53; Polyc 
ad Phil. 8. 

yryoWc xptiav fgoirf r] Vulg. facti 
estii quibut lade oput $it. The change 
of expression from xptiav tym is most 
significant Xptiav l^rrc describes 
the simplo fact: this phrase points 
out a fact which is the result of do- 
generacy. The Hebrews had through 
their own neglect becomo young chil- 
dren again. So Chrysostom : ov« tint 
Xptiav fytrt AX\a yryovorr xptiav 
fyorrff..., τοντίστι», dftttr ijoVXif σατι, 
ύμέις lavrodt tit τούτο κατ<στησατί } th 
ταύτη* τι)» xptlav. 

y&ka...ovtpta τροφή] milk...tolid 
food. . . There has been much discussion 
as to what should be understood by 
these terms respectively. The early 
commentators generally supposed that 
'milk,' the food of young converts, 
was the teaching on 'the Lord's 


γάλακτος, T ou crrepeas τροφής. **πάς yap ό μετέχων 
γάλακτος άπειρος λόγου δικαιοσύνης, νηπιος yap iarriv 

it uA 
κβΛ ού *AB*D S syrr : om. και Κ•0 ?gn^ 13 &«. + toir D, % . wpr. γ. + dx/*4r D t •. 

humanity, 1 and His Roeurroction and 
Attention, while 'the solid food' was 
the more mysterious teaching on His 
Godhead. Thus, for example, Prima- 
sius: Lac simplicis doctrines est in- 
carnatio filii Dei, passio, resurrectio 
illius, asoensio ad cmlum: solidus 
rero cibue perfect! sermonis est myste- 
rium trinitatis, quomodo tree sunt in 
personis et unum in substantia dei- 
tat ift 

The true explanation lies in vi. 1 

The respective topics of the two 
stages of teaching are not spoken of 
as more or less essential or important 

That which corresponds with the 
'milk' is in fact 'the foundation.' 
The 'milk 1 and 'solid food' are ap- 
propriate to difforout periods of 
growth. The older Christian ought 
to bo able to assimilato fresh and 
harder truths. 

y&ocm...] In Rabbinic language 
young students were called 'sucklings ' 
(mpwn). See Schoettgen on 1 Pet 
ii 2. Oomp. 1 Cor. Hi. 2, Is. xxviii. 

The image occurs in Philo: De 
agria § 2 (i. 301 Μ.) νψτίοιβ μ4ν ion 
yaka τροφή, reXWoif di τα Ac wvp&v 
πίμματα. De leg. Spec. § 36 (ii. 332 M.). 
Compare also a remarkable parallel in 
Arrian : oil OtXtts Ιβη dt τα παιδία 
άηογαΧακτίσΰηναι κα\ awrtoBai στ•ρ*ας 
τροφής (Dissert. IL 16, 39)• 

(6) Each ago has its appropriate 
support (1 3, 14). 

13 f. The consequences of the fault 
of the Hebrews are indicated by the 
statement of a general law. Each 
age has its proper food. But spiritual 
maturity comes through discipline and 
not through years only. 

13. was γαρ ο per. γόλ.] The argu- 

ment would havo boon clearer if the 
terms of the sentence had boou in- 
verted : ' For ovory one that is iuex- 
porioncod...— as you shew yoursolvos 
to bo— is fed with milk...' But the 
writor prefers to suggest the fact 
that his readers are actually living in 
the most rudimentary stage of faith» 
' partaking of milk,' and so condemn- 
ing thomselvee of unfitness for deeper 
instruction. For overy one that par- 
taketli of milk, and the Hebrews had 
brought themselves to this diet, is 
according to the figure a mere infant, 
and necessarily ignorant of the teach- 
ings and the problems of lifo. Such a 
oue therefore oould not but be without 
experience of the word ofriglOeoue- 
neet (Vulg. expert sermonU jmtitico), 
unprepared by past traiuing to outor 
upon the discussion of the larger 
problems of Christiau thought 

The absence of the definite articles 
(λόγο? buuuaovvnt not ό λ. ιτ}ϊ doc.) 
shews that the main conception of 
the phrase lies in the character and 
not in the coucrote roalisatiou of the 
' word.' It is uot ' the word of right- 
eousness,' the full exposition of the 
Christian Faith (2 Cor. iii. g\ but 
teaching such as belongs to it, ' teach- 
ing of righteousness/ teaching which 
deals at once with the one source of 
righteousnoss in Christ, and the 
means by which man is enabled to be 
made partaker of it The doctrine of 
Christ's priestly work is based upon 
these conceptions, which belong to 
the 'solid food' of Hie mature be- 

Chrysostom offers two interpreta- 
tions of the phrase : 6 avupot Χόγον &- 
καιοσννηί, rovrtVri, rijr &*» φιλοσοφία* 
ftreipor, ου dvparai παραΜζασβαι βίο* 
&κρο* κα\ ήκρφωμ€Ρθ¥' $ δικαιοσύνη* 

V. Μ] 



* 4 τ€\£ΐων ie iarrtv ή areped τροφή, των δια την ίζιν τα 
αισθητήρια γ€γνμνασμένα εχόντων προ* Ζιάκρκτιν καΚου 

Τ€ και κάκου. 

λτβν βα top Xptarop φησι κα\ top ύψη\6ν 
wtpt αντον Αογορ. • 

The word &r*ipof does not occur 
■gain In the Ν. T. 

14. Milk Is the food of babes; and 
be who Is fed on milk— whether it be 
in the dno ordor of nature or by 
lack of roasonaMo growth—is a babe. 
But solid food is for full-grown 

The contrast between babes and 
full-grown men occurs again Bph. It. 
l 3 t μ*χρι κστα*τησ*μ*ν...ιΐί Hvbpa 
rArtor, tit μίτρορ ηλικίας τον π\ηρ4- 
ματοψ τουΧριστου' Χραμηκ4τι ύμ*ν ρηπιοι 
...I Cor. xlv. 20 η} κακία *ηπιάζ§Τ€, 
το« bi φρ*σΙ* tAckh γίρισθ*. ι Cor. 
ii. 6, iii. ι. Oomp. Philo, Leg. Atteg. 
L § 30 Ο- 62 M.) ry rAc/f «or* W«ora 
τροστάτττ ι? $ airayepc w «r ) n-qpaut ir 
ουχί διι.,.τψ οΊ νηπίψ wapawtvtmt κα\ 
bibaaKaXtat [χρ*1α\ 

A man is said to bo r At ior who has 
reached the full maturity of his 
powors, tho full possession of his 
rights» his rcXoc , his ' end. 9 This ma- 
turity, completeness, perfection, may 
be regarded generally or in some 
particular aspect As compared with 
the child, the full-grown man is tV- 
Xrioff physically, intellectually, socially 
(comp. 1 Cor. xiii. 10 f.; Gal. iv. 3); as 
compared with the fresh uninstruct- 
ed convert, tho disciplined and ex- 
perienced Christian is rAfior (1 Cor. 
sir. 20; iL 6; Bph. It. 13; Phil. iii. 
15 ; CoL i. 28 ; It. 12 ; James i. 4). 
There is also an ideal completeness 
answering to man's constitution in his 
power of self-control (James iii. 2), In 
his lore for his fellows (Matt τ. 48; 
comp. xix. 21). 

He is absolutely rAtio* in whom 
each human faculty and gift has found 
a harmonious dovelopmont and nso, 
who has fulfilled tho destiny of man by 

attaining the likeness of God (Gen. I. 

In the same manner any object is 
WXriof which oompletely satisfies its 
ideal, so that all the oonstltuent 
elements are found in it in perfect 
efficiency (1 John It. 18 ή rtktta άγαπη. 
James i. 4, 17 5 comp. Rom. xii. 2). 
Law Is framed for the guidance of 
man in the attainment of his proper 
end : the perfect law therefore Is ' the 
law of freedom,' which completely 
corresponds with the unhindered ful- 
filment of his duty (James 1. 25). The 
Leritica! Tabernacle was designed to 
represent under the conditions of 
earth the dwelling of God among 
men, offering a revelation of God and 
a way of approach to God: tho 
heavenly Tabernacle through which 
Christ's work is accomplished is 'the 
greater and more perfect Tabornaclo' 
(ix. 11), the divino archetype of the 
transitory copy. 

Compare ii. 10 rAc ιέσαι note. 

The spiritual maturity of which the 
apostle speaks is the result of careful 
exercise. It belongs to those who 
have their senses — their different 
organs of spiritual perception— train- 
ed, in virtue of thoir moral state gained 
by long experience. 

but τηρ ϊξιρ] by reason of, on account 
of, habit. Old Lat per {propter) hatri- 
tum. Vulg. pro consuetudine. The 
state in which they are is the ground 
and pledge of the discipline of their 
powers (bta τηρ cfi* not bta r$c eff »r). 

"E£«* (hore only in tf.T.) expresses 
not the process but the result, the 
condition which has been produced 
by past exercise and not the separate 
acts following one on another (firma 
qussdam facilitas quae apud Gra- 
ces •{ if vocatnr Quint x. 1, 1). Comp. 
Kcclus. Prol. Uaw^v c£ip wtptwoojo-a• 




μι*»? (having acquired sufficient expe- 
rience), id. xxx. 14, Jud. xiv. 9 (Alex.): 
1 Sam. x?i 7. 

τά αΙσ6ητήρ*α) Vulg. MlUttt. Here 
only Jn N.T. Oomp. Jer. It. 19 (lxx.) 
τα αΙσΑ riff καρδία* jiov. 

yfyiyuwfili«]Ooinp.C.xiL II; I Tim. 
τ. 7; 2 Pet it 14. 

For γτγυμ*. Ιχωττις compare xii I, 

Ζχοντ€ί 9€ρΐΜίμ*νθ¥. 

«per bJucpuri» «. T€ col jc] The phrase 
recall• the language of the Ο. T. o.g. 
Gen.iii.5; DeuL L 39; la. τϋ 16. 

The discernment of * good and evil • 

it here regarded in relation to the 
proper food of the soul, the discrimi- 
nation of that which contributes to 
it• due strengthening. The mature 
Christian has already gained the 
power which he can at once apply, as 
the occasion arises. This power comes 
through the discipline of use which 
shapes a stable character. 

Philo D* migr. AW. g 9 (i. 443 M.) 
frtpor wqwlm¥ κα\ hcpos rikcL** χΑμός 
iaru», 6 μι* 6νομαζόμ*νο$ &σκψτις, 6 di 
καλούμενος σοφία. 


Additional Note on v. i. The prce-Christian Priesthood 1 . 

I. Thi Idba or Pkibsthood. 

Man is born religious: born to recognise the action of unseen powers The idea 

about him and to seek for a harmonious relation with them, conceived of J>f priest- 
ηΛΤΒΛηβ ΐι,ι hood in 

PereonaHy ■. relation to 

This thought is conveyed in the Mosaic record of Creation, by the thenature, 
statement that it was the purpose of God to 'make man in His image and 
after His likeness' (Gen. i. 27); that is to endow man with faculties 
by which he might attain to a divine fellowship, and finally share in the 
divine rest (Heb. iv. 9). 

Even if man had not sinned ho would havo needed the discipline of 
life, supported by divine help, to reach this destiny 9 . 

As it is, the consciousness of sin, variously realised, hinders the present 
approach to God (the unseen power). However the unseen is realised, 
there is in men a shrinking from it 

Some means of approach to the unseen power therefore must be 
provided that a harmony may be established ; and man naturally looks for 
some one through whom this access shall be gained. The provision of this 
access is the work of the priest 

It is then briofly tho part of the priest to establish a connexion of man 
with God, and secondarily of man with man. 

The priest brings man to God (the unseen power) ; and he brings God 

80 it is that tho conception which we form of priesthood shapes our 
whole view of religion (llobr. vii. 12). 

These thoughts are of univorsal application, and find manifold embodi- 
ments in the experience of mankind. 

Of these manifold embodiments we must take account in our endeavour 
to grasp the full meaning of tho Christian Dispensation. 

The special training of the Jewish people is one part* the most histoiy of 
intelligible part indeed, bnt yet only one part, of the universal training mftn • 
of humanity for the accomplishment of the divine purpose of creation. 

1 It had been my hope to write an interest. The Jewish priesthood as a 

Essay on the pro-Christian priest- positive institution is well treated by 

hood. This has been impossible ; and (Ehler ; but it is desirable to plaee it 

I venture to give a few notes which in detailed comparison and contrast 

indicate some of the main points in with ethnic priesthoods, 

the inquiry. «No non-religious tribe is actually 

J. LipperVs AU{j. Oeseh. d. Printer* found or known to have existed. 
tftNsu, Berlin 1883—4, contains the Tylor, Primitive Culture, i. 378. 
most ample collection of materials * The Essay of Bp Bull On the etate 
with which I am acquainted. Tylor*s of mam before the Fall, contains many 
Primitive Culture, London, 1871, and most suggestive thoughts on this sub- 
Spencer's Ecclesiastical Institutions, ]eot 
London, 1885, contain much that is of 


In considering the oonoeption of the pravOhristian priesthood we must 
therefore notice the priesthood of the Nations (the natural priesthood), 
' and the priesthood of the People (the theocratic priesthood). 

II. Thi Priesthood or thi Natiohb. (Thb natvbal pkiksthood.) 

The conception of priesthood in its most general form is recognised 
universally : it belongs to the constitution of man. The facte of ethnic 
religions enable us to see the elements which were taken up and purified 
in Judaism. 

i. Type» of i. Types qf natural priesthood. 

{JJfegt. In many cases the idea of priesthood is most rude, imperfect and 

hood. unworthy— perhaps by degradation— but it exists. 

It may be that the agent seoks to coerco or to propitiate hostile 
powers ; or to honour friendly powers. 

But the essential idea is the same : he seeks to establish a harmony 
between those whom ho represents and the unseen. 

The mediating person is marked out variously according to circum- 
stances, either (i) by superior station, or (2) by superior knowledge. 

(i)Bypo- (1) The chief types of priest in the former case are 
* ition< (a) the head of the family : the father ; 

(0) the head of the race ; the king. 

(a) By (2) The second class is represented by the 'medicine-man': the 

Know- sorcerer : the guardian of an oracular shrine. 


(1) Priest- (0 (<*) The family priesthood was very widely spread. Examples 

hood by occur in aU early history. 

position. φ^ .j^ jjggiy priesthood was recognised in the great early civilised 

states: Egypt; Assyria; Greece; Roma 

The form of this royal priesthood was retained even whon tho royal 

government was overthrown (fyxw /9<urtXfw, rex sacrificulus). 

ii) Priest- (g) .» The ' oracular 1 type of priesthood was dominant among the Arabian 
ιοοά by trfVsK who had no central government Notice Balaam (Num. xxii). 
JSST Gradually the office was delegated to a caste or a class, which exercised 

W ^' more or less power. In classical Greece the power of the priesthood was 
exceptionally small. 

ii. Exam- ii. Example qf natural priesthood in the 0. T. 

Natural There are niauy traces of this 'natural 1 priesthood hi the Ο. T., both 

Priesthood (0 before »nd (2) after ' the Law/ 

i* &J• (1) Natural priesthood in the 0. T. before the Law. 

ihelfw? 1 («) The Patriarchs. 

Gen. viii. 20 ft (Noah). 

— xiii. 4 (Abraham). 

— xxvL 25 (Isaac). ' 

— xxxv. 1 (Jacob). 
Oomp. Job i. 5. 


(b) Melchiscdek. 

Gen. ζΐτ. 18 ff. 
(e) Jethro. 

Ex. XTiii. i, ia. 

Oomp. Ex. xix. ax 

(a) Natural priesthood in the Ο. T. after the Law. (?) After 

(a) The Judge*. 

Jud. vi. 19 ff. (Gideon). 

— xiU. 19 (Manoah). 

— χτΗ. 5 (Micah). 

[1 Sam. τϋ. 9 f. (Samuel); oomp. vil 1 (Eleasar). 
— ix. 13 (Samuel).] 

φ) The Kings. 

Saul : 1 Sam. xiil 9 f. 

— *«▼• 34, 35. 
Darid : a Sam. rt 13 £ 

— xxiy. 2$ (1 Ohron. xxL a6). 
Oomp. xxiii id. 
Solomon : 1 K. ix. 2$ (a Ohron. riii. ia £). 
Ahas : a K. xvi. ia f. (oomp. a Ohron. xxvl. ιό ff). 
Oomp. Jer. xxx. ai. 

III. The Pkixsthood of the Pbople. (Ths thbooratio 

i. Jewish Monotheism. I Oharae- 

All monotheistic religions derive their origin from Abraham. Jewish 

The Jews alone in the Old World made the belief in one God the monothe- 
foundation of life. ism. 

In the 8criptures of the Ο. T. no stress is laid upon abstract opinion as 
to the being of God in Himself. The character of God and the relation of 
man to God is made known through action. 

The essential element of belief in one God is brought out in the history 
of Abraham. It lies in personal trust in Him, and not in thought about 

80 again Moses enforces the belief in one God not as a new truth, but 
as the inspiration and support of personal and social duty. 

Conduct, character, is the one end of the Mosaic system. 

The heathen— the Oanaanite nations specially—are punished not for 
false belief but for file actions : Dent xii. 31 ; Lev. xriii. 24 ff 

The fact of monotheistic boliof is recognised in others (cf. Gen. xx. a £); 
and if God took Israel for His peculiar people, it was not as 'a national 
God' (of limited sofereignty), but as the God of the whole earth : Ex. xix. 
4ff; Dent. x. 14 f. 

The legislation of Israel has then this moral purpose. God moves 
among His people to guide them to their end. 80 it came to pass that the 



religious development of the Jews was against their nature; while the 
religions development of the Gentiles was an expression of their nature 1 . 

In the fulfilment of this discipline Qod manifested Himself to the 
people in different ways, by prophets, kings, priests 1 . 

The prophet spoke in too nanio of Qod : the king became the repre- 
sentative of the divine action : the priest expressed the idea of the fellow- 
ship of God and man. 

The work of the priesthood was specially directed to the thoughts of 
sin: consecration: holiness. 

ii Stages ii. Organization 0/ the JevoUk prUithoocL 

ganication We notice stages in the organisation of the priesthood, 
of the (1) The whole people : Ex. xix. 6. See also Num. xvi. 3 (Koran : sous 

frfo**- of Reuben): Ex. xxx 11— 16 (atonement for each)• Compare Apoo. L 6; 
v. 10; xx. 6; 1 Pet ii. 5,9. 

(a) Then Levi 

(a) Representatives: Num. iii. 9, 12 (instead qf all the firstborn): 
ambiguity of the term. Oonip. Deut x. 8. 

(b) Their consecration : Num. viii. 5 ff. 
Notice (a) sprinkling (contrast Lev. viii. 6 of priests); cleansing (oomp. 

Lev. xiv. 8 of the leper ; Deut xxL 12 of woman captive). 

(β) sacrifices : bullock for burnt-offering (comp. Lev. L 3); for 

sin-offering (comp. Lev. iv. 3, 14). 
(γ) their dedication to God : 'children of Israel ' lay their hands 

upon them (comp. Lev. i. 4). 

(d) their resignation by God to the priest's service, as ' waved ' 
before the Lord (of a gift resigned by God to priests): 
oomp. Num. xviii 6 f. 

(«) offering of victims : the Levites laying hands upon them. 
(3) The separation of Aaron and his sons. 
Their consecration : Lev. viii.; Ex. xxix. 
(a) Washing. Oomp. Ex. xL 12 ; Lev. xvL 4 ; and contrast Ex. xxx. 
19 £; XL31 f. 

(/9) Robing. Oomp. Ex. xxviii. 40. 

(y) Anointing of Aaron. Oomp. v. 30; Ex. xxviii 41; xxx. 30; 
xL 15 ; Lev. x. 7. 

(d) A threefold sacrifice : a bullock and two raw* 
(c ) Personal application of the blood to Aaron and his sons : ear, 
hand, foot Oomp Lev. xiv. 14. 

1 Oomparo Kurt», HUl. 0/ QUI Oove- • one who presents an offuring, 1 or 

nant i. 116 ff. (E. Tr.). 'one who stands to represent another'; 

* The derivation of jro (print) is and, (a) that it corresponds with Arab, 

keenly delisted. Two derivations seem kahitt, « soothsayer/ the oarliest type 

to deserve notice, (1) that the word is of Shemitio priest in Arabia, 
formed from pa and describes either 


(f) IiiT«rtmefiic^Attt>QaiidhistofitwiUitiieel«meattori 

Μ SprinkHiif oftiwwiointhigoilwKiWoodoe Aaron and hfc sous 

and upon their garments. Ex. xxix. 21. 

In each case people, tribe, family, as repreaentalhe•, were taken by *ke 

free choice of God, and not in virtue of any natural privilege of position; 

Nam. xtL 7; xviii. 7; Ex. xxviii ι; ι 8an. iL 28. 

(4) The High-priest : Ex. xxix. 5—7; Nnn. xx. 36—28. 

fit Theprieetlyduliet. fit Priest- 

Oeneral deaeription : Dent xxxHL 8 ft; 1 8am H. 28. ^J^T 

(1) Teaching and administering the Law: Dent xvil 8 £ (a «judge* end 
alao reoogniaod); Lev.' x. 10 t; flsok. xHv. 23 f. ; Mai tt. 7. Oomp. "I* 01 * 1 • 
Hoe. ir. 6 If. ; Amos ii. 6—8. 

Notice the nae of the Mot': Lot. xri. 8; comp. Num. xxtL 55; 
Josh, rii. 14 ft; 1 8am. x. 17 ; xiv. 41 ; Pror. xri. 33. 

(2) Miniatering the ceremoniaL 

(a) To prepare the 8hew-bread : Lot. xxiv. 5 ft 

(0) To born incense: Ex. xxx. 7 £; 2 Ohron. xxtL 16 ft; Num. 


(e) To offer aacriflce: specially to sprinkle the blood; Lev. L 5 ; 

v. 16 

(3) Blessing : Nnm. vL 22 if. Oomp. Lev. ix. 22. 

No necessity for laborious study, but for scrupulous care. 

It. Political poeilion of prie$t$. iv. 8ub- 

The priests occupied a subordinate political position till the time of the political 

Maccabees, with rare exceptions (2 Rings xL 1 ft). EH was the only Judge position 
from among them ; and there wore fow priest-prophets. They wore the ef priests, 
ordinary ministers of the dirino blessing with ' a self-denying ordinance. 9 

The Lorites are commonly classed with 'the poor' : a body without 
inheritance in an agricultural stato: Deut x. 8 f.; xii. 12, 18 t; xiv. 29; 
xvi. 11, 14; xxvi 11• Compare Oen. xlix. 5 ft 

Jerusalem not one of tho forty-eight Levities! cities (Josh. xxL 41); so 
that priests were strangers in the place of their service. 

Contrast the position of the Brahmins; Magians (Hdt L 101, 132); 
Chaldrcans (Died, it 29) ; Egyptian priests (Hdt ii. 35 &)• 

v. The idea of the Theocracy embodied in the High-priest 

The High-priest was the representative of the whole people : he took 
their names upon his shoulders and upon his heart : Ex. xxviii. 12, 29. 

The same offering was made for his sins of ignorance as for the sins of 
the congregation : Lev. iv. 3, 13. 

He bore upon his head the words which marked tho consecration of the 
nation, and that in relation to their failures : Ex. xxviii 36 ft ; comp. 
Num. xviii 1. 

In his person once in tho year the people entered into the Presence 
of God. 


VI. τ Αιό άφβντβς top της αρχής τον χριστού \6yov 

(a) The duty of Christian progress: 
the perils of relapse (vi. i— 8). 

The apostle base• a general exhor- 
tation on the Tiew which he has given 
of the spiritual degeneracy of the 
Hebrews. He first (a) enforces the 
duty of progress, both positively and 
negatively, and accepts the obligation 
for himself (1—3); and then (0) por- 
traya the perils of relapse, pointing 
out tho impossibility (from the human 
aide) of repeating tho past, and ap- 
pealing to the stern teaching of nature 

(a) The duty of progress (1— 3).• 

The succession of thoughts is simple 
and natural. The general principle is 
first stated, with a clear enunciation 
of what must (ι a), and what must 
not be done (1 ft, 2); and then the 
writer accepts the consequence as 
decisive for his own teaching (3). 

1—3. A question has been raised 
whether these verses contain an ex- 
hortation to the Hebrews or a declara- 
tion of the writer's own purpose. The 
two ideas seem to be insoparabla If 
the readers are to strain forward to a 
higher knowledge the writer must 
lead them. If the writer is to aim at 
the exposition of deeper truth it must 
bo with the conviction that his readers 
will endeavour to follow him. Thus 
ho first idouUfies himself with those 
whom he addresses (φ*(*>μ*θα) and 
afterwards he indicates his own pur- 
pose definitely (iro^o/u*). Tho words 
tyfrrcr and rcXc wnpt take their ap- 
propriate meanings in each case. 

1 Wherefore leaving the word of the 
beginning of Christ (or the Christ, the 
Messiah), let us be borne on to perfec- 
tion, not laying again a foundation 
of repentance frmn dead works and 
qffaiUi upon Ood 9 'of teaching (or a 
teaching) of baptisms and laying on 
of hands, of resurrection qf the dead 
•and of eternal judgment. *And this 
will we do if Ood permit. 

die άφ*ντ€ς tot r. dprft του χ. λ....] 

Vulg. Quapropter intermittentes w- 
choaUonis Christi sermonem... It 
is characteristic of the tone of the 
Epistle that the exhortation to pro- 
gress is based directly on the stern 
criticism which precedes (λό). At 
first sight an advoraative particle 
would have seemed more natural 
But it is assumed that the position of 
inferiority occupied by the readers of 
tho Epistle is not to be acquiosood iu. 
Tho fact that they do for the niouiont 
hold it is au overwhelming reason for 
effort Quia exercitatoa sensus decet 
uos habere iu lego pro- 
funda et alta mysteria...ducamur 

The necessary condition of progress 
is a 'giving up.' We hold what we 
have as a preparation for something 
more. At the same time all that is sur- 
rendered is incorporated in that which 
is afterwards gained. In relation to 
the Hebrews the word άφίντη lias 
the sense of ' leaving ' as applied to 
those who advance to a deeper know- 
ledge : in relatiou to tho writer, as 
applied to those who pass to a new 
subject. Both senses are perfectly 
natural, and there is no confusion iu 
the double application of the word. 
For tho thought compare Phil. iii. 14. 

In tho rouiarkable phrase & rtjs 
4pX9* του Χμωτου Xoyor, the word, 
the exposition, of the beginning, the 
elementary view of the Christ, there 
can be little doubt that η άρχ) του 
Χρίστου go together, and that 6 
r§r αρχής λόγος does not form a com- 
pound noun. On this point the order 
seems to be decisive. * The beginning 
of Christ' (or «the Christ •) is 'the 
fundamental explanation of the fulfil- 
ment of the Messianic promisee in 
Jesus of Nazareth.' *H άρχ$ του 
Χρίστου corresponds with 4 άρχη τ»* 
λογίω* του 6\ου (v. la) : the former 
phrase concentrates attention upon 
the personal Messiah, the latter on the 
records in which He was foreshown. 

VI ι] 



iwi την τελειότητα φερώμεθα, μη πάλιν θεμελιον κατα- 
βαλλόμενοι μετανοίας από νεκρών έργων, και πίστεως 

ι φ*ρώμ*$α: φ*ρ&μ*θα D,• eyrhl. 

Sermonem inchoationis Christi vocat 
mltium fldel,instructionem videlicet de 
nativitateOhristi humana,de passione, 
de resurrectione, atque ascensione 
ejus et gratia baptismatis (Primas.). 

ffVl r^w TfXcwrijra φίρωμίθα] let tit 
be borne on to perfection. Vulg. ad 
perfectionem feramur. The form of 
this positive charge is remarkable. 
The thought is not primarily of per- 
sonal effort» 'let us go on,' Met us 
press' (Old Lai tendamu»; Ang. 
re$piciamut\ bat of porsonal surren- 
dor to an active influence. Tho 
power is working (comp. i. 3 φ*ρω* 
τΑ nmna): we have only to yield our- 
selves to it (comp. Acts xxvii. 15, 17). 
At the same time the influence and 
the surrender are continuous {φ*ρ*- 
μ*6α\ and not (under this aspect) 
concentrated in one momentary crisis. 
Tho goal of this forward movoment is 
'perfection,' that is for the readers 
the full maturity of spiritual growth, 
opposed to νηπώτηί (v. 13) ; and for 
the writer the teaching which cor- 
responds with maturity. Philo {De 
agric {37 ; i. 324) distinguishes three 
classes Λρχόμβροι, frpoftarroircr, rc- 
rcXtiM/Myoc. Compare John lit. 12 f. 
Additional Note on ii. 10. 

The patristic interpreters under- 
stand rcXfionp of practical life. So 
Ohrysostom: nobs αυτή* χ*ρ*μ*ρ 
Xonror, φησί, τήρ οροφή*, τοντίστ*, βίοψ 
&purro¥ ίχνμβν. 

μή wJSXtP θιμίΚιοψ καταβα\\6μ*νοι\ 
The emphasis lies upon the noun. Tlie 
tense of the participle marks the effort 
JoB.Anit.Y\\\.$ t 1 οίκοοομία» Kartfiakrro. 

Tho writer does not (of course) 
mean to say that his readers must 
build higher without having secured 
their foundation. He assumes that 
the recognition of the paramount duty 
of progress will constrain them to do 
this at once in order that they may 
duly advance. 

The sense given by the Old Latin 
fundamentum diruentet (d) (not 
Augustine) is contrary to the usage 
of the middle 

For ιταλι» see v. 6; and for ώμΑιοι» 
c xi. 10 note. 

θιμίΚω*. . .ptriWar. . .] The different 
elements in the 'foundation' appear 
to be distinguished in three groups, 
Repentance and Faith, Baptism and 
Laying on of hands, Resurrection and 
Judgment Of these tho first two 
are the fundamental characteristics 
of tho Christian's temper, while tho 
two pairs which follow give typical 
representatives of outward ordinances, 
and specific beliefs. Under another 
aspect the three groups deal with our 
personal character, our social relations, 
our connexion with the unseen world. 
The three pairs are not however strictly 
coordinate: per.. .κα1ΐΓ•...,/9αητ... Arid. 
re χ. 9 άψαστ. ¥. κα\ «p. al. Tlie centre 
pair are regarded as forming one great 
subject of teaching in two parts. For 
the use of re compare ix. ι note. 

The history of the Acts shows how 
intimatoly each of these six articles 
was involved in the first teaching of 
the Apostles : ii. 38 ; iv. a, 33 ; viii. 16 1 

For ώμΛ. καταβ. compare Philo, 
de Qig. § 7 (i. 266 Μ.) &μΑκ>Γ...άτο01- 

θιμ, μ*τανοΙατ...κα\ wlorcmt...] The 
genitive in each case describee an 
olomont of tho foundation: a founda- 
tion consisting in repentance... and 
faith... Comp. c xii. 11 ; Rom. iv. 
11 (?) ; 1 Cor. v. 8 ; Eph. vi. 14, 16 t 
Comp. Winer, iii. 50^ 8 (a). 

μετανοίας... κα\ πίστιως...] Repent- 
ance and Faith are not treated as 
abstract subjects of debate, but as 
personal attributes. Each has its 
supreme object in human life (re- 
pentance Jrom dead works, faith 
toward» God). So it is that they are 
combined together in the first pro- 




iirl θβόν, % βαπτι,ο-μών 'δώαχΐ}? 1 έπιθβσβως τ€ χ€φών, 

% Μαχν 
ι βάπτισμα Of. *<*«rif KAOD a vg : διδαχή» Bd. 

damation of the Gospel by Christ, 
Mark i 15, and practically in the 
firat proclamation of the Gospel by 
the Apostles, Acts ii. 38. 

Oomp. Acts xx. 21. 

'Repentance from dead works' 
gi?es the negative, 'faith towards 
God* gives the positive side of the 
Christian mind. The old must be 
abandoned, the new must be grasped. 

ptrarolat aw6 wtmpmw ίμγω*] The 
force of this unique expression de- 
pends upon the sense of ' dead works ' 
(vttpa Jpya, Vulg. opera mortua\ a 
phrase which occurs in the Ν. T. only 
here and α ix, 14 καθαριή τη* σνηίδψ 
auf άιτο ν*κρ*ν ipy**» nor is there any 
parallel phrase. Faith is spoken of 
as 'dead' when it is unfruitful in deed 
(James ii. 17, 26). Sin again is said 
to be ' dead ' when it is not called iuto 
activity (Rom. vil 8). And the body 
is already 'dead' as carrying iu it the 
doom of death : it has lost the power 
of abiding continuance (Rom. viii. 10 
6V αμαρτία»). Once more, men are said 
to be ' dead 1 in relation to sin in three 
ways, (1) 'dead unto sin' (tJ αμαρτία 
Rom. vi 11) when their connexion 
with the principle of sin is broken de 
facto (*. 2 άπιθάττη) and they use de 
jure the power of the new life (ζάντας 
W... -λ (2) ' dead by transgressions and 
sins ' as deprived of true life through 
the manifold instrumentality of sin 
(rot r ιταραπτώμασιν καϊ rait αμαρτίας 
Eph. ii 1, 5), and (3) 'dead in trans- 
gressions ' as abiding in them and de- 
void of the capacity for real action 
(A> παραπτωμασιρ OoL ii 1 3, but the 
cV is doubtful). 

Compare also Matt viii 22 ; Luke ix. 
60; xv. 24, 32 ; John v. 25 ; Eph. v. 14. 

From the analogy of these usages 
it is possible to give a precise sense 
to the phrase 'dead works.' Dead 
works are not vaguely sins which lead 
to death, but works devoid of that 

element which makes them truly 
works. They have the form but not 
the vital power of works. There is 
but one spring of life, and all which 
does not flow from it is * dead.' All 
acts of a man in himself, separated 
from God, are 'dead works' (comp. 
John xv. 4 ft). The first step in faith 
is to give up the selfish life which 
they represent 

Hero the phrase has necessarily 
a special application. The writer of 
the Epistle is thinking, as it seems, of 
all the works corresponding with the 
Levitical system not in their original 
institution but in their actual relation 
to the Gospel as established in the 
Christian society. By the work of 
Christ, who fulfilled, and by fulfilling 
annulled, the Law, the element of life 
was withdrawn from these which had 
(so to spook) a provisional, and only a 
provisional, vitality. They became 
'dead works.' Comp. Herm. Sim. ix. 

21, 2 τά βήματα avrmp μάνα ζ*<τι $ τα Μ 
ϊργα αύτ*¥ νικρά Arrc. 

The contrast between wlcmt and 
Μκρα Ιργα corresponds with and yet 
is distinct from that between wiont 
and Ipya *>ov in St PauL 'Dead 
works' present the essential character 
of the works in themselves : ' works 
of law ' present them in relation to an 
ideal, unattainable, standard. 

It follows therefore that 'Repen- 
tance from dead works' expresses 
that complete change of mind— of 
spiritual attitude— which leads the 
believer to abandon these works and 
seek some other support for life. 

For the construction μ*τά*<Ηα άπ6 
compare Acts viii. 22 μ*τα*6ησον άπό 
της κακίας and the characteristic plirase 
of the Apocalypse μ*τα¥ο*ϊ* U : Apoc. 
ii 21 f; ix. 20 f.; xvL 11. 

The patristic interpretations of the 
phrase are vague : e.g. Primasius : 
Poeniteutiam ab operibus mortals 

VI. 2] 



agere est ipsa opera mala per poeni- 
tentiam delere, qua animam morti- 
flcabant Opera namque mortis sunt 

nlorcvt Μ 6*w) qf faith toward 
God, Vulg. fidei ad Deum. This 
phrase also is unique. 

nitmt is used (i) with gen. in each 
group of the writings of the Ν. T.: 
Mark xL 22; Acts Hi. 16; Rom. iii. 22; 
Apoc. xiv. 12; James ii. 1, && 

(2) with fir, Acts xx. 21 ; xxif. 24; 
xxvi. 18; Col. if 5; comp. 1 Pet i. 
21 ; Philom. 5. 

(3) with h y Eph. L 15; 1 Tim. HL 
13; 2 Tim. iii. 15. 

(4) with wptt, 1 These, i. 8. 
uurrcvriv Ari run occurs not un- 

frequently: Matt xxvii. 42; Acts ix. 
42; xi. 17; xvi. 31; xxii 19; Rom. 

i*. 5. *4- 

As distingnished from nurrrUtv t Jr 
perhaps nurrt w tw Μ (ace.) suggests 
the idea of being directed towards, 
and ιηστ. Μ (dat) resting upon some 
solid foundation (the Rock). The re- 
lation in Ari is external, in fir, in- 

2. βαπτισμωρ &ι&αχήί (&ί&αχή*)] 
Vulg. baptismatnm doctrina, *m- 
posit ionis quoque manuum. The con- 
struction of &ώαχ?*, if this reading be 
adopted, has boon variously explained. 
It has been takon either (1) absolutely: 
baptisms, teachings, and laying on of 
hands; or, (2) in connexion with βαπ- 
τισμ&ψ, oither as (a) doponding on it 
and qualifying it; baptisms qf teach- 
ing, baptisms involving teaching and 
not mere ceremonial lustrations; or 
as (β) governing βαπησμ&ν: teaching 
qf baptisms. 

The construction and sense of the 
whole passage are decidedly in favour 
of the last view. The order is decisive 
against taking the word Μαχητ ab- 
solutely. There is no special propriety 
in speaking of Christian baptism as 'a 
baptism of teaching'; and on the other 
hand 'baptisms,' Maying on of hands,' 
' res u rre c tion/ 'judgment,' form charac- 
teristic subjects of teaching. This 
construction is also supported by the 

W. 11.• 

variant ώβαχ^; and it makes but 
little difference whether we read &- 
ftajftr as parallel with ΑμΑισρ, «* dc- 
δαχήν as explanatory of it ; yet, on the 
whole, it seems simpler to take the 

The unusual order is probably to 
be explained by the emphasis gained 
for the characteristic contents of the 
teaching by placing βαπτισμ** first 
If Αώαχίρ were placed first, this would 
appear to be coordinate with μπαροία* 
and ntirrtmt rather than tho olcincnts 
which it includes. 

The progress in the subjects of 
teaching is significant It reaches 
from the first scene of the Christian 
life to the last, as it is made known 
to us. The two types of divine ordi- 
nances (baptism, laying on of hands) 
correspond broadly to the two charac- 
teristics of tho Christian's temper 
already noticed. The first marks the 
passage from an old state to a new 
(the gift of life by the action of the 
Holy Spirit); the second, the arming 
for the fulfilment of the new service 
(tho endowment for the work of life by 
the gift of the Holy Spirit). It ap- 
pears to be of great importance to 
keop in close connexion the 'ordina- 
tion' of tho Christian layman and the 
'ordination' of the Christian priest, 
as corresponding provisions for tho 
impairment of strength required for 
the fulfilment of the two essential 
forms of service. 

The simple gen. in place of nipt 
with gen. is remarkable. Elsewhere 
m the Ν. T. the gen. is used only of 
the author: Acts ii. 42, τη ά&αχρ tAp 
όποστοΚω*; 2 John 9; Apoc. ii. 14 f. 
It seems to express more completely 
the contents, the substance, of the 
teaching than tho preposition which 
would give merely the subject 

fiamrw^¥\Vvig.baptismatum. For 
the form see c ix. 10 ; Mk. vii. 4 ; CoL 
ii. 12 v. L 

The plural and the peculiar form 
scorn to be used to include Christ- 
ian Baptism with other lustra! rites. 
The 'teaching' would naturally be 



αναστάσεων νεκρών και κρίματος αιωνίου. *καΙ τούτο 

α>α*τ. τ* ΚΑΟ τ g syrr me : om. rt BD,\ νκρώ* ι χ§φ&* D,•. 

directed to shew their essential dif- 
ference. Comp. Acts xix. 3, 4; John 
ill. 25 ircpl καθαρισμού. Primasius 
explains the plural strangely: Quod 
dixit plurali Yarietate 
aceipientium posuit 

arilcVcer rt χ*φ**] 'The laying on 
of hands' is the expressive symbol 
of a solemn blessing (Matt xix. 13), of 
the restoration or communication of 
strength for a definite work. The sig- 
nificance of the act is clearly marked 
in healings in the Gospels: Mk. vL 5 
(comp. xvi. 18); viii 23; Luke i?. 40; 
xiii 13. It was regarded as natural 
by those who sought for help: Matt 
ix. 18 (comp. Mk. v. 23); Mk. vii. 32. 
Compare also Acts xxviii. 8. In the 
record of the Acts 'laying on of hands' 
appears as (1) the complement of 
Baptism, the outward rite through 
which the gift of the Holy Spirit was 
normally made (Acts viil 17 £ ; xix. 6, 
'Confirmation'); (2) the form of the 
appointment of 'the Seven' (Acts vi. 
6, 'Ordination'); (3) the mode of sep- 
aration for a special work (Acts xiii 
3). In the first two cases it is the 
act of Apostles. In the Epistles to 
Timothy it is used of 'ordination' and 
attributed to 'the presbytery' (1 Tim. 
iv. 14; comp. 2 Tim. L 6); to Timothy 
himself (1 Tim. v. 22); to 8t Paul 
(2 Tim. L 6; comp. 1 Tim. iv. 14). 

Primasius (Atto), not unnaturally, 
limits the phrase to Confirmation : 
Impositionem manuum appellat per 
quam plenissime creditur accipi Spiri- 
tus sanctus, donum quod post baptis- 
mum ad confinnationem unitatis in 
ecclesia a pontificibus fieri solet 
(kindred texts vary); and the close 
connexion of AriA. x*tp** with βαπτ. 
(βαπτ. Art*, r* χ.) may be urged in 
favour of this view. 

ά*αοτάσ<*ς twepur κα\ κρίματος at' 
vwuni] This last pair of truths taken 

together represents the permanence 
of our present actions, the significance 
of earthly life in the eternal order. 
Comp. Apoc. xiv. 13 (κόποι, gpya). 

The genitives appear to depend on 
σώαχής (or &ώαχή*1 and not directly 
upon &€u4kto¥. The teacliing on tiiese 
subjects made part of the foundation. 

In connexion with the Resurrection 
throe phrases must bo studied : 

(i) ανάστασι* ¥*npmp Acts XVlL 32; 
xxiiL 6; xxiv. 21 (comp. v. 15); 1 Cor. 
xv. 12 if. 

(2) ή άναχττασις ή U **κρά* Luke 
xx. 35 ; Acts iv. 2. Comp. Acts x. 41 ; 
1 Poti.3; Col. i. 18, &c 

(3) 4 ίζανάοτασίΐ ή U ν*κρ»¥ Phil, 
iii. 11. 

The phrase 'eternal judgment' may 
be compared with 'eternal siu' (Mark 

iii. 29 aititno* αμάρτημα). 

Κρίμα descrilies the sentence and 
not the process. Compare John ix. 39 
note; Matt. vii. 2; Acts xxiv. 25; and 
contrast c. ix. 27; x. 27 («ρ/σι*). 
For αΙΛνιος see o. v. 9 note. 
3. και rovro νο*ήσομ*ν] The fulfil- 
ment of the AposUo's purpose is not 
made in any way to depend on the 
condition of those whom he addresses. 
His message has to be delivered. 
Compare Kzek. ii. 5; and ooutrast 
φ*ρύμ*6α v. 1. 

Hoe faciemus, boo est, ad uiajora 
vos ducemus et do his omnibus que 
enumeravimus plenissimo docebimus 
vos, ut non sit iteruin uecesse ox toto 
et a capite ponere fundainentuw 

iatmtp ArirpArp 6 6\ός] Compare I 
Cor. xvi. 7. *1ωθ* ο απόστολος πάντα «'£- 
αρταν της Bt'uus προμηθείας (Theod.). 
James iv. 14. 

(6) The perils of apostasy (4—8). 

The Apostle has given expression 
to a general charge in which he has 
joined his readers with himself (φ*- 

VI. 4] 



ιτοιησομεν ictrrrep iirirpiirip deo*. 4 % Α6ύνατον yap tow 

3 ν«4*Φ" KB vg: wwfrupur AGD, (oomp. v. 19; iv. 3). 

Ρ*μ*6α\ but he make• one limitation 
to the efficacy of the work which he 
proposes. He oannot do again what 
hat been done once for all He cannot 
offer a fresh Gospel able to change the 
whole aspect of life and thought, if 
the one Gospel has been received and 
afterwards rojectod (4—6). Nature 
itself teaches that the divine gifts must 
be used fruitfully: they carry with 
thorn on inevitable responsibility (7, 8). 

* For in the cateofthtmwho were 
once for all enlightened, having both 
tatted of the heavenly gift and been 
made partaken of the Holy Spirit, 
*and who tatted the good word of God 
and the powers of a world to come, 
'and fell away, it it impossible again 
to renew them to repentance, teeing 
they crucify to themselves the Son of 
Ood afresh, and put Him to an open 

4—6. The necessity of progress lies 
in the very nature of tilings. There 
can be no repetition of the beginning. 
The preacher cannot again renew to 
'ropontanco' (juramu»), a comploto 
dtango of tho iutclloctual, moral, 
spiritual state. He must go on to 
the completion of his work. Those 
who fall away from the Faith, of which 
they have felt the power, are as men 
who crucify 'the Son of God.' 

Title description of apostates is 
closely parallel with that given in tho 
Apostolical Constitutions (vi. 18, 2) of 
'godless, impenitent leaders of heresy': 
ovrol *1σΐ¥ ol βλασφημήσαρτις το πηνμα 
rip χάρα -ot (c. X. 29) κα\ owowrwrarrtt 
τη* wop* αυτού bwptav μπα τψτ χάριν, 
off ούκ αφ*θήσ€Τ0Λ οντ* «V τψ almwt 
τοντψ ovrc tV τψ μΑλοντι. 

The correlation of the four parti- 
ciples (φντισβίντα*, γτνσαμάοιν, yf*i|- 
Bivrat, yevaofw'rovr) is by no means 
clear, nor are the conjunctions decisive 
(yrvaapcVovr Τ€...κα\μβτόχοντ ye*.... καί 
καλόν γινσομίψουΐ. . . \ The re may ( 1 ) 

introduce a new and distinct clause 

closely connected with φντισθίνταψ 
and in a sense subordinate to it (who 
were once enlightened and to tasted. . ., 
and were made...); or (2) it may be 
taken in connexion with the καΐ.,.καΐ... 
which follow, so that the three clauses 
γτυσαμάνν* re..., καί μίτόχονν ytMfoVr- 
τα*...κα\ κάλο* ηρυσαμίρουψ,.., are 00- 
ordinate with φωτισ64*τα$ and ex- 
planatory of it (who were once illu- 
minated, having both tatted... and 
been made partakert... and tatted...); 
or (3) it may be taken with the mi 
which immediately follows, so that ytv 
σαμίρονς rc.jeal μ*τόχου9...γ9*ηϋ4ψταψ 
form the twofold explanation of φ•»- 
TurBcvraf while καί καλόν γινσαμίρονΐ 
is an independent clause (10A0 were 
once illuminated— having both tasted 
...and been made partakers...— and 
who tasted...). Both uses of re are 
fully justified. It occurs as a retro- 
spective and additive conjunction both 
simply (0. i. 3 note), and followed by 
καί (Acts ii. 40; xxL 30; xxii. 7; 
xxiv. 23; xxvL 30); and most com- 
monly as a prospective and combina- 
tive conjunction both with a single 
clause following (c Ix. 19; Luke xxL 
1 1 ; Acts ii. 10), and with two or more 
clauses following (Acts i. 8; xiii 1; 
1 Cor. i. 30). 

The choice between the three con- 
structions will be decided by individual 
fooling as to the symmetry of ex- 
pression and thought On tho whole 
tho third arrangement seems to bring 
out most distinctly two fundamental 
aspects of the reception of the Christ- 
ian Faith, illumination in respect to 
the divine action, and experience in 
respect to the human appropriation. 
The Christian is illuminated by the 
conscious sense of the gift of life, 
and by participation in the Spirit; 
and he gains an individual sense of 
the beauty (the intellectual grandeur) 
of revelation, and of the powers of the 
new Order. 

10 — 2 



[VI. 4 

άπαξ φωτισθέντας, γευσαμένου* τε της δωρεάς της 
επουρανίου και μετόχους γενηθεντας πνεύματος αγίου, 

4 Τ * ηθ4 * τ α ίΐ ytrrqMrrat Α. 

The course of thought will be Men 
dearly if it is marked in a tabular 
form. The Christian ha• been 

(1) Illuminated (in regard of the 
divine action) iu two respects, 

(a) By the consciousness of the 
reeoptiou of the gift of life 
(γ*νσ. της d. τηψ Ar.), 

Ο) By participation in tlie power 
of a widor life (μ*τ. y«r. wv. 


(2) And he ha• tasted (in regard 
of the individual experience) 

(a) The beauty (intellectual gran- 
deur) of revelation («βλ. β. fi.\ 
09) Tho spiritual powers of the 
new order (6W. μίλλ. α/.). 

φ αδύνατο* γαρ row oVof φ....α»α• 
κα&Ιζιι*...] For as touching tliose who 
were once enlightened... it is impossi- 
ble to renew Uteni... It is indeed ne- 
cessary, the Apostle seems to say, that 
I should add this reserve 'if God 
wiiy/or there is ouly ono fatal obstaolo 
to the iulfihucnt of my work. It is 
impossible for man to renew to μ*τά- 
poul those who have fallen from the 
Faith, The obvparw at the head of 
the sentence is singularly impressive. 
So Ohrysostom: ου* %hcw oi πρίπα 
avbi σνμφίριι ovW Ifforw α*λλ* αδύνα- 
τοι», Jorc fir anuyimvuf ΙμβάλΧα*. 

row &ra£ 0«rurftmr] Vulg. eos 
qui semei iUuminati sunt. The object 
is placed before the verb in order to 
fix attention upon the variety and 
greatness of the gifts which have boen 
received and cast away. The enume- 
ration of these abandoned blessings 
prepares for the statement of the 
impossibility of restoring them. 

The word φωτίζβσθαι occurs again 
α χ. 32. The illumination both here 
and there (φωτισθΙ*τ*%) is referred to 
the decisive moment when the light 
was apprehended in its glory (oontrast 
Eph. i 18 πεφωτισμένου*). For the 

image compare John i. 9; 2 Tim. L 10; 
Eph. iii. 9; (Apoo. xxi. 23); 2 Oor. iv. 
4, 6 (φωτισμός). See also Ecclus. xlv. 
17; 4 (2) K. xii. 2. Inwardly this 
crisis of illumitiatiou was marked by 
a reeoptiou of the knowledge of the 
truth (0. x. 26); and outwardly by 
the admissiou to Christian fellowship. 
Hence φωτίζω and φωτισμός wore 
commonly applied to Baptism from 
the time of Justin (Apol. i. 61, 65; 
couip. Dial. 0. 122) downward*. And 
the Syriac versions give this sense 
here : Posh, who have once descended 
to baptism. Hcl. 10Λ0 have once been 
baptized. The addition of άπαζ (once 
for all) marks the completeness and 
sufficiency of the single act The word 
is characteristic of the Epistle; ix. 7» 
26 ff.; x. 2; (xii. 26 f.). Compare 

1 Pet iii. 18; Jude 3, 5 ; and ιφάπαξ 
c viL 27 note; ix. 12; x. 10; 1 Cor. 
xv. 6; lloin. vl 10. 

The forco of tho tonso is carried ou 
through γ*υσαμ*¥θυς, γ*ρηθ(ντα£, βαλο» 
γ*υσαμ<νονί 9 in contrast with πάλι» v. 6. 

γιυσαμίρουϊ τι...κα\ μβτοχσυ* γ**....] 
This twofold blessing—the substance 
of illumination— describes first the 
conscious possession of tho principle 
of life and then the sense of fellowship 
in a vaster life. Tho first dement is 
that which the believer has personally 
in himself: the seooud that which he 
has by partaking in something which 
has a far wider action. 

ytiMT. rijt θωριάς την cVovpaWov] 
who tasted of tiie gift, the tieavenly 
gift, the gift of the divino life brought 
by Christ aud in Him : John iv. 10 note. 
Compare Rom. v. 15, 17; viii. 32; 

2 Cor. ix. 15. Auy special iuterpre- 
tation, such as the Eucharist or more 
generally forgiveness, peace and the 
like, falls short of the goucrul idea 
which is required here. 

The gift is described as 'heavenly' 

VI. 5 ] 



5 καΙ καλόν *γ€υσαμ€νονς θβον ρήμα δννάμβπ re μέλλοντας 

5 ow. re /ιΛλ. a/.: Tert. oeeidente jam awo. 

character gainod; and that gained in 
a vital development Compare xii. 8 ; 
Hi. 14; x. 33; xi.6, 7. 

For μ4τοχο9 see c. ill 1 note; and 
for πνινμα αγιοψ see ii. 4 note. The 
gift* the operation (πν. ay.)» ie dis- 
tinguished from the Person (iii. 7$ 
ix. 8; x. 15, 29). 

Oomp. Orig. op. Athan. ^p. oil 
Serap. iv. § 10. 

5. The fact of illumination in- 
cluding the two elements of the com- 
munication of the divine (personal) 
life and of the participation in the 
divine (social) life, is followed by the 
fact of individual apprehension of the 
beanty of the message of God and of 
the manifestations of the higher life. 
The Christian life has been realised 
not only in its essential beginnings 
but in the fulness of its power. Both 
the blessings which are now put for- 
ward have become the objects of 
direct experience in their essontial 
Completeness (γ*υσαμίρουί...ρήμα,..&υ<• 

«αϊ καλό» γτνσ. β(ου ρήμα] Vulg. 
guetaverunt nihilominu» bonnm Zto» 
verbum. The order of the original 
gives the sense 'tasted the goodness- 
beauty— of the Word of God/ For 
jcoXoV (Tert dulce) compare c. x. 24 
«αλά tpya note; 1 Pet ii 12. That 
of which experience was made was 
not the whole message of the Gospel 
(6 λόγος του dcou), but some special 
utterance {fltov βήμα), such as that 
which marks the confession of faith, 
apprehended in its true character as 
an utterance of God: Rom. x.8; Eph. 
v. 26; comp. c. i. 3 η.; John vi. 68. 
Philo, de Prof. § 25 (L 566 M.) ftrf 
aavrtt κα\ τΐ το τρ4φον Arrl τήρ ψυχήρ 
(Ex. xvi. 15) *$ρο* μαθόρτη βήμα Λβυ 
κα\ λσγορ ΰ*ου, αψ* ο$ κασαι καΑηαι 
κα\ σοφιαι piowrt» Aippwn. Comp. Leg. 
AUeg. iii. §§ $% 61 quoted on c iv. 12. 
Ovrap* tr μίΚΧορτοψ olApot] power» of 
a future age^ powers, so to speak, of 

(twovpmnas) not in tlie sense that it 
comes from heaven, or has the character 
of heaven, but that it is realised in 
heaven. It belongs to a higher sphere 
of existence thnn earth. 

For σωρ*ά see John iv. to note. 
The word is used in the Ν. T. only of 
spiritual gifts (? Rom. v. 17), and espe- 
cially of the gift of the Holy Spirit 
For cVovpaViof see c iii. 1 note. 

Γινσασάαι expresses a real and 
conscious enjoyment of the blessing 
apprehended in its true character 
(comp. John vi. 56 If. τρ*γιιν\ Philo 
de Abr. § 19 (ii 14 M.) ro dc pJyuos 
αντωρ αν ηαντί 6rj\or άλλα μηνορ voir 
γινσαμίνοίτ apcrfjt. But at the same 
time tlie enjoyment as here described 
(yrucr. d»pcar) is only partial and in- 
choative. To feast, to live upon the 
fulness of the divine blessing belongs 
to another order. 

Compare y. θανάτου Matt xvi. 28; 
John viit 52; c. ii. 9; y. tfn χρηστοί 
6 xvptot 1 Pet it 3. See also Ps. xxxtii. 
(xxxiv.) 9. 

Tlie use of the gen. (γ*νσ. iuptat) 
here stands in sharp contrast with 
the use of the ace. in the following 
clause («αλόρ y«*r. θ. ρήμα). It is 
difficult to suppose that tills repetition 
of the verb with a changed construction 
is without design and force. The 
difference which is inherent in the 
two cases ('a part of,' 'something of/ 
and 'the thing as a simple object*) 
falls in perfectly with the scope of 
the passage The divine life is ap- 
prehended little by little to the end : 
tho divino word is approhonded in its 
character as a whole, and so each 
soparate manifestation of spiritual 

power (dvnSfifir not tAp dwojif «φ). 

μττοχονί γ*νη6. wp. ay.] The com- 
pound expression (μ*τ6χ. γ*ρ.\ as dis- 
tinguished from μΛτασχορταψ (c ii. 14), 
marks more than the simple fact of 
participation (c. vii. 13; 1 Cor. x. 17). 
It brings out the fact of a personal 


αιώνος, 6 και παραπεσόντας, πάλιν ανακαινίζει? eU μετά" 
νοιαν % άναστανρονντας iayroh τον νίόν τον θβον και 

6 TOfartftv-nt D t *. 

another world. The indefinite ex- 
pression suggests the idea of the 
manifoldness of the energies of the 
spiritual order of which each believer 
feels some one or other (e. ii. 4). The 
anarthrous ala* μίΚλ**, which is not 
found elsewhere, serves also to fix 
attention on the character of the 'age' 
as one hitherto unrealised, as dis- 
tinguished from the conception of any 
particular future order (comp. Eph. ii. 

7 : C ii. 5 4 οίκουμίρη ή μίλλονσα). A 
strangely similar phrase is quoted 
fromPhilo,Z*. AUeg.i.$i2(i.soU.\ 
6 6*os Mvtwrtp αύτψ (Adam) bxnxyu* 
άΚηβινηϊ ζ*ή$• 

It is significant tiiat in the enumer- 
ation of the divine gifts received by 
those who are conceived as afterwards 
falling away there is no one which 
passes out of the individual. All are 
gifts of power, of personal endowment 
There is no gift of love. Under this 
aspect light falls upon the passage 
from Matt viL 22 f.; 1 Oor. xiii 1 I 

In this connexion it will be noticed 
that it was the presence of love 
among the Hebrews which inspired 
the Apostle with confidence («. 10). 
Hoc est margarita pretiosa earitas, 
sine qua nihil tibi prodest quodcun- 
que habueris ; quani si solam habeas 
suffioit tibi (Aug. in 1 Joh. TracLy. §7). 

6. «αϊ παραπίσόττας] Vulg. et pro- 
lapei tunt (Tert cum exciderint). 
The catalogue of privileges is closed 
by the statement of apostasy: thoee 
who were once for all enlightened... 
and /M away... Each part of the 
picture is presented in its past com- 
pleteness. Compare 1 John ii 19. 

The verb waptmtwrtuf does not occur 
elsewhere in the Ν. T. though the 
noun παράπτωμα is common. The 
verb and the noun occur together 

Exek. xiv. 13; xv. 8 (Vpp). 

The idea is that of falling aside from 
the right path, as the idea of άμαρτά- 
¥uw is that of missing the right mark. 

wakt* affuraWftur « Is μ*τάνοιο*\ again 
to renew them to rep e nta n ce, Vulg. 
renovari rureum ad pamitentiam 
(so also Tert, Anibr., Hier.; d e alone 
iterum renotare). The use of the 
active voice limits the strict appli- 
cation of the words to human agency. 
This is all that comes within the range 
of the writer's argument And further 
the present (awDtam'fri*) suggests con- 
tinual effort Home divine work then 
may bo equivalout to this renewing 
though not idoutical with it (Matt 
xix. 26). The change in such a case 
would not bo a uow birth, but a raising 
from the dead. 

'AjfucatWffu' is found here only in 
the Ν. T. It occurs five times in the 
later books of the lxx., and in Herm. 
Sim. viii 6, 3; ix. 14, 3. Compare 
ά*ακαι*>\>¥ 2 Cor. iv. 16; CoL iil 10; 
ipaioairmait Roui. xil 2; Tit iil $, 
where the idea is simply that of 'mak- 
ing new/ not of 'making again new.' 

ro Kaivovt «Ό4$σαι, Chrysostom says 
from one point of sight, τον λουτρού 
μ6*ω> fori. Comp. Herm. Sim. viii, 6 ; 
ix. 14. 

The end of this renewal is μιτάηια, 
a complete change of mind consequent 
upon the apprehonsiou of tho true 
moral nature of things. It follows 
necessarily that in this large sense 
thoro can bo uo socoud μετάνοια (comp. 
v. 1). There may be, through the 
gift of Qon, a eorros|ionding change, 
a rogainiug of tho lost view with tiie 
consequent restoration of the fulness 
of life, but this is different from the 
freshness of the vision through which 
the life is first realised. The popular 
idea of repentanoe, by which it ia 
limited to sorrow for the past, has 
tended to obscure the thought here. 


παραδςιγματίζοντας. *rfl yap ή πιονσα τον itr αύτη* 

wapaktyiAarlfrrTtt D t . 

ibwrroqpa Ow ' o t . . *a\ παρα&αγματί- 
Cowras] Valg. r u rsumcrucijigents$ (d β 
r*crucianU$ % Tort rtfgtntet cruet) *f 
oitentui habento. The present par- 
ticiples (contrast wapmriaovrat of the 
definite pest met of apostasy) bring 
out the moral cause of the impossi- 
bilitj which has been affirmed. There 
is an active, continuous hostility to 
Christ in the souls of such men as 
have boon imagined. 

The two words express the main 
idea mtdor different aspects. The 
first (nvnaravpovwrat) marks specially 
the wrong done to Christ: the second 
(παρη6*ιγματίζονταή the effect which is 
produced upon others in deterring 
them from the Faith. 

amaranpavrrat] Meing theycrucify 
again. Tf W forlr apturravpowrat; 
famtov w&ktv aravpovwrat (Chrys.), 
and so the other ancient interpreters 
with the Torsions (comp. Hier. ad QaL 
v. 24 ApwrnwpovvT€t...quod nos inter- 
pretari possumus reerucifigentei). In 
classical Greek however the word has 
the sense of 'raising on the cross,' 
crucifying with tho additional notion 
of exposure: e.g. Herod, vii. 194, 238 
(ArAfv<rt άκΌταμόρταΐ r^v κιφαΚήψ 
ανασταυρ&σαι). There is the same 
double meaning in other similar com- 
pounds: e.g. bafikfam. Tho word 
is illustrntod by the phroso attributed 
to tho Lord which is quoted by Origon 
(in Joh. xx. 12) from 'the Acts of 
Paul* : &ν*0**μί\\* στανρ*θήψα%. Com- 
pare Reach, Agrapha, p. 430. 

It was through faithlessness, by 
clinging to selfish prepossessions in- 
stead of yielding to divine guidance, 
that the Jows first crucified Christ 
Those who fall away practically repeat 
the act as often as their unbelief is 
shewn, and by the notoriety of their 
apostasy put Htm to open shame. 

Perhaps there is the further thought 
in the image of crucifixion that Christ 
dwells in tho bellow. To fall away 

from the faith is therefore to slay 
Him. Contrast Gal. tL 14. 

This new crucifixion of Christ is 
said to be lovrmr, that is to their own 
loss and condemnation (Tert in «*- 
metiptis, Vulg. $ibimetip*i$). Com- 
pare Rom. xiiL 2; Matt xxiii. 31 ; 
Gal vi. 14. The Fathers pre s e n t the 
impossibility as the impossibility of 
repeating Baptism. So, for example, 
Chrysostom: ο rofair btbrtpo* iavrow 
fiami(mw πάλι* avrow σταυροί And 
Primasitts: Quiitorambaptisarivolunt 
quantum in so est Christum quoque 
iterum cruciflgere Tolunt et derisui 
habere. . .quoniam sicut Christus semol 
mortuus est in carne in cruoe, ita et 
nos semel mori possumus in baptis- 
mate peccato. 

top vlb* row 6Vw] The use of the 
title indicates the greatness of the 
offence. Compare x. 29; It. 14 note. 

παρα^ιγματίζορταί] The Terb occurs 
as a variant in Matt i. tgQkryparim). 
Comp. Num. xxv. 4 (lxx.). 

7, & Tho law of human life, the 
condemnation which follows from the 
neglect of blessings, is illustrated by 
an example from nature. The Parables 
of the Lord and the usage of the 
prophets suggest this method of en- 
forcing truth. We spontaneously at- 
tribute will, responsibility (πιονσα, W«- 
Γονσο, f vXoyfar f*# raXap/Sfifri), OTon to 
the oartlt. Wo look for certain rostilts 
from certain general conditions; and 
not only so but we regard certain 
results as naturally appropriate to 
certain objects. Comp. Mark iv. 28 
(αυτόματη) : Rom. viii. 19 ff. The com- 
parison between pro cess e s of agricul- 
ture and moral training is common in 
all literature. Comp. Philo ds Agrie. 
{§ ι ff. (i. 300 ff. M.). 

The illustration here apparently is 
not taken from the familiar image of 
the field and the seed and the sower. 
The case is rather that of the natural 
produce of the land. No mention is 



[VI. 7 

έρχόμενον πολλάκις ύετόν, καΐ τικτουσα Βοτ4νην ενθετον 
εκείνοι? St 9 ovs καί γεωργεΐται, μεταλαμβάνει €ν\ογία* 

7 fo.r«\X.KBD 1 tymnet rrt\.fa.AOvg. 
vg tyr vg me. 

καί ytvpy.i om. mU D,• 

made of human activity as contribu- 
ting to the production of the 'herb 1 ; 
though the land is such as is cultivated. 
From the land and from man it is 
reasonable to look for fruitful use of 
divine gifts. The human ministry of 
tiller and teacher falls into the back- 

The primal record of Genesis fur- 
nishes the example of fruitful fertility 
(Qen. i. 1 1 βοτάτη) and the example of 
noxious growth (Qen. iiL 18 faaraat 
«αϊ rp /βολοθ, followed in tho one case 
by blessing (i. 13X and connected in 
the other with a curse (iii. 17). 

'For land thai drinkeih the rain 
thai cometh oft upon it and then 
bringeih forth herb meet for them 
for whose eake it is alto tilled, re- 
eeioeih blessing from God; *but if it 
beareth thorns and thistles it is re- 
jected and nigh unto a curse; whose 
end isjor burning. 

7. γί yep 4 wtowra] For land — 
to borrow an image from another form 
of God's works— land that in the 
season drank the rain of His gift... 
For the tense compare α ix. 2; Rom. 
ix. 30; PhiL iii 12 and Lightfoot ad 

wunHra...rUrowra] The complete ap- 
propriation of the gift at the time 
when it comes precedes the production 
of the fruit. Here the Latin (as com- 
monly with such participles) fails to 
express the full thought: bibens.„et 
generans... (Tert qua pe- 

For πιουσα compare Deut xi. 11. 
('Sat prata biberunt 1 ) The gift had 
not been rejected. So the parallel 
is established with those who had 
believed the GospeL 

rhp in avrrjt Ιρχ6μ**ον «-αλλ. v.] 
The harvest is prepared not by one 
gift of heaven but by many. Th* gen. 

in At' αύτης gives not only the idea of 
'reaching to' but adds also that of 
extending over. Oomp. James v. 17 ; 
Mk. iv< 26; Apoc iii. ία Ohrysostoin 
sees in wtw a pointed reference to 
the human parallel, r}v άοασκαλία» 
φψτΐ». Compare Is. v. 6; Amos viii. 

καί rUrovaa] and then bringeih 
forth, as the natural and proper fruit 
The personal word gives force and 
vividness to the application of the 
image. Oomp. James i. 15. 

The more complete form of ex- 
pression would have been τίκτονσα 
μ4ν...1κφ4ρουσα &*..., but the first case 
is taken by itself as giving the true 
normal issue. 

βοτάτην] the simplest natural pro- 
duce: Gen. L 11 ff. Honce the word 
is used in a bad sense for wild plants, 
weeds. Oomp. Lightfoot on Igu. EpL 

litfmw] Vulg. opportunatn (Old 
Lat utiUm, aptam); Luke ix. 62 ; xiv. 
35. The word probably is not to be 
taken absolutely but joined with fa ί- 

6Y otr καϊ yi*py*iTaC\for whose sake 
it is also tilled. For the use of καί 
compare c. vil 26; 2 Oor. iii. 6; OoL 
ill 15. 

The laborious culture of the soil 
seems to be contrasted with its spon- 
taneous fruitfulness. In its truest 
state, as fulfilling the divine purpose, 
it meets (so to speak) man's efforts 
for the service of man. Those 'for 
whom' it is cultivated are not tho 
tillers themselves ouly (Vulg. a quibus, 
Old Lat propter quos\ nor yet the 
owners, but men at large. 

It is easy to see au allusion to the 
human field tilled for God's glory: 
1 Oor. iiL 9. 

μ*τα\αμβάηι f&oytar] shares in 


άπο του 0€ou• *ίκφέρογεΛ ie ακανΘαο και τριΒύλογε αδόκιμος 
καΐ kat^pac €γγΛ, η? το τβλο* €« κανσιν. 9 /7€π€«τ- 

rev 0cov : om. του D/. 

Meeting which is of wider range. 
This bleating may boat be supposed 
to lie in increased fruitfulness: John 
XT. 2. 

For μ<ταλαμβάρ*ι seo c. zii. 10; 2 
Tim. ii 6. 

8. 4κφ4ρουσα U] but if it bear, 
breaking the law of fruitfulness. The 
word 4κφίρονσα stands in contrast with 
Wxrowa, though in Gen. i. 12 <ζή*<γκ*ν 
is used of the productiveness of the 
earth in answer to the divine command. 
Usage hardly justifies the remark of 
the Greek Fathers: ούκ4™ flirt W«- 
τονσα £k\* Ικφίρανσα, re πάρα φνσι* 
rift ικβολήψ αΙψ(ΤτόμΐΡον (GScum.). 

Αδόκιμο*. . .κανσιν] The judgment on 
the land, fruitful only for ill, is given 
in three stages. It is rejected: such 
land cannot any longer be reckoned 
as land for fruitful service. It is nigh 
unto a curse: it presents the out- 
ward features of the curse (Gen. iii. 
17 f.), whence the near presence of 
the curse is inferred. Its end is 
burning. 'A&aripor (Lat reproba) is 
found elsewhere in the Ν. T. only in 
St Paul: e*g. 1 Cor. ix. 27; 2 Cor. 
xiii 5 ff. 

For κατάρα* tyyvr compare c. viii. 13 
Jyyvt αφανισμού. Primasius remarks 
upon the phrase; Notandum quia non 
dixit maadicta e$t sed maUdictioni 
proxima (φαβών άμα κα\ παραμυθού- 
pivot Euth. Zig.); and (Ecumenius 
(following Chrysostom) «5 Μ Jyyvt 
Karapat ytvoptvot καϊ μακράν ytrfV&u 
buvarm bta μιτανοΐατ. 

$t re rcXoff fit κανσιν] whose end (is. 
the end of the land) ie/or burning, 
Vulg. cttjns consummatio in com- 
bustionem. The rhythm of the whole 
sentence shews that the relative looks 
back to the main and not to the last 
(κατάρα) antecedent 

So (Ecumenius (after Chrysostom) : 
cor μίχρι rfkovt iwtptivn, φησί, κα\ 

μιχρι r*\tvrfjt ΑκΜαψ Ικφίρων roVc 
κανόησπω. For fir compare Rom. x. 
10; 1 Cor. xi. 17; and for «avoir 2 
Pet iii. 10, 12; 0. x. 27. 

The image here appears to repre- 
sent utter desolation as of a land 
destroyed by volcanic forces (if κατα- 
κικαυμίνη). Compare Dout xxix. 23. 
The thought of purification by fire, 
true in itself, is foreign to the context; 
nor does the image of the burning of 
the noxious growth of the land (Virg. 
Qeorg. i. 84 it) seem to be sufficiently 
expressive. Compare 0. x. 26 f. ; John 
xv. 6. 

The warning found a typical fulfil- 
ment in the overthrow of Jerusalem 
and the old Theocracy. 

(3) Word* of hope and encourage- 
ment (9— j 2). 

The spiritual dnlness and sluggish- 
ness of the Hebrews had not yet 
checked their active exercise of Christ- 
ian love. In this the Apostle found 
the assurance of better things (9, 10). 
And he grounded upon it his desire 
for a corresponding development of 
hope through long-suffering faith (11, 
12X Thus in this brief section we 
have a view of (a) the Apostle's con- 
fidence; and (b) the Apostle's wish. 

9 Bitt we are pereuaded of you, 
beloved, better things and things thai 
accompany mutation, though we thut 
speak; "for God is not unrighteous 
to forget your work and your love, 
which ye shewed toward His name in 
that ye ministered to he saints and 
still do minister. " And we desire 
that each one of you may shew the 
same zeal thai ye may attain unto the 
fulness of hope even to the end; " in 
order that ye may not become sluggish, 
but imitators of them that through 
faith and long-suffering inherit the 

(a) The Apostle's confidence (9, 10). 



[VI. 10 

μβθα δέ irepl υμών, άγαττητοί, τα κρζίσσονα και έχόμβνα 
σωτήρια?) e\ και ούτω? \α\ονμβν ιο ού yap 

19 ου yap άδικος ό 

9 αγαπητοί : Λλ^βΙ Μ* syrr. 

9» ίο. The Apostle guards him- 
self against the supposition that he 
classes the Hebrews among those who 
had 'fallen away. The presence of 
active love among them was a sure 
sign that God had not loft them. 

9. π*π*1σμ*θα Μ...σωτηρίαί] Bui 
we are persuaded 0/ you, beloved,... 
The order of the words is most signi- 
ficant. First comes ir«ir«fo>uda, which 
suggests a past conflict of feeling 
issuing in a settled judgment Then 
follows the pronoun (wtpl ύμων), which 
at once separatee tho Hobrow* from 
the apostates who had been just 
described Thou a unique titlo of 
deep affection. 

π«πίΙσμ€$α] Compare Rom. xv. 
14; and contrast c. xiii. 18 (π*ιθ6- 
μ§θα) ; GaL τ. ίο (πίποιβα). Tho form 
implies that the writer had felt mis- 
givings and had overcome them. Chry- 
sostom notices both the word and the 

plural : ονκ Λτ< νομίζομ**, ovdi στοχα- 
ζ6μ§ο\ οΜ προσδοκωμιν, ovW Awifo- 
μα>• αλλά τί; π*π9ίσμ*ύα, και οιί π*ρ\ 
Ιαντον τοντο μάνον φησϊτ αλλά π•ρ\ 
πάντων, ού γαρ «fire πάτασμαι άλλα 

αγαπητοί] Vulg. dileclummi (d 
cariuimi). The word occurs nowhere 
else in the BpUtla The use of it in 
this connexion emphasises the affec- 
tion which the stern language of the 
former paragraphs inight seem to have 
obscured or negatived. Tho titlo 
gonerally suggests au argumont: 1 
Cor. x. 14; xv. 58; 2 Cur. vii. 1 ; xil 
19. Compare 1 John ii. 7 note. 

τά κριίσσυρα καΙ Ιχ• σωτ.] There 
are but two issues: a better and a 
worse. The comparative is not used 
for the positive, but plainly suggests 
the contrast (cf. c vii. 7; xi. 40). For 
the word (κρ*Ισσο**\ which is charac- 
teristic of the Epistle, soo L 4 note. 

The exact meaning of 4χ6μ*να σ•- 

τηρίας (Vulg. viciniora[a prozimiora. 
Aug. adv. Gree. iii 74 hwrenlia] 
ealuli) is somewhat uncertain. The 
phrase is parallel with and yet distinct 
from (κατάρας) tyyvr (ft 8). The con- 
struction Ιχ^σθαί τυ>ος is used of local 
contiguity (Mk. i. 38), and also of tem- 
poral connexion (Lk. xiiL 33 ; Acts xx. 
1 5 ; xxi. 26). Hence «χ. vmrapiat may 
here mean either • which issue in 
salvatioii as immediately following/ 
or ' which issue from salvation as im- 
mediately preceding.' Probably there 
is uo exact definition of tho rolatiou : 
which accompany ealealion, which 
are cloudy connected with it, and so, 
in somo sense, briug it with them. 
Comp. Luc. Hermog. 69 fkrldot ov 
aucpas ίχομινα. 

*l καί] though, Vulg. lamelsi (d e 
nam el #tc, corruption of tameUit); 
Luko xi. 8; xviii. 4; 2 Cor. xil 11 ; 
vii. 8; 1 Pot iii. 14. 

The circumstance thus introduced 
may be either distinctly acknowledged 
or simply admitted for the sake of 
argument In each case the καΙ em- 
phasises the word which it precedes 
by suggesting some limit wliich is 
over-passed. Comp. Winer, p. 544. 

IO. ov γαρ &δ\χος:.. αγάπης] The 
active exercise of love, which is itself 
a sign of the divine presence, carries 
with ittbeassuranceof a diviue reward. 
Tho deed and the result are regarded 
from the huiuau side as cause and 
effect, service and reward, while essen- 
tially the oue includes the other. Tho 
thought is of character shewn in life, 
and not of any special works which 
have a morit of their own. Tho ( re- 
ward' is the power of more perfect 
service (ft 7). 

The claim (so to speak) on God's 
righteousness (comp. Rom. iii. 5) is 
not an assertion of merit Its ground 
lies in a perfect trust in His Nature 


0€O* έττίΧαθέσθαι του ίργου υμών και της αγάπης η* 
ένςΰείξασθς etc το όνομα αύτον, ΰιακονησαντς? τοι« 

ίο τψ aydwifi KABOD,* Tg syrr ; +το0 koww rift άγ. Γ me (ι These, i. 3). 

and Will μ rcrealed to men within 
and without He is alike righteous 
when He rewards and when He 
punishes. Compare Ghrys. on CoL i. 
Horn. ii. § 4 € I ftptVtt ουκ «στιρ, owt tort 
bUaiot ο oWr κβτβ SvBpmwow Xtym• 
tl θ /ftoior οΰκ fVrrir Blot, ovfW Btbt 
fori*, tl oVor owt ίση•», awkmt hwavra 
φίριτηι, ov&iv άρ*τη, ovftc » κακία. 

The reward of Qod is the inhereut 
issue of action (1 John L 9; Mark ix. 
41); and without Himself it is Tame- 
less (Matt zx. 14 νπαγ*). Compare 
1 John i. 9 note. 

For other forms of trust based 
upon the essential character of God, 
see 1 Cor. x. 13; 1 These, τ. 34; 2 Tim. 
i. 12. 

The sense of God's righteousness 
is indoed a necessary condition of 
faith: 0. xl. 6. 

ΑπλαοΥσβαι] Compare Lk. xii. 6. 
The thought is perfectly general, and 
must not bo limited either to the past 
or to the future. We necessarily 
present the relation of Ood to men in 
terms of man's experience. 

τον ϊργον vpmw κα\ r. ay.] the energy 
of life in its unity (contrast c x. 24), 
of which lore was the inspiration. 

For the use of the singular see 
Rom. ii. 7; Gal. ri. v 4; 1 These, i. 3; 
and also John It. 34; vL 29 (Ipyo v. 
28); xvii. 4 and notes. 

The nature of 'the work' of the 
Hebrews is described in c. x. 32 ff. 

Bengel notices the prominence 
given to lore, hope and faith succes- 
sively in w. ic— 12. 

ijr Λ*δ\ #lr το ορομα αυτού] The 
Iotc was directed to God's name, to 
God as He was made known in Christ, 
and so found its objects in those who 
were His children (ούχ awXmt tit τον* 
aytovt dXX a tit tow 6V0V, Chrys.). The 
tense seems to point to some well- 
known occasion. 

For the construction with tit see 
2 Cor. rili. 24. 

The tense of toMfarBt is accom- 
modated to the first participle (6Ία- 
jcoMJowrff). A present MffawoV is 
spontaneously supplied with otaovovr- 
Tff. The 'namo' (compare c. xiii. 15) 
is specially montioned (ratlior than 
'towards Him 1 ) because the sonship 
of believers is included in it ; and the 
Hebrews had satisfied the claim on 
Christian lore which lay in that 
common tie. 

The false translation of tit το Uoaa 
of the Latin (in nomin$\ 'which ob- 
scures, if it does not wholly alter, the 
sense, is the uniform Latin trans- 
lation of fir το όνομα. In some places 
it leads (as here) to very serious mis- 
understanding ; and it commonly in- 
fluenced the A. V. v as in the rendering 
of the most important phrases : 

(1) fiawri(tiP tit ri όνομα, Matt 
xxriii. 19; Actsviii. 16; xix.5; 1 Cor. 

i. 13. 15• 

(2) σνκίγίσΛϋ fir το υ*ομα, Matt 
xriii. 20 (so R. V.). 

(3) morfvf ip tit το oV, John i. 12 ; 
ii. 23; ill. 18; 1 John v. 13. Compare 
Matt x. 41 f. 

oWonfowTfr rotr oyfoir] See c 
x. 32 ff. Compare Rom. xr. 25. The 
thought is of serf ice to Christians as 
Christians, c xiii. 24 (ill. 1); and not 
to Christians as men. Lore of the 
brethren (c xiii 1) is crowned at last 
by lore (2 Pet i. 7). 

There is nothing in such passages 
as Rom. xv. 26; 1 Our. xvi 1 ; 2 Cor. 
viii. 4 ; ix. 1 to show that the Christians 
at Jerusalem had the title ol oytoc 
specially. Comp. Rom. xii. 13. 

The title is used again of Christians 
in the Epistle : xiii. 24, who are else- 
where addr e s s ed as α&\φοί (iii. 12; 
X. 19; xiii 22), αγαπητοί (e. 9 , oOfX- 
φο\ tyun (iii. I). 

ι 5 6 


[VI. 11,12 

dyiois και διακορονρτβς. tl έπιθνμονμβν he ίκαστον υμών 
την αύτηρ epSeiKPvardcu σπουΰηρ προς τηρ πληροφορία» 
της 4\πί$ος άχρι τέλους 9 ,β α>α μη νωθροί γέρηίτθβ, 

διακορονντα ι aoxovorres D t *. 

(ο) The Apostle's wish. 

ιι, 12. The activity of practical 
love among the Hebrews fills the 
Apostle with the desire that the spirit 
from which this springs may find a 
wider work among them in the 
strengthening of hope aud faith, 
through which alone the divine pro- 
mises can be realised. 

1 1 . ίπιθυμονμ** 64. . .] Action aloue 
is not sufficient, nor can it be sus- 
tained without the inspiration of 

The word of strong porsouul — even 
passionate— desire, coveting (ίπιθν- 
μονμ€ν\ is expressive of the intense 
longing of the writer. There is no 
exact parallel. Compare ι Pet i. 12; 
(1 Tim. iil 1). Chrysostom dwolls on 
the expression: Ιπιβυμονμ** φησίψ• 
ουκ άρα μέχρι βημάτωρ τούτο βονλάμιΰα 
μόρορ\ and again owe Ar§ $ίλω 6π«ρ 
ήρ διδασκαλικής avo\yrlat t αλλ' b rer- 
ρικης fp φιλοστοργίας καϊ πλίο* του 
$£kuv ; and so later Fathers. 

Ικαστοψ ύμων] The desire is indi- 
vidual, while the expression of confi- 
dence is general (a 9). Iu this way 
the force of Ιπιΰυμούμβρ is strength- 
ened. Tho writer's wish goes beyond 
the general character of tho body, or 
the perfection of some of the members 
of it. Καϊ μ*γαλ*ρ καϊ putpmv ομοίως 
vjbrai (Chrys.). 

τψ> αντήρ Μ, <nr....rAovf] The 
desire of the writer is that the 
Hebrews should shew the same seal 
in other directions as they shewed in 
works of lo va Their hope was chilled. 
It was essential that this should be 
rekindled 'in regard to,' 'with a view 
to securing' the fultuu of hope even 
to the end (Vulg. ad expletionem [d e 
confirmationem] tpei). 

For the phrase ή πληροφορία της 
ελπίδος compare c χ. 22 πληροφορία 

πίστιως. OoL ii. 2 ή πληροφορία της 
σν*4σ*ως. It describes the fuluoss, 
the full measure, of hope. Tho word 
πληροφορία (not found in classical 
writers) is always takon passively iu 
N. T. Cfuluess' not •fulfilling'); aud 
it seouie better to understand it here 
of the full development of hope than 
of the full assurance of hope (1 These. 

8uch seal issuing in such growing 
hope must be exercised until tho end 
of the prosont period of trial and 
discipline: compare c. iii. 6 uoto μέχρι 
τίλους. The interpretation 'till it is 
consummated ' is contrary to the usage 
of the phrase. On the Christian func- 
tion of hope see c iii. 6; x. 23 notes. 

12. tpa μή ρωθροϊ γι*., μιμ. Μ...] 

that ye become not tlugyuh, but imi- 
tator*... , Vulg. ut non eeguee ejficia- 
mini (d tie eitie atgri) verum imi- 
tatoree... The object of the Apostle's 
desire was that the Hebrews might 
avoid an imminent peril, and strive 
after a great ideal If hope failed to 
have her perfect work the dulness 
which had already come ovor thoir 
powers of spiritual intelligence would 
extend to the whole of life (v. 11 
νωθροί τοις άκοαϊς). In this one defi- 
nite respect they bad 'become' dull 
(v. 1 1, yryoWc ) : the dangor was lest 
they should 'become' dull absolutely 
(fro μί) γίνησϋ* κ). On the other hand 
if hope were kindled they would be 
enabled to imitate the heroes of 

The word μψητης (which should 
be rendered closely imitator and not 
follower) is found here only in the 
Epistla Elsewhere in the Ν. T. it is 
peculiar to St Paul (five times). The 
word occurs as a false reading in 
1 Pet iii. 13. 

Tmy δια π. και μακρ..•4παγγ.] The 


μιμηται he των δια ττίστβωϊ και μακροθνμίας κΧηρονο- 

ι? δ«ά+τ$/ π. D t *. καΐ μακροΦυμοΟτται D f # . 

modol of Christian effort is offered 
by those who through the exercise of 
the characteristic graces of faith and 
long-suffering are even now realising 
in a trae sense the promisee of God. 
'Faith' is the essential principle 
through which the blessing is gained, 
and 'long-sufforing ' marks the circum- 
stance under which faith has to be 
maintained. The two graces of 
patience (υπομονή) and faith are 
combined in Apoe. xiii. ίο (xiv. 12); 
James i. 3; 2 These, i. 4. 

Hie word μακροθνμία and its cog- 
nates aro very rarely found except in 
Biblical Greek (Plutarch). Some form 
of the class occurs in each group of 
the writiugs of the Ν. T. except the 
writings of St John. It is important 
to distinguish μακροθνμία from viro- 
fionj, with which it is often confounded 
by the Latin Versions. Ύπομορή (c. x. 
36; xii. 1) suggests the pressure of 
distinct trials which have to bo borne. 
Μακροόυμία oxproseos the trial of un- 
satisfied desire. So God bears with 
men who fail to fulfil His will (Rom. 
ii. 4; ix. 22; 1 Tim. i. 16; 1 Pet Hi. 
20; 2 Pot iii. 15 του κυρίου); and in 
their place men seek to imitate His 
long-suffering: 1 Those. v. 14; Gal. τ. 
22; Eph. It. 2; Col. iii. 12; 2 Tim. 
It. 2; James v. 7f. 

Μακροθνμία and ύπομοψη OCCUT 
together 2 Cor. vi. 4, 6 cV υπομονή 
ιτολλρ, iw 0\ty<aw...ii' yiwrfi, iv μα- 
κροθνμία, i* χρψττΌ/τψι...Οθ\. i. II *U 
πάσα* ύπομοψη* καί μακροθνμίαν. 2 
Tim. iii. ΙΟ η} irforft, rjj μακροθνμία, 
rg oyoirp, η} νπομονη. James τ. ίο f. 

The contrast lies in 1 Cor. xiii. 4, 
7 if άγαπη μακροθνμιϊ... πάντα vnouJptt. 

κληρονομούνταν] who inherit, 

Vulg: hereditabunt, depotiuntur. 

The participle is a strict present 
Believers even now enter on their 
inheritance (c iv. 3), and with them 
the saints of old time enjoy the ful- 
filment of that for which they looked 

(c. xii. 22 ff.). 

Compare 1 Cor. xv. 50 κληρονομά ; 
and contrast the perfect, α L 4 ; and 
the aorist, c xii 17. 

For the image oomp. i. 4» 14 ; ix. 1$ 
and Additional Note. 

There is an evident distinction 
between ol κληρονομουνης (rw «royyt- 
\(at) and ol κληρονόμοι (τηψ AroyycXfaf 
e. 17). The first phrase marks the 
direct realisation of the blessings of 
heirship, and the second simply the 

The plural (al arayycXfai) repre- 
sents the various promises made in 
old time in many parts (i. 1). Compare 
c vii. 6 ; xi 13 ; Rom. ix. 4; xv. 8 ; 
GaL iii. 16. Clem. 1 Cor. ίο* Αβραάμ.,. 
1(ή\θ*ν. . .bwrnt. . .κληρονόμησα rat ίπαγ- 
ycXtor του θ*ον. Pa SoL xii. 8 ίσιο* 
Κυρίου κληρονομήσουν inayytXiat Kv- 
ρίον % and Ryle and James ad he. 

These many promises are gathered 
up in tho one promise of that sal- 
vation which Christ wrought and 
which awaits its complete accomplish- 
ment : r. 17 ; ix. 15 ; x. 36 ; xi. 39. 

(4) The certainty of the divine 
promi$e$ (13— 20). 

The reference to the divine pro- 
mises in v. 12 suggests the conside- 
ration that long-suffering (patience 
is necessary and reasonabla Though 
their fulfilment may be delayed it is 
certain. This certainty of fulfilment 
after long waiting is illustrated by 
(a) the fundamental promise to Abra- 
ham, which by its very form— pointing 
to a distant future— implied the exer- 
cise of patience (13—15). And φ) 
this promiso partially, typically, yot 
not exhaustively fulfilled, has boon 
handed down to us, doubly confirmed, 
so that wo cannot doubt as to its 
uttermost accomplishment (16—18) ; 
(e) an accomplishment which is pre- 
sented to us in the oxaltation of the 
Son, Whom hope can follow now 
within the veil (19, 20). 

ι 5 8 


[VI. 13 

μουντών τα* inayyeXiav. n Τψ yap 'Αβραάμ irray- 

γειλάμβνον ό θεός, iirel κατ ovievo* €ΐχ€ν μς'ιζρνο* όμόσαι, 

>* For when God had mad* pro- 
mise to Abraham* tines He could 
swear by no on* greater, He sware 
by Himsetf, Maying, "Surely blessing 
I will bleu thee, and multiplying 
I will multiply thee. " And thus, 
having patiently endured, he ob- 
tained the promise. 

*For men swear by the greater, 
and the oath is an end of all gain- 
saying in Uieir case /or confirmation. 
"» Wherein God being minded to 
shew more abundantly to the heirs 
of salvation the immutability of His 
counsel interposed by an oath, * that 
by two immutable things, in which 
it is impossible for God to lie, we 
may have strong encouragement, who 
fled for refuge to lay hold of the hope 
set before us. 

* Which we have as an anchor of 
the soul, a Jtope both sure and stead- 
fast and entering within the veil; 
"• whither, as forerunner, Jesus 
entered on our behalf, having become, 
after the order of Mekhizedek, a 
High-priest for ever. 

(a) The promise to Abraham (13— 


13—15. The example of Abraham 
establishes two thing•, the certainty 
of the hope which reeU on a promise 
of God, and the need of patience in 
order to receive iU fulfilment. God 
promised with an oath: Abraham 
endured to wait aud that not in vain. 
He it thus a perfect representative 
of all 'who through faith and long- 
suffering inherit the promises.' 

By fixing the attention of his 
readers on the promise to Abraham 
the writor carrion their thoughts be- 
yond the Law. The Law appears as 
a stage ouly in the fulfilment of the 
promise. Gomp. GaL iv. 21 ft 

13. ι-φ yip 'Α. iwayyctkapevot. . .καν* 
Iavrov] For God having made 
promise to Abraham... sware... Yv&g. 
promittens (Old Lat cum repromi- 

sisset)..juraviL... The promise was 
given, and then the promise was con- 
firmed by an oath (Gen. xiL 3, 7 ; 
xiii 14; xv. 5 ft ; xvii. 5 ft; compared 
with Gon. xxii. 16 ft). The student 
will do well to consider very carefully 
the exact differences of form under 
which the promise was given to Abra- 
ham at different times and afterwards 
to Isaac (Gen. xxvi. 2 ft) and to Jacob 
(Gen. xxviii 13 ft). 

This interpretation, which is di- 
rectly suggested by the history, seems 
to be better than that which regards 
Ιναγγ*ιΧάμ€Ρος and £μοσ€* as contem- 
poraneous, a construction which is in 
itself perfectly admissible. (Couip. c 
ii. ία) 

It may bo further added that the 
interposition of an oath implied delay 
in the fulfilment of tho promise. No 
oath would have beeu required if tho 
blessing had been about to follow 
immediately. But in the nature of 
the case the promise to Abraham 
pointed to a remote future. Thus 
his examplo was fitted to encourage 
tho Hebrews to trust in the unseen. 
At the same time the promise was 
absolute and not conditional (as 1 K. 

a. 4). 

Arc! κατ ονάκο* # Ιχι* μ. 6.] since 
He could swear by no greater one 
(according to usage). Vulg. quoniam 
neminem habuit per quern juraret 
majorenu Gomp. Philo, Leg. Alley. 
iii. § 72 (i 1 27 M.) opf r oVi ov καν* Μρου 
όμνύ<ι Bsos, ούοΊρ γαρ αντου KPtirrov, 
άλλα καν* Iavrov or fori varrvp άριστος 
(in reference to Gen. xxii. 16). 

Λμοσιν καν* iavrov] The oath to 
Abraham was tho foundation of tho 
hope of Israel (Ps. cv. 6 ft ; Luke i 
73) and the support of all positive 
religious faith. In this respect it is 
important to notice that it is the 
first explicit mention of the divine 
oath, which however was implied in 
the promise to Noah (la liv. 9 ; Gon. 



C&MOC6N ka(? Iayto?, 14 \iytuP El mwj εγλΟΓωΝ €γλοη*ω ce και 
πλΗθγΝωΝ ηλΗθΥΝω <τ€ # 15 και όντως μακροθνμήσατ €7τέτυχ€ν 

14 €ΐμτρ> MABD,*: W jt* C vg: 4 Αφ Γ. 

νϋΐ 2ΐ f.; ix. ιι 111). Compare also 
Gen. xy. 8 ft Jewish scholars dwelt 
on the thought of God's oath 'by 
Himself 9 : Shemoth R. 44 (on Ex. 
xxxii. 13), What means By Thy*elf\ 
R. Eliezer replied : Moses spake thus 
to the Lord (Blessed be He). If Thou 
hadst sworn by heaven and earth, I 
shonld say, since heaven and earth 
shall perish, so too Thine oath. Now 
Thou hast sworn to them by Thy 
great name: as Thy great name live* 
and lasts for ever and ever, Thy oath 
also shall last for ever and ever. 

The phrase αμρ. κατά runt does not 
occur again in the Ν. T. (comp. Matt 
xxvl. 63). It is found in the lxx.: 
Jer. xxix. 14 (xlix. 13); xxviii. (li.) 14 ; 
Amos vi. 8 ; and in later Greek. The 
classical construction (wiUi the simple 
ace.) is found in James v. 12. 

14. tl μή* #νλογώ»...] Gen. xxii. 
17. The writer of the Epistle substi- 
tutes σί for το σπίρμα σου in the last 
clause. Πβ concentrates his attention 
on Abraham alono. Comp. Gen. xii. 3 
with Gen. xxii. 18. 

The promise which is quotod is 
simply that of outward prosperity, of 
which in part Abraham lived to see 
the fulfilment But the Messianic 
promise, with which the readers were 
familiar, was given under the same 

fvXoywv ινλογήσω] Old Lat bene- 
dieendo benedwero. Vulg. benedi- 
eene benedieam. This construction 
in Imitation of Hebr. inf. ab$. with the 
finite verb is found in the Ν. T. only 
in quotations from the lxx. in which 
it is extremely frequent Comp. John 
iii. 29 χαρψ χαίρει note. 

The form tl μήρ both here and in 
the text of the lxx. is attested by 
overwhelming authority against the 
common form ί μήρ. The form tl is 
recognised in BtymoL Magn. as an 

alternative form for J as επίρρημα 
ορκικό* with a reference to this passage. 
It may be a dialectic peculiarity. 

15. καϊ σΰτωι...] and thus, confi- 
dent in a promise solemnly ratified, 
having patiently endured. . .The ovrmt 
is to be taken separately and not in 
close connexion with μακρ. ('having 
thus patiently endured 9 ). Comp. 
Acts vii. 8; xxviii. 14; 1 Cor. xiv. 25. 

According to the history twenty- 
five years elapsed from the call of 
Abraham to the birth of Isaac (Gen. 
xii. 4; «L$J. 

For μακροθυμησαψ SCO ft. 12 note. 

Μτυχιψ rift Areyy.] obtained the 
promise, Vulg. adeptut eet repromi»• 
eionenu The phrase following after 
Ιπαγγαλόμιρος and separated from it 
by μακροθυμήσαψ cannot mean simply 
' obtained from God the assurance of 
a future blessing. 9 It affirms that in 
some sense Abraham gained that for 
which he looked. And in fact Abra- 
ham obtained the fulfilment of the 
promise in its beginning in Isaac, 
born past hope and given to him, 
as it were a second time, and also 
afterwards in Isaac's sons. In part 
however the promise necessarily re- 
mained to be fulfilled in after timo 
(πληθύνων πληθύνω... καί tr σοΙ...), SO 
that through Christ Christians inherit 
it Compare c. xi. 33 ; Rom. xi. 7 ; 
James iv. 2 ; and c. x. 36; xi. 15, 39 

In c xi 39 it is said of the faithful 
fathers ονκ ίκομίσαψτο n)r htayytXia* 
(comp. xL 15). Chrysostom calls 
attention to the apparent contradic- 
tion and solves it : ov ntpl tAp αύτωρ 
ίρτανθά φψτι «<i«ft, αλλά καϊ διπλή* 
ποίΗται τήρ παράκληση. Anryyt ίλατο 
τψ * Αβραάμ, καί τα μίν ίντανθα μ*τα 
μακρορ χρορορ ?ώ»κ*, τα οΊ 4κ*ϊ ovoVir*. 

φ) The fulfilment of the promise 
is doubly assured to us (16—18). 


ri/f iirayye\ias. l6 άνθρωποι yap κατά του μύζονος 
όμνυουσιν> και πάση* αύτοις avrikoytas πέρας «9 /3c- 
βα'ιωσιν ό 6ρκον %1 έν ω π*ρκσσοτ*ρον βου\όμ&νον ό 

1 6 άτβρωνοι MABD/ vg syrr : *Vfy. +μ4*0 me. π. αύτ. irrik. ι π. irrik. αύτ. 
D t # syrr. 17 Α» φι h τψ D a *. τ€ρκτ*6τ<ρο*: •τ4ρωι Β. /3. 6 $.: 6 0. 0. D* 

16—18. The promise which Abra- 
ham received still awaits iU complete 
accomplishment» aod it is oar in- 
heritance, doubly confirmed to u• at 
to him, being a promise, and a pro- 
mise confirmed by an oath. 

In this respect tho character aud 
purpose of a human oath illustrate 
the divine oath. An oath is a de- 
cisive appeal to the highest power 
to close all controversy. Therefore 
in condescension God interposed an 
oath to give to His promise this 
additional pledge of immutability for 
our encouragement 

The argument assumos tho reli- 
gious propriety of oaths.' 

16. &»$ρωποι yap...] For men, 
being men, as mon, not ol Mp. (0. ix. 
27)— swear by the greater... Here the 
main thought is the fact of tho oath. 
The character of the oath («era r. μ.) 
follows from the nature of man. There 
can be no doubt from the context 
that row jMifojOr is masculino (Vulg. 
per majorem tui), and not, as it 
might be (Matt xii. 6 μείζον) neuter. 

For the use of &*6ρωποι, marking 
the nature and not tho class, see 
John v. 41 compared with 2 Tim. iii 
2;Titiii. 8. 

Compare Philo, de eacr. Ab. et 
Cain § 28 (i. 181 Μ.) του πιοπυ&ηροΑ 
χάριν άπιστούμινοι καταφ*νγουσυ> {φ* 

Spxop Μρωποι. Cic. de Offic. iii 31, 


πάσης... ά*τιλ. πίρας f/r β*β.] Vulg. 
omnia eontrovereiaf eorum finU ad 
eonfirmationetn. The oath has two 
results, negative and positive: it finally 
stops all contradiction; and it estab- 
lishes that which it attests. It is on 
the one side an end to all gainsaying 
in the relation of man to man (avroU). 

By an appeal to a higher authority it 
stays the human denial of the state- 
ment which it affirms : 4κ τούτου \vrrai 
πάσης awikoy lot άμφισβήτησις(Οϊΐτγη.). 
And on the other side it issues iii con- 
firmation. The oath which silences 
contradiction confirms that iu favour 
of which it is taken {βιβαίωσις, PhiL 
i 7 ; Wisd. vi 19). For the sense of 
ivriX. see c. vii. 7 (xii 3; Jude 11). 
The sense of 'controversy' (Ex. xviii. 
16; lxx.) is too vague. The issue 
raised is simple and direct (Comp. 
Prov. xviii. 18.) 

Compare Philo, de Somn. i § 2, τα 
ΜοιαζομΛΡα τ** πραγμάτων &ρκω dta- 
κρι**ται καϊ τά άβίβαια βιβοΛονται κα\ 
τά άπιστα warn* \αμβά**ι. 

Ι7• h φ...] wJierein, i.e. in this 
method of appeal to remove all doubt 
aud gainsaying, Ood being minded 
to shew more abundantly to man's ap- 
prehension than by a simple promise.. . . 
UtpiaaoTtpop is to be taken with Ar*- 
fcifu (Acts xviii. 28). The oath was 
giveu to bring homo to mou tlio cer- 
tainty of the divine promise. Compure 
Philo, de Abr. 46 (ii 39 Μ.) φησί, κατ 9 

ίμαυτου Λμοσα, παρ* φ 6 λόγος όρκος 
fori, Awca του lijp biavouxv άκ\ιν*ς κα\ 
παγίως hi μαΚΚορ $ πρστιρορ ίρηρύσΰαι. 

βουλόμβνος] As dfctiiiguisbed from 
efkiw, βούλισθαι regards a purpose 
with respect to something else, while 
uiktip regards the fooling in respect of 
the person himself. ΒονλισΙαι is used 
of tho divine purposo : Matt. xi. 27 
(Luke x. 22); 1 Oor. xii 11 ; James i. 
1 8 ; 2 Pet iii 9. For θ(λ<ι» see Mk. xiv. 
36; Acts xviii 21 ; Rom. ix. 22 ; 1 Cor. 
iv. 19; xv. 38; Col. i 27; 1 Tim. ii. 4; 
James iv. 15; 1 Pet iii. 17; Matt, 
xii 7 (lxx.); Hobr. x. 5, 8 (lxx.). 

τοις κληρ. της Arayy.] The oath to 

VI. ι8] 



0€Of iirifet)£at τοις κληρονόμοι? τη? iwayyeKta* το 
άμβτάθετον τήϊ βονλης αύτον €μβσίτ€υσ€ν ορκω, ,8 iW 
δια δι/ο πραγμάτων άμ€ταθίτων 9 4ν oh αδύνατον -ψεύ- 

Jrtftctfcu : Ινιδάξασβαι Α. 

Abraham was not for himself alone 
even ae the promiso wae not for himself 
alone. It was for him and his seed : 
for the father of the faithful and all 
faithful sons (c. ii. 16). Thus the 
phrase (the heir* of the promt**) 
includes all who under different cir- 
cumstances and different degrees suc- 
ceeded to the promise, the Patriarchs 
(xi. 9), the pne-Chrietian Jews, Christ- 
ians. The immediate application is 
(9χωμ*ρ) to the generation of believers 
represented by the Hebrews who had 
need of the assurance. 

το όμ*τ. rfjt βουλή*] Vulg. immo- 
bilitatem comilii (Old Lat voluntati*) 

The counsel was that of bringing 
universal blessing through the seed of 
Abraham (oomp. Acts Hi. 25). This 
part of the promise has not boon 
directly quoted, but the reference to 
it is perfectly intelligible from 0. 14. 

For tho use of tbo a<y. (το άμ*τ.) soo 
Rom. ii. 4; Titi. 3; 1 Cor. i. 25; 
aCor.iv. 17; Phil.iii.8. 

The word βουλή is used of God 
Luke vii. 30; Acts ii. 23; iv. 28; 
xiii 36; xx. 27; Eph. i. 11 κατά t)p 
β. του θ*λήματος αυτού, 

*μ*σίτ<νσ*ρ ορκψ] Latt interpotuit 
fuejurandum, interposed, as it were, 
between Himself and Abraham with 
an oath: took the position of one 
invoking a higher power. 

Tho oath directly referred to is 
that to Abraham ; but the mention of 
the oath carries the mind of the 
reader to the oath by which Christ's 
Priesthood was confirmed (c. vii. 20 f.). 
Tho promiso to Abraham confirmed 
by an oath is parallol to the promiso 
to Christ— and through Him to Christ- 
ians-— confirmed by an oath. The 
latter oath shews how tho first oath 
was to attain fulfilment. 

W. H. f 

18 βώ β. rp. : μττά ft. ire. D t *. 

Dolitxsch observes that a similar 
thought lies in the prayer of Hesekiah 
Is. xxxviii. 14 (Lord) be Thpu surety 
for me (^«7»). 

Tho word p< σιι -rvf u> occurs here only 
in N.T. It occurs both in Philo and 
Josephus for that which interposes 
between conflicting powers or persons: 
Philo de plant. Nom § 2 (i. 331) ro» 
θ*ίον ρομου...τας τ&ν ipavrlmv (ele- 
ments) άπ<ιλάτ...μ<σιΤ9νο*τος κα\ ftuu- 
t&wtou Jos. AntU vii. 8, 5 ; xvi. 4, 3. 
For μισίτη*, see c. viii. 6n. 

1 8. IMS. . . ίσχ. παρά*, ίχ, ol καταφ.. . .] 
thai... κ* may hate ttrong encourage- 
ment who fled...LiXt ut fortifi- 
mum iolacium habeamu* qui eon- 
fligimue... The whole context sliews 
that παράκλησιρ is to be understood as 
encouragement to maintain with bold- 
nose a position besot by difficulties, 
and not simply passive consolation. 
Tho word occurs again in the Epistle 
c. xii. 5; xiii. 22. 

The opithet (Ισχυρά*) is unusual 
(comp. v. 7 κραυγή Ισχ. [xi. 34]). It 
describes that which possesses abso- 
lute might, and not simply strength 
sufficient for a particular task. Com- 
pare 2 Cor. x. 10; A poo. xviii. 2, 10; 
xix. 6; Lk. xv. 14 (not Matt xiv. 30). 

For the order see ix. 12; and 
distinguish the predicative use in 
vii. 24. 

On 1χ*μ** Chrysostom says with 
true feeling : opf r ότι ου τ^ψ άζίαψ τ^ψ 
iavToto σκοπιϊ άλλ* bwmt τον* άνθρω- 
που* π*1<η§. Comp. ι John ii. ι note. 

δΊλ Wo πραγμ. άμ.] by two immut- 
able thing*, the promise and the oath 
(re. 13, 17). Πράγμα may mean either 
object (c. x. 1 ; xi. 1) or fact, action 
(Acts v. 4; Lukoi. 1). 

4* off ctow. ψ«υσ.] That the promise 
of God should fail is as inconceivable 
as that His oath should fail. He must 



σΌατθαι T deou, ισχνράν παράκΧησιν ίχωμβν οι καταφν- 

ιβ τον 
τον 0. Κ•ΑΟ : om. το* R-BD.. 

(as we speak) fulfil Hie promise: He 
matt fulfil Hi* oath. Oomp. Philo, 
de Soar. Ah. e% Cain § 28 (i. 181 M.) 
ov 8i ορκον πιστός 6 θ*ος αλλά oV avror 
col 4 5peot βίβαιος. For adt/Kiro»' 
comp. vi 4 ; x. 4 ; zL6; and for dftw. 
ψ#νσ. tee Tit L 2; Clem. R. i. α 27 
oMv ddwaror irapa rf ©V φ ft /m) ro 
ψ*ύσασΰαι. For illustrations of the 
'divine impossibility ' see John τ. 19 
note. Aug. de cte. v. 10 Recte quippe 
[Deus] omnipotent dicitur qui tamen 
mori et fulli nou potest. Dicitur oniui 
omnipotent Jaeieudo quod vult, uou 
patiendo quod oon vult; quod ei si ao- 
cideret nequaquam esset omnipotent. 
Undo propterea qussdam non potest 
quia omuipoteus est 

The use of 6 $<<* (*. 17) and 6<6v is 
instructive. In the second case the 
idea is rather that of the nature of 
Qod than of His Personality: 'im- 
possible for Him who is Qod....' 

ol καταφυγ6ντβς κρατησαι...'] ice ¥>ho 
at the decisive moment /erf far refuge 
to lay hold 0/.... Oomp iv. 3 ol 
wumvaams. Every other support 
was abandoned. The word occurs 
again Acts xiv. 6. Delitssch refers 
to two striking passages of Philo: 
Leg. AIL iii § 12 (i. 95) 6 tt forrJo* 
τούτω (who is destitute of feeling for 
the noble) φτύγ*ι μίν άψ εαυτοί κατά- 
φ*νγιι 6* Μ τον των όντων θ<όν. de 
prqf. § 18 (i. 560) fupror ο J* ή πρ*σ- 
βυτάτη... μητρόπολις (among the cities 
Of roftlgo) Bitot iari λόγος ίφ* hv 
πρώτον καταφ•υγ9ΐν ω*φ*λιμωτστον. So 
Olement speaks of Christians as τον* 
προσπ*φ* υγότας τοις οίκτιρμοΐί αύτοΰ 
[του fieyakov δημιουργού καϊ δ«σπ6του 
των απάντων] ha του κυρίου ήμων*ίησου 
Χρίστου (ΐ Cor. 2θ). 

The words κρατησαι τ. προκ. Air. 
appear to be connected in different 
ways both with καταφυγάντις and with 
παράκλησι*. The position of the words 

makes it difficult to separate κρατησαι 
from καταφνγόντ*ς ; and under any 
circumstanoes ol καταφυγσντις would 
be most harsh if taken absolutely. 
At the samo time the exact sense of 
κρατησαι carries back the thought of 
κρατ. της προκ. Ιλπ. to παρόκλησιν: 
'that we who fled for refuge to seise 
the hope may have encouragemeut to 
keep hold on it* 

The idea of κρατησαι is ' to lay hold 
on and cling to that which has been 
so taken.' Soo iv. 14 note. By the 
choice of this word in place oiXafitlv 
or the like, the writer emphasises the 
spocial duty of the Hebrews to keep 
their own by a fresh effort that which 
they had originally felt to be the one 
spring of safety, even the hope based 
on the efficacy of Christ's work, and 
specially of His Priestly intercession, 
whereby the promise of universal 
blessing through Abraham's seed is 

This 'hope' is described as 'lying 
before us ' (comp. c xii. 1, 2), the prise 
of victory (Philo, de tnut, nam. f 14; 
i. 591 M.), open and obvious, as soon as 
we embrace the Faith. It is treated 
as being at once God's gift and man's 
own feeling. It is both an Objective' 
hope and a 'subjective' hope. For 
tho power of hope see Roui. viii. 24. 
Philo makes hope tho characteristic 
of a true man Quod det.put. in$. § 38 
(i. 218 Μ.) §γγράφ§ται γαρ rj θ*οΰ 
βίβλω oVi μόνος tCtXmt (kg. 6 *&*λπιή 
Ανθρωπος* ωστι κατά τα Jvavria 6 6νσ• 
fXirtr ούκ Λνθρωπος, Ορος οϋ**...τον... 
κατά Μωυσην άνθρωπου διάθισις ψνχης 
Μ τον Οντως Οντα θ*6ν ΙλπΙζουσα. 

(e) Tho promise fulfilled in the 
exaltation of the Son of man (19, 20). 

19, 20. The promise has been ful- 
filled for humanity in the Son of man. 
Hopo therefore can now ontor into 
the very Presence of Cod where * Jesus' 

VI. ι 9 ] 



γοκτ€5 κρατησαι της 7τροκ€ίμ€νης i\wiSov * 9 ην ώ* άγκυρα* 
ϊχομβν της ψυχής, ασφαλή Τ€ και βββαίαν και βίεβρχό- 

19 9χομ**: tx»purT) r 

is, a High-priest for ever. 

19l 4* «r*fty«. Ιχ.] Tho hope created 
and sustained by the promise keeps 
the soul secure in all storms (1 Tim. 
L 19). The Anchor, which is not 
mentioned in the Ο. T., Is the familiar 
symbol of hope. Clemont of Alexan- 
dria mentions it ss a dovico on Chris- 
tian rings (Paid. iii. § 59). It occurs 
commonly with the Ιχ6\* on epitaph•. 
And names of hope (Elpis, [HelplsJ 
Elpidius) are very frequent. 

άσφ. τ* καί β*β. καί *1σ<ρχ.] These 
words may refer, as far as the struc- 
ture of the sentence is concerned, 
either to 'hope,' the main subject, or 
to the 'anchor,' with which it is com- 
pared. Patristic interpreters, follow- 
ing Chrysostom, connect them with 
the anchor, and endeavour to lessen 
the harshness of the last predicate 
(ιϊσιρχομίνηρ *U το Ατ• r. καταπ.) by 
drawing an ingenious contrast between 
the earthly anchor which sinks to the 
depths of the sea, and the spiritual 
anchor which rises to the heights of 
heaven (Μκρυσιρ bri καχκη ra αυτή τη* 
άγκυρας ή φύσκ, αύ κάτω πιίζονσα 
βλλ' α\ω κουφίζουσα rifv biavoiav 
Chrys. αρ. Cram. Cat. vii. 522 *). But 
no explanation of the kind can re- 
movo the strangonoss of the imago or 
adapt tho tense of <\σ*ρχομίψην directly 
to the action of the anchor. It seems 
certain then that this clause at least 
must refer to 'hope.' But there are 
still two possible combinations. The 
three predicates may be taken to- 
gether referring to 'hopo' or the two 
first may be closely joined (rt ...«of... 
comp. 0. 4) and referred to 'the 
anchor,' while the third may give 
a second characteristic of hope («Jc 
άγκυρα», . .καί Δσιρχομίτην). In favour 
of this viow, which appears to be taken 
by (Ecumenius and Thoophylact» it 

may be urged that it gives distinct- 
ness to two aspects of hope, its im- 
movable stability, and its penetrative 
vigour. Perhaps however such a 
division is artificial, so that it is best 
to connect tho whole description with 
the principal subject (hope). 

Tho stability of hopo is twofold. It 
is undisturbed by outward influences 
(άσφα\ή*\ and it is firm in its inherent 
character (βεβαία). Comp. ii. 2 note. 
Spes in nobis similitudinem exercet 
anchoro, qu» navem ne ad scopulos 
frangatur retinet, et tutam fadt ut non 
timeat submergi, atquo flrmam ne 
vel titubare possit (Her v.). 

The participle ύσιρχομίρηρ presents 
hope as ever entering afresh into the 
Divine Presence encouraged by past 

fir ro 4σίτ•του καταπ.] Hope enters 
to the innermost Sanctuary, the true 
Holy of Holies, that Presence of God, 
where Christ is (comp. vii 19). The 
καταπ4τασμα was the inner veil sepa- 
rating tho, Holy from the Most Holy 
place (D;p9 Matt xxvii. 51; c x. 
20) as distinguished from the outer 
veil (ΐ|θφ κάλυμμα). The distinction 
of the two is not strictly preserved in 
the lxx. j seo also c ix. 3 μιτά το oWrc- 
pop καταπ4τασμα. Oomp. Ex. xl. 5, 1 9. 

Compare Pbilo ds vii. M. iii. § 5 
(ii. 148 Μ.) ίκ rer αυτών τά re κατά* 
πίτασμα κα\ τα λ*γ6μ*Ρ0Ρ κάλυμμα 
κατισκ€υάζ*το. το μ*ρ «tarn κατά τον» 
τίσσαραψ κίονα* W ίπικρυπτηται το 
ftdvror, το Μ Ιζ* κατά Tovt ircirv...: 
and so § 9. See also ds gig. § 12 (i. 
270 M.) for a spiritual interpretation. 

Hope, like the anchor, is fixed on 
the unseen: Nautls arenas quibus 
anchora figitur et hroret sunt tcct» 
neo videri possunt» et tamen nautsa 
sunt in seouritate, licet ilia videre non 

1 Tho printed tozt of tho Homily is manifestly imporfoot. 



M&4HN etc TO 4cJ»T6p0N TO? KATAnCTACMATOC, *°#nOU ffpodfO/LtO? 

ύττ€ρ ημών ei<rr)\6ev Ίησους, kata* tAn taIin Μελχκελέκ 
dpftiepevv <γβνόμ6νο* eic ton ajgjna. 

possint quibus anchor» braohia fir- 
miter adbassere. Sic et not in hujus 
smutt fiuctibus podti ceelestia nan 
videmus, ot tamen illis ita per spem 
conjunct! mmui ut nullo timoris in- 
cunu moveri possimus (Herv.). Com- 
pare Primasius: 8pes interiors vela- 
mini• ponetrat dum per menUa con- 
templationem future, bona oonspicit» 
dum csslestia prssmia absque alia 
dubitatione credit eibi provenire, 
sperat» amat» operibusque ostendit 
quid credai ot quid speret 

20. Hope enters where ' Jesus'— the 
Son of man— has entered as the fore- 
runner of redeemed humanity, on our 
behatfivwip ήμ&*\ to make atonement 
and intercession for us, and, yet more, 
to prepare an entrance• and a place 
for us also. Conip. John xiv. 2. 

Thus to the fulfilment of the typo of 
the High-priest's work anothor work 
is added. Tlie High-priest entered 
the Holy of Holies on behalf of the 
people, but they never followed him. 
Christ enters heaven as forerunner of 
believers. Oomp. x. 19 ff. Upoitpa- 
fitr ba rota Aro/MiOvf ίΐσαγάγυ (Euth. 

The word πρόδρομος was used 
especially of the men or troops which 
were sent to explore before the ad- 
vance of an army. Oomp. Wisd. xii. 8 
(Ex. xxiii. 28). In Num. xiii. 21 (22) it 
is used, in a different connexion, of the 
earliest fruits. 

The use of the word *UnjkB*¥ fixes 
attention on the fact of Christ* s en- 
trance into the Holiest— the transi- 

tion from the soon to the unaoou— and 
not on His continuance as our High- 
priest within tho Veil (c. ix. 28). 

For Mp ήμ*ν compare ix. 24; ii. 
9 (vwip irairoff). 

Ίησους.,.άρχ. ytvoptvos] The human 
name of the Lord, placed emphatically 
at the end of tho scntonco (soo c iL 
9 note), is here used (oontrast 6 χμστά* 
0. v. 5) in regard to His High-priest- 
hood, in order to connect it definitely 
with the fulfilment of His work on 
earth, whereupon He became a High- 
priest for ever. 

The order of words in the last 
clause, κατά τη* ταξ. Μ. άρχ. ytr., is 
emphatic. 8tress is laid upon the 
fact that Christ is High-priest after a 
new and higher order. He does there- 
fore all that tho Uigh-priost did and 
mora Oomp. vii. 11,15; **ώ contrast 
v. 10 (v. 6; vii. 17). 

From this passage it is clear that 
the eternal High-priesthood of the 
Lord 'after tho order of Melchisedek/ 
King and Priest, followed on His 
exaltation to the throne of God in His 
glorified humanity (comp. v. 9 f.; vii 
28). At tho same time this view does 
not exclude the recognition of the 
Lord's Death as a priestly act whereby 
He once for all offered Himself (vii. 

c It r&y Mva] Etiam in future [are- 
culo] pontificis agit opus, non tunc 
pro peccatis nostris offerens, que 
nulla erunt, sed ut bonum quod in 
nobis operatus est indeficiens et stabile 
permanoat (Herv.). 


Additional Note on vi 1 — 8• 

In considering this passage eereral points must be kept in mind. Conddera- 

1. The apostasy described is markod not only by a decisive act fJJSjJJffiie 
(n-qpairc σόιτα;), but also by a continuous present attitude, a hostile relation interprets- 
to Christ himself and to belief in Christ (άνασταυρουντας, παρα&ίίγματί- tion of the 
(oprat). P" 81 * 6 • 

2. Thus there is no question of the abstract efficacy of the means of 
grace provided through the ordinances of the Church. The state of the 
men themselves is such as to exclude their application. 

3. The case is hypothetical. There is nothing to shew that the 
conditions of fatal apostasy had been fulfilled, still less that they had been 
fulfilled in the case of any of those addressed. Indeed the contrary is 
assumed : vv. 9 ff. 

4. But though the case is only supposed it is one which must be taken 
into account It is possible for us to see how it can arise. The state of a 
man may become such as to make the application to him of the appointed 
help towards the divine life not only difficult but impossible. 

5. Such a condition is noticed elsewhere c x. 26 f.; comp. c. iil 12; 
1 John v. 16 (note). 

And the frame of mind is recognised not only in relation to apostasy, 
but in relation to the first reception of the Gospel : Matt xii. 31 (ij του 
πρβύματοψ βλασφημία), when the spirit, through which man has the power of 
approach to the Divine, becomes itself rebellious and defiant 

6. Compare also Gal. v. 4 (κατηργηΰητι* άπο Xptarov); Rom. xi 21 
(των κατά φύσιν κλάδων ουκ *φ<ίσατο); 1 Tim. iv. Ι (άποστησορταΐ ww τη* 
πίστ«ύς) ; I Tim. vi. ΙΟ (απ*π\α»ηΘησαν άπο Ttjt πΙστ*ως) ; 2 Pet. ϋ. 20 ; 
John χν. ι ff., 6 (ίβλήθη ?( ω, ιξηράνθη, KaUrat). In these passages various 
aspects of the sin and its consequences are indicated, which answer to the 
responsible action of man and the fulfilment of the divine law of retri- 

7. The analogy of human life furnishes an illustration of the general 
idea. A second birth is inconceivable : but a restoration to life is not so. 
This however does not come within the ordinary view. So it is in the 
spiritual life. A re-birth is impossible, yet even here a restoration to life 
may be accomplished. 

The passage was variously interpreted in early times. Tbrtullian, Some 
representing the sterner (Montanist) view, held that it declared that all Patristic 
who had fallen away from the faith, either by temporary apostasy or by ^ίίοηβ?" 
gross sin, were cut off from it for their whole life, without possibility of 
readmission on repentance : de Pudie. xx. Hoc qui ab apostolus didicit et 
cum apostolis docuit, nunquam mcecho et fornicator! secundam poenitentiam 
promissam ab apostolis norat 

In the earliest stage of the Novatianist controversy the words do not 
seem to have been quoted. Novatian himself does not refer to the epistle. 


In the fourth century and onwards however it was pressed by 
those who held his views (comp. Theodoret ad loo.; Athanas. Ep. ad 
Serap. iv. § 13 ; Hieron. adv. Jovin. ii. 3 ; Ambros. ds Pom. ii. 2 §§ 6 ff.). 

But this opinion and this use of these words found no favour in the 
Catholic Church. On the contrary the Catholic writers limited the 
meaning of the passage to the denial of a second baptism. 80 among 
the Greek Fathers. 

AtHAHA&IUS (/. C.) μίαν thai τήν ανακαίνισα δια του βαπτίσματος καϊ μή 
δεύτερον αποφαίνεται. 

ΕΡΙΡΗΑΝΠΓΘ {ΗοθΤ. lix. 2, p. 494) τψ μίν δντι τους &παζ άνακαινισθβντας 
καϊ παραπισόντας ανακαινίζω» αδύνατον. ούτε γαρ rri γιννηθηστται Χρωτός 
uta σταύρωση ύπίρ ημών' ούτε άνασταυρουν δυνατοί τις τον υΐον τον θ*ον τον 
μηκέτι σταυρού μ* νον ' odrt δυνατοί τις λουτρδν δ*ύτ*ρον λάμβανα*' iv γαρ 
4στι το βάπτισμα καϊ tU 6 τγκαινισμάς. 

CHBYS08T01I {ad IOC.) τί οΖν ; ίκβίβληται ή μετάνοια ; ούχ ή μετάνοια' μι) 
γένοιτο' άλλ'ό δια λουτρού πάλα* άνακαινισμός. ου γαρ άπεν αδύνατον άνακαι• 
νισθηνοι ch μετάνοια* καϊ Μγησεν, αλλ' *ιπων 'αδύνατον' επήγαγιν 'άνοστου- 
ρονντας\..ο hi λίγα τοντό Am* το βάπτισμα σταυρός ίστι' σννεστανρωθη 
γαρ 6 παλαιός ήμων άνθρωπος.... 

TheoDOBGT : των άγαν αδυνάτων, φησίν 9 τους τγ παναγίω προσ*ληλυ- 
θάτας βαπτίσματι...αΖΒις προσ€λ$«ϊν καϊ τυχαν Μρου βαπτίσματος' τοντο γαρ 
ουδέν forty ετ*ρον fj πάλιν τον υΐον του Β«ού τφ σταυρψ προσηλωσαι. 

(EoUMBNIUB: τί oZvj εξ*βαλε rijv μετάνοια* ; μη γίνοιτο.,.άλλα τήν δια 
βαπτίσματος μετάνοιαν...οΒίν καϊ €ατεν ' άνακαινίζιιν' &π*ρ ίδιον βαπτίσματος. 

ΒϋΤΗΥΜΙϋΒ ZlG. : τί οΖνι ίφίβληται ή μίτάνοια; μη γίνοττο' *1πων γαρ 
'*ίς μετάνοιαν' ουκ ίστη μίχρι τούτου άλλ* 4πηγαγ€ν ' άναστανρουντας ίαυτοϊς 
τον υΐδν του $€ου,* δια μετανοίας, φησίν, άνασταυρούσης τ6ν Χριστόν.,.το [yap] 
βάπτισμα σταυρός ίστιν.,.ωσΊπρ οΖν α*παζ αλλ* ου δεύτερον ίσταυρώβη ο 
Χρίστος ούτως απαζ αλλ* ου δεύτερον χρη βαπτίζ^σθαι. 

And among the Latin fathers : 

Ambrosb (de Pamit. ii. 3) : De baptismate autem dictum verba ipsa 
declarant quibue eignificavit impossibile esse lapsos renovari in poenitentiam, 
per lavacrum enim renovamur...eo spectat ut de baptiemo dictam credamus 
in quo crucifigimus filium Dei in nobis.... 

Possum quidem etiam illud dicere ei qui hoc de poenitentia dictum 
putat, quia quae impossibilia sunt apud homines possibilia sunt apud 

Sed tamen de baptiemo dictum, ne quis iteret, vera ratio persuadet 

Pbiuasius : Quid ergo ? exclusa est poenitentia post baptismum et 
venia delictorum Ϊ Absit Duo siquidem genera sunt posnitentise, unum 
quidem ante baptismum, quod et proeparatio baptism! potest appellari... 
altomm autem genus poenitentise quo post baptismum delentur peccata 
quam beatus Apostolus minime ezcludit 

This specific and outward interpretation of the words is foreign to the 
scope of the passage, and indeed to the thought of the apostolic age ; but 
none the less it presents in a concrete shape the thought of the Apostle. 
It brings out plainly that there can be no repetition of the beginning. 


The force• which in the order of divine providence «re fitted to call out 
frith in the tint instance, end to communicate life, are not fitted to recreate 
it when it has been lost There can be no second spiritual birth. The 
powers which are entrusted to the Christian society are inadequate to 
deal with this last result of sin ; bat the power of God is not limited. 
Oompare Additional Note on 1 John τ. i& 

Hnvmns (reading renovari) emphasises the moral impossibility from 
the human side with singular power and freshness : Non...Montani vol 
Novati hmresim hie approbamus qui eontendunt non posse renovari per 
pcBnitentiara eos qui crudfixere sibimet filium Dei. Sed ideo impossibile 
ease dicimus ut tales renoventur quia nolunt renovari. Nam si vollent, essot 
utique possibile. Quod ergo renorari nequeunt non est excusatio infirmi- 
tatis eorum sed culpa voluntatis ipsorum qui malunt veteres perdurare 
qeara renovari.. .sicque fit ut ad penritentiam redire non valeant...Quales 
et in monasteriis hodie sunt nonnulli, habentes quidem speciem pietatis 
virtutem antom ejus abnegantes, et ideo poBnitentiam agere non possunt, 
quia do solo oxtoriori habitu gloriantar et sanctos se esse putant quia 
sanctitatis indumentum portent 

Additional Note on vi 12 : The Biblical idea of 
'inheritance 9 (κΧηρονομία). 

The group of words κληρονόμοι (i. 2 ; vi. 17 ; xi. 7), κληρονομά* (i. 4, 14 ; Use in the 
vL 12 ; xii. 17X and κληρονομιά (xi. 8) is characteristic of the Epistle. The wx. of 
idea of ' inheritance' which they convey is in some important respects 
different from that which we associate with the word. This idea finds a clear 
expression in the lxx. from which it was naturally transferred to the Ν. T. 

The word κληρονόμος is rare in the lxx. It occurs only in Jud. xviii κ\ηρο*6μο$. 
7; 2 8am. xiv. 7; Jer. viii. 10; Mic. i. 15 (Jer. χϋχ. 1 8ymm.) as the 
rendering of βη&\ and in Ecclus. xxiii 22. 

Κληρονομιά and κληρονομιά are rery frequent The former word occurs kXioopo/uii• 
about 140 times and 100 times as the rendering of ehj, and 18 times as the ^^ ηρο 
rendering of ?Π}. 

The latter word occurs more than 180 times and about 145 times as the 
representative of n^qj and about 17 times as the rendoring of derivatives 
of eh». 

The fundamental passage which determines the idea is the promise to κΧηρονο- 
Abraham Gen. xv. 7, 8 bovvol σοι τ)ν γην ταντην κληρονομήσω (following on *•*• 
ee. 3, 4 κληρονόμησα μ*) ; xxii. 1 7 κληρονόμησα το σπίρμα σον to* iroXcit 
των vwwvarrlw. Comp xxiv. 60 ; xxviii. 4. 

Hence the phrase κληρονόμων rrjv ytjp is used constantly of the occupation 
of Canaan by the Israelites : Lev. xx. 24 ύμ*» κληρονομήσω τ)ν γψ σύτων 
κσ\ iym οωσω ύμϊν αντήν iv κτήσα : Deut iv. I, 5, 14 *«• ί ***• 5 ; Jos. i. 15 ; 
Jud. xviii. 9; Neh. ix. 15, 22 ff.; Obad. 20; and that also with a distinct 
reference to the destruction of the nations in possession of it : Num. xxL 35 ; 


Deutii.24,31; ix.i;x«L3. The land belonged to the Lord and He ga?e 
it to Israel (Pa civ. (cv.) 44X In the Psalms this ' inheritance of the land • 
assumes a spiritual colouring aa the privilege of the righteous : Pa, xxi?. 
(xxv.) 13 ; xxxvi. (xxxfil) 9, 1 1 (Matt ?. 5), etc.; and in the second part of 
Isaiah the idea finds its complete fulfilment in the Messianic age : la li? . 
3 ; ML 13 ; lx. 21 ; lxi. 7 (Ac kvripai «λ. r. γ.); lxiii. 18 ; Ιχτ. ο. 

The word κληρο*ομ*ΐ» is used even where the absolute claim urged by 
violence is unjust: 1 K. xx. (xxi.) 15 ft (oomp. 2 K. x?il 24; Pa lxxxiL 
(lxxxiii.) 13; la xiv. 21; Ksek. [vii. 24; xxxiii. 25]); and also where it 
expresses a rightful mastery used for a necessary destruction (Hoa ix. 6; 
Eaek. xxxvi. 12 ; Zech. ix. 4). 

In all these cases κληρονομΰν answers to K^J. As the rendering of ^TJJ 
it is used of the possession of Oanaaa (Ex. xxiii. y>\ of inheritance generally 
(Jud. xL 2), and metaphorically (Pa cxviii. (cxix.) in; Prov. iiL 35 ; xiii. 22 
aya$6t Αήρ κληρονόμησα νΐονς vlmp). 

Oomp.Ecclus.iv. 13; vi. ι; x. 11 ; xix.3; xx. 25; xxxvii. 26; 2 Maoc. 

κ\ηρο- The senses of κληρονομιά correspond with those of κληρο*ομ*ι*. It is 

with.. used for an allotted portion, a possession, an inheritance (Num. xxi?. 18; 
xxvii. 7 ; xxxri. 2 ft; Deut ill 20; Pa ii. 8 ; exxri. (cxxviL) 3 η* ιληρονομία 
Kvptov viol). The land itself is 'a possession* of the Lord : Jer. ii 7 (oomp. 
iii. 19). Two particular uses of the word require to be noticed : God is 
the κληρονομά of His people, and His people are His κληρονομΙα. The 
former usage is rare. In a peculiar sense Qod is spoken of as the 'inheri- 
tance '— ' portion '—of the Levites: Num. xviii. 20; Josh. xiii. 14; Esek. 
xliv. 28; but the same privilege is extended also to Israel: Jer. x. 16; 
xxriii. (IL) 19. On the other hand the thought of Israel as the 'inheritance' 
—'portion'— of God extends throughout the Old Testament: Deut xxxiL 9; 
1 8am. x. 2; xxvi. 19; 28am. xiv. 16; xx. 19; xxi. 3; 1 K. viil 51, 53; 
Pa xxrii. (xxriii.) 9; xxxii. (xxxiii.) 12 ; lxxiii. (lxxiv.) 2, &c.; la xix. 25 ; 
xlrii. 6; lxiiL 17 ; Jer. xii. 7 ft; Joel ii. 17 ; Mia vii. 14. 

In all these cases κληρονομιά represents Π7Μ which is much less 

frequently rendered by κλήροψ and μίρις. In Deuteronomy however God 

is spoken of as the κλήρος of Levi (x. 9) ; and Israel as the κλήρος (ο. ix. 29 ; 

xviii. 2) and μίρις (c. ix. 26) of God. Oomp. Ecclus. xxiv. 12 ; xlv. 22 (?). 

Biblioal From tiiese examples it will appear that the dominant Biblical seuse of 

idea of 'in- 'inheritance' is the enjoyment by a rightful title of that which is uot the 

beritanoe.' f m \t f personal exertion. The heir being what ho is in relation to others 

enters upon a possession which corresponds with his position ; but there is 

no necessary thought of succession to oue who has passed away (yet see 

Matt xxi. 38 and parallels; Lk. xii 13). An inheritance, iu other words, 

answers to a position of privilege and describes a blessing couforred with 

absolute validity; and an heir (κληρονόμος) is one who 1ms authority to 

deal with, to administer, a portion, a possession (κλήρος). 

The principle that 'inheritance is by birth and not by gift 9 (Ariat Pol, 
v. 8) has a spiritual fulfilment When God 'gives' an inheritance (Acts 
vii. 5 ; xx. 32) it is because those to whom it is given stand by His grace 
in that filial relation which in this sense carries the gift 


In the N. T. the words are commonly need m connexion with the Use in the 
blessing (1 Pet iii. 9) whicn belongs to divine eonship, the spiritual Ν. T. 
correlative to the promise to Abraham (Rom. iv. 13 fc; viii. 17; GaL iii. 18, 
29; iv. 1, 7; comp. c vi. 12, 17; xi. 8). The son of God as son enjoys 
that which answers to his new birth (comp. Matt v. 5; Eph. i. 14, 18; Col. 
iii. 24). This is described as 'eternal life' (Matt xix. 29 ; Tit iii. 7 ; comp. 
Mk. x. 17; Lk. x. 25; xviii 18), or 'the kingdom of God' (1 Cor. vi. 9 f. ; 
xv. 50; Gal v. 21; comp. Matt xxv. 34; Eph. v. 5; James it. 5), or 
'salvation' (c i. 14), 'an inheritance incorruptible' (1 Pet i. 4; comp. 1 
Cor. xv. 50), 'the eternal inheritance' (c. ix. 15X Under one aspect it is 
realised through conflict (Apoc. xxi. 7). 

This ruling sense illustrates the use of the word in the other connexions 
in which it is found. Esau vainly sought to 'inherit the blessing' (c xii. 17) : 
he had lost the character to which it belonged. Noah in virtue of his 
faith 'became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith' (c. xi. 
7): faith produced in him its proper fruit The Son as Creator was 
naturally appointed 'heir of all things' (c. i. 2); and in virtue of His work 
'He hath inherited' in His glorified humanity 'a name more excellent than 
angels' (c. i 4). 



[VII. ι 

VII• 'OJrov yap ό Μελχιεελέκ, BAciAefc ΣδΑΛμ, lepefc τογ θβογ 

ι d (α -warr.) 0*: θ» (ewwr.) KABD, (appy. a primitive error). 

III. Thi ohahaotbristiob of 


(c. vii.). 

The last words of the sixth chapter 
offered a twofold thought, which the 
writer of the Epistle now works out 
in detail, going back, after the solemn 
digression of c vi., to the subject 
announced in α τ. ία The priestly 
office of Christ is after the order of 
Melchizedek (1); and after this order 
He is High-priest for ever (2). 

The main object of the section is to 
shew that there were in the Ο. T. from 
the first indications of a higher order 
of Divine Service than that which 
was established by the Mosaic Law; 
and that these found a perfect reali- 
sation in Christ, a Son, perfected for 

(1) The office of Christ after the 
order of Melchizedek (vii. 1—25). 

In these verses no mention is 
made of the High-priesthood. The 
writer deals with the general con- 
ception of priesthood as exhibited in 
Scripture. He marks (a) the charac- 
teristics of Melchisedek (1—3); and 
then (b) determines the relation of 
Melchisedek to the Levitical priest- 
hood (4 — 10) ; and lastly (c) compares 
the Levitical priesthood with that of 
Christ (11— 25)1 

(a) Characteristics of Melchizedek 


The Apostle (a) notices the positive 
facte related of Melchizedek ; the de- 
scription of his person ; of his meeting 
with Abraham; of Abraham's offer- 
ing (ι, 2a) ; and then (β) indicates the 
significance of his character from the 
interpretation of his titles, King of 
Righteousness, King of Peace, and 
from the features in his portraiture 
which can be deduced from the silence 
of Scripture (26, 3). 

1 For this Melchizedek, king of 
Salem, priest of God Most High, who 

met Abraham as he was returning 
from the slaughter of the kings and 
blessed him, *to whom also Abraham 
divided a tithe of all— being first by 
interpretation king of Righteousness 
and then also king of Salem, which 
is king of Peace, * without father, 
without mother, without genealogy, 
having neither beginning of days nor 
end of life, but made like to the Son 
ofQoa\—abideth a priest perpetually. 

1, 2a. The historical facts as to 

1. ovrof γάρ] The particle is ex- 
planatory and not strictly argumenta- 
tiva The writer purposes to lay open 
how much is included in the phrase 
κατά rd$iy Μ<\χισίδ4κ, to which he has 
again returned. 

The connexion is obvious if the 
sentence is at once completed: ovtqs 

(c. vL 20) γαρ Μ μίν<ι Uptvs iff rb 

διη*€κ4ς. Christ is spoken of as High- 
priest for ever after the order of 
Melchizedek, for Melchizedek offers a 
figure of such an abiding office, inas- 
much as he abides a priest without 
successor. The antitype however goes 
beyond the type (άρχι*ρ€νς, *U top 
αΙώνα, as compared with Icpcur, f Is το 
dtypfcc'r). See Additional Note. 

βασιλά* Ζαλήμ] Q^, like θύφ, is 

properly an a4j. sound, at peace, but 

is used (as tibtf) here as a subst., 

peace. (So Philo Leg. Alleg. iii. 25; 
i. p. 102 M.) 

The locality of the place does not 
in any way enter into the writer's 
argument The Jewish tradition of 
the Apostolic age appears to have 
identified it with Jerusalem (Jos. Antt. 
I 10, 2; B. J. vi 10; and so Targ. 
Onk.; comp. Ps. lxxvi 2). 

In the time of Jerome Salem was 
identified with Salem, near Scytho- 
polis, where the remains of Melchize- 
dek's palace were shewn. 

VII. 2] 



τογ Wcroy, -f-^-j- cynantMcac * Αβραάμ γποετρέφοΝτι ind tAc kottAc 
toon BaciA&on jcai eyAorHCAC αυτόν, *φ και Ack^thn Ατό πώ*τωΝ 
ίμίριστν 'Αβραάμ, πρώτον μ€ν έρμηνευόμβνοϊ Βασιλεύς 

ι, 9 αύτ6*.. 'Αβραάμ : D f * «Wr cat 'Αβραάμ eVKoyrfitU ϋπ' αύτοΟ 6 (βίο) κα2 ier. 
*tb>rur J /ι. [aftryT). 

9 dro irdrTMr 4μ4ρι*€Ψ : ίμ4ρισ*τ άπό vdrrtm Κ. rtlmer : rarrtft Β. *Λ/3ρ•: 
+r«rp4fxiff syrhl. 

(lepra) του tfcoO τον υψίστου] Gen. 
xiv. i8(|vta ^identified with Jeho- 
vah 9. 22. The epithet does not mark 
a relation to inferior deities, but the 
absolute elevation of the Lord. It 
occurs again Num. xxW. 16 (Balaam); 
Dent xxxii. 8 (Song of Moses) ; and in 
the Psalms. It is found also in 
Phoenician inscriptions, and (with the 
corresponding /wit.) in the Pomulue 
of Plantus (v. l ι Alonim valunoth). 
The title occurs elsewhore in the Ν. T. 
Mk. τ. 7 (B Lk. viiL 28); AcU xri. 17. 
Oomp. Lk. L 32, 35 ; Acts vii. 48. 

It is to be remarked that there are 
elsewhere traces of a primitive (mono- 
theistic) worship of El in Phoenicia 
side by side with that of Baal, the 
centre of Phoenician polythoism. 
Oomp. (Ebler, Theol of Ο. T. L 
90 f. (Eng. 7V.). 

6 συναντήσαψ. . .νποστρίφοντί]. . .who 
nut... a* he woe returning, Latt qui 
obviamt...regret$o (Gen. χίν. 17, lzx. 
pura τ6 ύποστρίψαι as in Hebr.). 
The time was that of the fulnoss 
of Abraham's disinterestod victory. 
Probably the pre: part, is chosen 
to mark this thought, which is loss 
clear in the original phrase. Compare 
Philo, θιασάμ*** inamorra κα\ too- 
ναιοφορονντα (de Abr. § 40)• 

In Oon. xiv. 17 f. it is said 'The 
king of Sodom went out to meet him 
...and Melchixedeky king of Salem, 
brought forth bread and wine.... 9 
Since the latter detail is omitted here, 
the former, which is included in it, is 
tightly applied to Melchisedek. For 
9ν*ηπψβ see Lk. ix. 37; xxii. 10; 
Acts x. 25. 

άπο τηψ κοπής] Gen. xiv. 1 7 ; Dent 

xxviii. 25; Josh. χ. 2a KoinJ (not 
elsewhere in Ν. T.) and the original 

phrase (nttfJlp) may mean only 'the 

smiting,' «the defeat' 

€υλογήσας] By the act of blessing, 
Melchisedek at once assumed the 
position of a superior. And Abraham 
on his part freely acknowledged Mel- 
chizedek's implied claim to superiority, 
and divided to him a tithe from all 
the spoil which he bad taken (0. 4V 

26, 3. The historical details as to 
Melchisedek baring been given, the 
writer of the Epistle goes on to in- 
terpret the Scriptural narrative so far 
as it affects the riew of Melchisedek'e 
character and person absolutely. He 
points out its bearing on his position 
in relation to Abraham and the Levi- 
tical priests in the next section. 

Melchisedek'e typical character is 
shewn to be indicated positively by 
what is said of him, and negatively by 
what is not said. 

Tbusthreodistinct features are noted 
in which Melchisedek points to Christ 
(i) His immo find title: King of Right- 
eousness and Ring of Peace (2) His 
isolation from all priestly descent, as 
holding bis priesthood himself alone. 
(3) The absence of all record of his 
birth and death. 

In other words the record of Mel- 
chisedek points to Christ in character, 
in office, in person (nature). 

The clauses are not simply in ap- 
position with the subject but are pre- 
dicative : ' Melchisedek. . .as being, 
first by interpretation... as being pre- 
sented to us...remaineth.' 

20. πρ&το* pjp...tir«tra &i] being 


Δικαιοσύνης irretra & και BaciAeVc ΣααΛμ, # itrrtv Βασι- 
λ6ΐ)ί €ιρηνης, ι άπάτωρ, άμητωρ, ά<γβν€αλάγητος, μητβ 

6) κ*1: om. *αί me. 

Jlrjf fty the interpretation of hi• name 
JEtn^ QfRighteousne$$ t and then aleo 
(bj his dominiou) JTtiif 0/ &fan, 
which i* t King of Peace. His personal 
name and the name of hie city are 
taken to correspond with the actoal 
traits of hie character. 

ipWMv4t€Mf]Thesiinple form (com- 
monly μ*θ*ρμη*.) ocean elsewhere in 
Ν. T. John L 44 (43) (* *•«*>; 

fkurtkcvt δικαιοσύνης] Jo•. A •/". vL 
ΙΟ McXg. ό τ$ νατρία γλάσσγ κ\ηθ*\* 
βασιλ# vr dfcaior . 

ο\καωσύνης...€ΐρ^ρης] The order in 
which the word• occur is significant 
Righteousness must come first Com- 
pare Rom. τ. i; xiv. 17; Pa lxxii. 3 
(Hebr.); lxxxv. ίο; Is. xxxii. 17; 
Jamos ill 18; α xil 11. Both are 
characteristic of the Messianic times 
(Is.ix.i- 7). TheoneaspeotisgiTenin 
Ps. χίτ. 4 ft : Jer. xxiii. 6; xxxiii. 15!; 
Dan. ix. 24; Mai. iv. a; and the other 
in 1 Ohron. xxii. 8 ft; Mic. v. 5. 
Theodoret (and others) notice how 
both graces perfectly meet in Ohrist 
for the blessing of humanity: avros 
yap [6 xpwros] Am κατά top απόστολο* 
ή ΜΪμηρη ήμ*ν (Eph. ϋ. 1 4), αυτά* κίκλη- 
το4 κατά top προφήτηρ δικαιοσύνη ήμ** 
(Jer. xxiii 6). 

Compare Bernard, Serm. de div. 
xix. 4, Tu, homo, noli prius rapere 
quod tuum est, et justitiam quam 
Deo et pacem quam proximo debet 
oontemnere (the reference is to Rom. 
xiv. 17). 

The genitive in each case (βασ. 6uc, 
βασ. tip.) expresses the characteristic 
of the sovereign: he is a 'righteous- 
ness-kiug,' a 'peace-king/ one in 
whom and through whom righteous- 
ness and peace are realised. Com- 
pare Jer. xxxiiL 15; Is. ix. 6. 

hftira &#...] The personal character 

of the priest-king leads to the notice 
(Ircira οΊ *a/) of the kingdom which 
he administered: being righteous in 
himself he kept peace under his 
& Am*] Mk. viL 34; and with /«&/>- 

μην*υομ*νον Mk. V. 41 ; XV. 22, 34, 

Comp. Lk. xii. 1 \ OaL ir. 24 1 

There is no exact parallel in Scrip- 
ture to this kind of use of names, 
which is common in Philo (comp. 
Siegfried, ss. 190 ft). The nearest 
approach to it is perhaps in John ix. 
7 2<λ»4μ (h Ιρμη¥*ύ*ΤΜ *A**f σταλ/ΜΡΚ ). 
But the importance attached to names 
in the 0. T. sufficiently explains it 
Comp. la viii. 1, 18; ix. 6. (Bhler, 
0. T. Theology, § 88. 

3. The delineation of Meloliisodek 
is expressive also negativoly. The 
silence of Scripture, the c hara cter- 
istic form, that is, in which the nar- 
rative is prosonted, is treated as hav- 
ing a prophetic force. Melchisedek 
stands unique and isolated both in 
his person and in his history. He is 
not connected with any known line: 
his life has no recorded beginning or 

Philo not unfrequently draws argu- 
ments from omissions in the Biblical 
narrative. Examples are given by 
Siegfried, Philo von Alewndrien, 
179 : e\g. Quod deU poL ineid. § 48 
(L 224 M.). 

άπ. άμ. όγιν.] Vulg. tin* poire, Mine 
matre, Mine genealogia. The Posh, 
renders these words by a paraphrase : 
'whose father and mother are not 
written in genealogies. 9 

The words (awdrup, Αμητωρ) were 
used constantly in Greek mythology 
(«I. of Athene and Hephmstus); and 
so passed into the loftier conceptions 
of the Deity, as in that of Trismegistus 
quoted by Lactantiue (iv. 13): ipse 


άργην ήμβρών. μητ€ ζωής τ€λθ9 βχων, άφωμοιωμβνο? $€ 

enhn pater Dens et origo et princi- 
phun reram qaonlam parentibus caret 
hf&rmp atqae άμήτ*ρ a Trismegisto 
verissime nominator, quod ex nnllo sit 
procreatus. This familiar usage was 
suited to suggest to the readers of 
the Epistle tlio nature of the divine 
priest shadowod out in the type. The 
word άμήτνρ is used by Philo of 8orth, 
De ebrv*. § 14 (i. 365 M.); and in 
Euripides Ion speaks of himself as 
Αμήτωρ awarup re γιγως (Ion 109). 

Philo in a striking passage (De 
Prof. § 20; i. 562 M.) describes the 
Levites as being in some sense 'exiles 
who to do God's pleasure had left 
parents and children and brethren and 
all their mortal kindred': ογοΰνάρχψ- 
γ4ττμ του θιάσου τούτου, he continues, 
Xfymv ιΙσάγτταΛ τψ πατρΧ κα\ τη μητρί 
Ούχ Μρακα ύμας καϊ novr Α&ιλφονς ου 
γιηΐσχ» κα\ toU vlott awoyumaum 
νπιρ του d /χα μίΰολκητ 6*pawtvtur το 
fo. The words throw light on Lk. 
xiv. 26. 

In the case of the Jewish priests 
a Levitical (Aaronic, Num. xvi. xvii.) 
descent was required on the father's 
side, an Israelitish, on the mother's. 
(Comp. Esra ii. 61 f.) 

άγίνιάΚόγητον] without genealogy, 
without any recordod lino of ancostors. 
He did not trace back his claims to 
the priesthood to any forefather (comp. 
0. 6). Perhaps the word (which is not 
found elsewhere) suggests, though it 
does not express, the thought that he 
had no known descendants, and was 
not the author of a priestly Una 

Compare: Subito mtrodudtur sicut 
et Elias (Primas.). 

μι}™ Αρχ. ήμ. μητ€ ζ. τ. ϊχ*ρ] Scrip- 
ture records nothing of his birth or of 
his death, of the beginning of a life of 
manifold activity (Αρ. ήμ*ρ** 9 comp. 
v. 7), nor of the close of bis earthly 
existence. Nothing in the phrase 
indicates a miraculous translation or 
the like. The silence may perhaps 
seem to be more significant, since the 

death of Aaron is described in detail : 
Num. xx. 22 ff. 

άφ*μοΐΦμ1*ος r. vL r. A] Non dicitur 
Filius Dei assimilatus Melchisedeko, 
sed contra, nam Filius Dei est antl- 
quioretarchotypus(Bengel). SoTheo- 
doret : A» u«r τούτου rviror, ovrot W 
του τύπον ή Αλή6\ια. The truth is of 
general application. The physical, 
the historical, is tho limited repre- 
sentation of the spiritual, the eternal. 

The choice of the participle in 
place of ipowt shews that tho resem- 
blance lies in the Biblical representa- 
tion and not primarily in Melehisedek 
himself. The comparison is not be- 
tween Christ and Melehisedek, but 
between Christ and the isolated por- 
traiture of Melehisedek; and that in 
regard to the divine Nature of tho 
Incarnate Son (τψ vlf του 0cov), and 
not to His human Nature in which He 
both was born and died, nor even to His 
official dignity (τψ χριστή). It is not 
however implied that the record in 
Genesis was purposely designed to 
convey the meaning which is found in 
it, but that the history sketched by 
prophetic power has the meaning. 

Perhaps tho remarkable variation 
in the language, which cannot be 
mere rhetorical ornament (μήτ* Αρχ. 

ήμ. μψι ζφήί rAor, not μήτ* Αρχήν μήτ* 
τίΚον f»?r), may point to the fact that 
the Son of God was (in His Divine 
Naturo) beyond time, while the human 
life which Ho assumed was to be 
without end. Compare Theophlct: 
6 χριστός.. Mm 6*ος...αΊ«ιρχος κατατήν 
τον χρύρου Αρχήν c / καϊ top πατίρα ξχι ι 
Αρχή* κα\ αίτιον. 

&φωμ.] Latt ammilattu(t%milatu$) 
made like to. The word, which is 
found in the best authors, does not 
occur elsewhere in N. T. Ep. Jerem. 
4, 62, 70. 

On the likeness Primasius remarks 
(following Chrysostom): In hoc est 
similitudo quod nee illius (Melch.) 
nee istius (Chrieti) initium legitor vel 


τω υιω του θβον, μένει tcpeVc €1? τό ityveices. 


finis : illius quia non est scriptum ; 
istius autem quia omnioo non est 

τψ vlf rot* 6W) The choice of this 
name here emphasises that aspect of 
the Lord's person which was typified 
by the absence of all notice of the 
birth or death of Melchisedek. See 
i?. 14; vi6; x.29. 

ftfVfi Uplift fir ro oupeicf'r] f°t- 

maineth a print perpetually, Latt 
manet eaeerdoe in perpetuus The 
use of the phrase *h ro οΊηψ. for *is row 
al»va marks his priesthood as con- 
tinued to the end in his person with- 
out break. He had no successors 
(so Theodoret rightly explains the 
words : ίπ*ώήη*ρ ιή» 1*ρωσν¥ην ov παρ- 
Ινιμψι* ih «afar), and no provision 
for a successor to him is recorded in 
Scripture. He therefore abides a 
priest 'perpetually/ 'for ever, 1 not 
literally but in the Scriptural por- 
traiture. This is one of the points in 
which 'he was made like to the Son 
of God.' 

The idea that the perpetuity of his 
priesthood lay in the fact that it was 
continued in Ohrist (man**... non in se 
sod in Christo. Primes.) destroys the 
parallel; and the structure of the 
whole paragraph absolutely forbids 
the application of this clause to any 
other than the Melchiiedek of the 
record in Genesis. 

tir ro Λβκ] See α χ. ι note. The 
phrase does not describe absolute per- 
petuity, duration without end, but 
duration continued under the condi- 
tions implied or expressed in the par- 
ticular case. Thus it is said App. 2?. C. 
I. § 4, δικτάτωρ fir ro di^mcrr jjptfy. 
Ci Pun. viii. § 136. Heliodor. JBth. 

L § 14 φυγί fir το διηνικίς Ιζημ'ιωσα*. 
Here no limit is marked negatively or 
positively, and the phrase simply ex- 
cludes interruption in Melchizedek's 
tenure of his office. No one takes it 
from him (comp. e. 8). Such a con- 
dition is equally satisfied by his actual 
continuance for ever, a supposition 

excluded by the circumstances; or by 
the typical interpretationof the silence 
of the record. 

(0) The relation of Melchiiedek to 
the Levitical priesthood (4—10). 

Having discussed the historical no- 
tice of Melchisedek in itself, the writer 
goes on to consider his priesthood in 
relation to that of the Law. In doing 
this he first notices 

(a) the general position of Melchise- 
dek (4); and then gives in detail his 
points of superiority 

(0) in respect of Abraham, whom 
he both tithed (5, 6a), and blessed 
(60, 7); and 

(y) in respect of the Levitical 
priosts, who exercised their functions 
as dying men (8), and in Lovi their 
head implicitly paid tithes to Mel- 
chisedek (9, io)t 

« Now consider how great this man 
was to whom AbraJtam gave a tithe 
taken out of the chief spoils, Abraliam 
the patriarch * And while those (the 
priests) sprung from the sons of Levi, 
on receiving the pries?* office, have 
commandment to take tithes from the 
people according to the Law, that is 
from their brethren, though they have 
come out of the loins of Abraham, • he 
whose genealogy is not counted from 
them HthedAbraham,andblessed him 
that hath the promises. ' But witl* 
out any gainsaying the less is blessed 
by the greater. • And while here 
dying men receive tithes, there one of 
whom it is witnessed tluU he Uveth. 
9 And, so to say, through Abraham, 
Levi also who receiveth tithes is 
tithed; lo for he was yet in the loins 
of his father when Melchixedek met 

4. The general superiority of Mel- 
chisedek over Abraliam, the great 
father of Israel, is stated summarily. 
The artificial order of the words em- 
phasises the idea which they convey, 
the last phrases taking up in a more 
striking form what has been said 

VII. 5] 



ρέΐτ€ ii πηλίκο* ούτος φ τ λβκΑΤΗΝ 'AbdaAu Αοομν 4κ των 
άκροθινίων ό πατριάρχη*. *καϊ οι μίν 4κ των νιων Aevcl 

4 «* 

&€*άττρ BD f # qyrvg me :+καΓ far. ΓΚΑΟ vg syrhl. 

4 »ΐ|λ. oflrot : φλίτοι D f •. 

before (dfKrfnpr * Αβραάμ... 1 κ των άφο- 
6urlmp y ό πατριάρχης). 

It is assumed throughout that the 
receiver of tithe is greater than the 
giver of tithe : in tho case of tbo lees 
familiar blessing this superiority is 
affirmed (0. 7). 

$9ωρ*7τ€ bf\ Now consider... Yxug. 
intuemini (O.L. videtis, videte) autem. 
Tho structure of tlio whole passage 
shows that the verb is an imperative 
and not an indicative. The word itsolf, 
which oxprcesoe tho regard of atten- 
tive contemplation, is frequent in the 
historical books of the N.T. but is not 
found elsewhere in the Epistles except 
1 John iii. 17. Tlio particle b* marks 
a fresh beginning. The general pic- 
ture claims detailed study. Oomp. 
viili; zi. 1. 

&*κάτην...7οωκ**] The offering ap- 
pears as tho spontaneous recognition 
of the dignity of Melchisedek. 

/κ των άκροθ.] Vulg. de prafcipnu. 
0. L. de primitives (primiliis)..., 
Syr. the tithes and firstfruits. The 
tithe was of the whole (άπο πόντων 
e. 2), and it was taken from the 
choicest of the spoil. Tho άκροθΐηα 
were specially the part of the spoil 
which was offered as a thank-offering 
to the gods: Herod, viii. 121 f. 

πηλίκοί] Latt quantue (Aug. quo- 
lie). The word is used properly of 
magnitude in dimension : GaL vi. 1 1 ; 
Zech. ii. 2 (6) (τλχ.). Comp. 4 Mace. 
XV. 21 myX/icmr κα\ πόσαιψ βασάνοιψ. 

' Consider how great was this priest- 
king, to whom... 1 The ovrot looks 
back to w. 1—4; And the greatness of 
Melchisedek is not first inferred from 
Abraham's gift 

ο πατριάρχης] Abraham. . .Abraham 
the patriarch. Tho title of honour 
stands emphatically at the end of the 

sentence. It is used again Acts ii. 29 
(of David) and Acts vii. 8 f. (of the sons 
of Jacob) and several times in the 
Books of Chronicles of 'the chiefs of 
the fathers' (1 Chron. ix. 9 CompL; 
xxiv. 31, Λα) and 'captains' (2 Chron. 
xxiii. 20), but not elsewhere in lxx. 
The first thought is of Abraham as 
the father of Israel ; but beyond this 
ho is the father of tho whole family of 
faith: Rom. iv. 11 f. 

Quasi dicerot» Quern vos excellen- 
tiorom omnibus hominibus aastimatis, 
hie decimas obtulit Melchisodech qui 
in figure Christi pneoessit (Primas.). 

5,6a. This is the first of the special 
marks of superiority by which tho 
priesthood of Melchisedek was dis- 
tinguished. The Levitical priests 
tithed their brethren : Melchisedek, a 
priest of another race, tithed Abraham 
their common father. His priesthood 
was absolute and not a priority in the 
same family. 

5. eel of /it* Ac r. vt Λ....λαμ0.] 
'And to come to particulars (vv. 8,9), 
while the descendants of Levi on re- 
ceiving (or, a» receiving) the priest- 
hood...' The phrase is capable of seve- 
ral interpretations. The wbolo may 
form a compound subject, ' they <*« των 
vl A that receive the priest's office'; 
or the second part may be predica- 
tive, 'they tie των vf. A., as (on) receiv- 
ing the priest's office.' And again, 
tho preposition «*« may be deriva- 
tive (' those who traced their descent 
from'), or partitive ('those from a- 
mongO. The parallel clause 6 μ) 1( 
αντων ytv. appears to be decisive in 
favour of the 'derivative' sense of <V, 
and to favour the predicative inter- 
pretations of leper. Χαμβ. 

At the same time the description of 
the priests as descended 'from the 




την Upariay λαμβάνοντες έντολην ίχουσιν άττο$€κατοΐν 
τον \αόν κατά τον νομον % τοΰτ 9 ίστιν τον? αδελφού? 
αυτών $ καίπερ έξβληλνθόταν έκ της όσφύο? Αβραάμ• 

5 άποδ€κατ<£ρ BD, # : -roGy ΓΚΑΟ. 

6>tV*t D t # . 

sons of Levi ' and not ' from Levi ' or 
'from Aaron' ia remarkable. By the 
use of thie phrase the writer probably 
withes to carry back the thought of 
the Mosaic priesthood to its funda- 
mental idea. Levi and his descen- 
dants represented the dedication of * 
Israel to Qod with all the consequent 
duties and privileges which were after- 
wards concentrated in priests and 
High-priest Thus the phrase will 
mean 'those who traciug their descent 
from a dedicated tribe witnessed to 
the original destiny of Israel.' 

The same thought appears to under- 
lie the titles characteristic of Deuter- 
onomy 'the priests, the Levites' (xvii. 
9, 18; xviii. 1; xxiv. 8; xxvii. 9), * the 
priests, the sons of Levi ' (xxL 5 ; xxxL 
9). Comp. Josh, ill 3; viii. 33. 

n)* Up. Χαμβ.] Vulg. $acerdotium 
accipienUs* This phrase (as distinct 
from UpaT€vorr€s) brings out the 
thought that the office was specifically 
committed to them. It was of ap- 
pointment and not by nature. Comp. 
Bcclus. xlv. 7• 

'Uparia (-Wa) occurs in Ν .T. only here 
and in Luke L 9. In relation to J«/m»- 
σύνη (c. ?ii. 11 n., 12, 24) it expresses 
the actual service of the priest and 
not the office of priesthood. The 
tithes were given to the 'children of 
Levi' 'for their service/ Num. xviii. 
21. Oomp. Ecclus. xlv. 7, 20: irparcv- 
tu>, Luke i. 8 ('to perform the priest's 
office'), 1*ράτ€υμα 9 ι Pot it 5, 9 ('a 
body of ministering priests 1 ). 

ivr. ίχονσικ] In this case the claim 
to the tithe rested on a specific ordin- 
ance («ατά top *όμον). Abraham spon- 
taneously recognised Melohizedek's 

άπο&κατοϊ» τον λ.] The Levites 
tithed the people (Num. xviii 2 1 ff.)and 

paid a tithe of this tithe to the priests 
\uL vv. 26 ft). The priests can thus 
be said to tithe the people as claiming 
the tithe of the whole offering (comp. 
Tob. L 7 ft). They represented the 
right in its highest form, just as they 
represented in its highest form the 
conception of a body consecrated to 
the divine service. 

The word άτοάβατά» (οιχατό»), 
which seems to be confined to Bibli- 
cal and ecclesiastical writers, is used 
both of 

(1) The person claiming the tithe 
from another («Wofo*. rue). 1 Sam. 
viii. 15, 17; Noh. x. 37; and of 

(2) Tho person paying the tithe 
(dwod. η). (Jen. xxviii. 22 ; Dout xiv. 
21; xxvi 12; Matt xxiii. 23; Luke 

'AaOoWrf νω is found Lk. xviii. 12, 
Atffarc v« is a classical word. 

The peculiar form ArooWrott', which 
is given by BD, # , is supported by κατα- 
atajyolvliltL XUL 32 ; Mk. iv. 32 ; φιμοϊ» 
ι Pet iL 15; and similar forms which 
occur in inscriptions e.g. στ*φα*»* } 


This form, it may be observed, goes 
to confirm the writing 4 $ub$cr, in the 
contracted infinitives Αγαπφ» &o. β». 

«ατά τον νόμον] The right which 
the Levities! priests exercised was iu 
virtue of a special injunction. They 
had no claim beyond that which the 
Law gave them. 

voir ά&4\φονς...καίιτ*ρ ίξί\η\νΰότα{ 
...] The priesthood gavo a real pre- 
omiuouce, but still it did not alter the 
esseutial relationship of all Abraham's 
descendants. Nor did its claims ex- 
tend beyoud them. We might have 
expected naturally that the right of 
tithing (like the privilege of blessing) 
would have been exercised only by one 


6 ο ie μη γενεαΧογούμενος 4ξ αυτών $ε$€κάτωκεν 'Αβραάμ, 
και τον έχοντα τάς επαγγελίας €YA(JrHKeN. 7 χωρίς δε 
πάσης άντιλογίας το εΚαττον ύπο του κρείττονος βι/λο- 
γεϊται. *και ω$ε μεν λβκΑτ&ο αποθνήσκοντες άνθρωποι 

6 'Αβρ. KBCD/: +τ*τ' 'Αβρ. ΓΑ. 
1$\6γη*€Ρ Α. 

superior by Wrth. Hore however the 
office itself established a difference 
among brethren. Thus the two clauses 
taken together indicate the dignity of 
the Levitical priesthood, and at the 
same time the narrow limits within 
which the exercise of its power was 
confined. This priesthood rested 
npon a definite and limited institution. 
For Ac τηψ 6σφυο9 see Gen. χχχτ. 1 1 


6. & σι μι) ycwiX. **£ «?.] he whose 
genealogy it not counted /torn them, 
Le. the sons of Leri (v. $). Vulg. 
eujue autem generatio nan adnu- 
meratur in eis; O.L. qui autem 
non enumeratur de hie. The claim 
of Melchisedek to the priesthood rest- 
ed on no descent but on his inherent 
personal titlo. 

Ήρμήνινσ* bi κα\ rb AytvtaX 6γητοΐ. 
c*{ ovtAp ybp ffftrr το* ΜιΧχισΜκ μι) 
γινιαΚογιϊσΦαι. brjXop toIwvp 4t iicuvof 
ov* ΑΚηθΑψ λγα*α\6γητοτ <!λλ& κατλ 
tvwop (Thdt). 

&4&*κάτ*κ§ν...*υ\σγηκ9ρ] 9. Ο, Μ<κά- 
rmroL• The fact is regarded as per- 
manent in its abiding consequences. 
It stands written in Scripture as hav- 
ing a present force. 

The use of the perfect in the E- 
pistle is worthy of careful study. In 
every case its full force can be felt 

L 4 κ*κ\ηρο*6μηΚ€9. 

— 13 <ψηκ<Ψ % iv. 4. 

Η. 14 Κ€κοΐΡΐίνηκ*ν...μ*Τ€σχ*ρ. 
Hi. 3 W*rai. 

— Ι+γιγόρομβρ. 

iv. 2 4σμ*ν τύηγγ*\ισμίνοι. 

— 1 4, 1 5 δκ λι^λ νώτα. . .π*π*ιρασμίρΌΡ. 

vil 3 &φ*μοι*μί*θΐ. 

— 13 μ*τ4σχη**ρ. 

W. H. f 

ri\6yiK*rXB t rid\&YJKtrI>S: riX&yiptw 0, 

vil 14 imrfrukitfw. 
viu. 5 ΜχμημΑτισται. 

— 6 τίτυχιψ. 

ix. 18 ipKMttalptoraL 

— 26 π*φαρ4ρωταί, 
Χ. 14 rrrffXff lmK€P. 
xi 5 μ*μαρτύρητω. 

— 17 προσ*νήνοχ€Ρ> note, 

— 28 πατοίηκιρ. 
xiL 2 «f xoAftffr. 

— 3 arojiffMitfKora, nol*. 

col...cilX^yi|feffv...] Melchisedek re- 
ceived tithes: he gave a blessing. This 
exercise of the privilege of a superior 
is a second mark of preominonoe ; and 
ho exercised it towards one who as 
having the promisee might have seem- 
ed to bo raised above the acceptance 
of any human blessing. 

7. x*p\t Μ π. άρτ....] Bui with- 
out any gainsaying.., Vulg. Sine uUa 
autem contradietione (0. L. contro- 

rb 1\....του κρ....] The abstract form 
offers the principle in its widest appli- 
cation. Oomp. xil 13. 

8 — 10. Melchisedek was superior 
to Abraham : he was superior also to 
the Levitical priests generally. This 
is shewn both by the nature of tho 
priests themselves (e. S\ and by tho 
position which tho common ancestor 
occupied towards Abraham {g, 10). 

8. «d «Sot pfr...fcri d/...] And, 
further, while here, iu this system 
which we see,...(A*r#, in that remote 
and solitary example... 

The «Mc refers to that Levitical 
priesthood which was nearer to the 
writer's experience than Melchisedek, 
though the latter is the immediately 




[VII. 9. io 

λαμβάνουσα, itcei $€ μαρτυρούμβνοτ οτι ζφ. 9 και ως 
twos eiireiv $ hi 'Αβραάμ και Aeveh ό δεκάτας λαμβάνων 
$€^€Κ(ίτωται $ Ιβ 1τι γαρ iv τγ όσψνϊ του irarpo* ην 8τ€ 

9 «*»*>: flwOMy. 

Atvrt Κ•ΒΟ«, Aci* A: Acvcf K»D t •, And Γ. 

preceding «object So ouror is uaed: 
e.g. Actsiv. ii. 

Under the Mosaic Law dying men 
(ArooVifo-corrfr &*ΰρωποι\ men who 
were not only liable to death, mor- 
tal, bnt men who were actually seen 
to die from generation to generation 
enjoyed the righto of priest*. For 
such an order there is not only the 
contingency but the fact of succession. 
While Melohisedek was one to whom 
witness is borne that he liveth. (Both. 
Zig. μαρτυρονμβνος Μ b*a τον σ«σιγήσ- 
Oat τή» τ*\*ντη* αύτου.) The writer 
recurring to the exact form of the 
record m Genesis, on which he has 
dwelt before (v. 3), emphasises the 
met that Melchisedek appears there 
simply in the power of life. So far 
he does not die ; the witness of Scrip- 
ture is to his living. What he does 
is in Tirtue of what he is. 

With μαρτνρονμ*νος or* (Latt tW 
autem contestatur quia... Aug. qui 
testificator se vivere) compare α xi 

4 (ϊμαμτ. fli>at bU.); id. 5 (μ*μαρτ. 
€ναρ*στηκ€ται). Philo, Leg. Atteg. ill 
§ 81 (L 132 Μ.), Μωνσψ αρχιι μαρτν 
ρσνμιρον οτι ίστί «ήττο? 2λφ τψ οΖκφ. 

dtKOras] The plural is used here 
aud v. a, as distiuguishod from tho 
singular in w. 2, 4, to express the 
repeated and manifold tithings under 
the Mosaic system; or perhaps tho 
many objects which were tithed. The 
former interpretation is the more 
likely because in 00. 2, 4, the reference 
is to one special act 

9, 10. It might be said by a Jewish 
opponent: But Abraham was not a 
priest : the priesthood, with its pecu- 
liar prerogatives, was not instituted in 
his time. Ύί s-oor rovs Upias ήμων 
el 'Αβραάμ &*κάτην loWxcr,• (Ohrys.). 

The answer is that Abraham included 
in himself, as the depositary of tho 
divine promise and the divine blam- 
ing, all the forms, as yet undifferen- 
tiated, in which they were to be em- 

9. «ol...6V 'Αβραάμ... Μ*κάτωται\ 

And through Abraham, as tho repre- 
sentative of the whole Jewish people, 
Levi also... is tithed. Vulg. Et...per 
(August propter) Abraham et Levi 
...decimatus est. The descendants 
of Abraham were included in him, not 
only as he was their forefather physi- 
cally, but also because he was the re- 
cipient of tho divine promises in which 
the fulness of the race in its manifold 
developments was included. Aud Levi 
includes his descendants in his own 
person just as he was himself included 
in Abraham 

It .must be observed that Levi is 
not represented as shariug in tho act 
(&€κάτηρ 76Wmv), but in tho conse- 
quences of the act passively (6c6c«a- 
τωται, Latt decimatus est). Tho act 
of his father detorminod his relation 
to Melchisedek, just as if Abraham 
had made himself Melchisedek's vas- 

»f iirot ciwuv] Vulg. ut ita dictum 
sit. V. L. quemadmodum dicam 
(Aug. sieut oportet dicers). 

This classical phrase does not occur 
elsewhere in the N.T. or in lxx., but 
is found in Philo {e.g. De plant. Norn 
*• 353 M.X It serves to introduce a 
statemeut which may startle a reader, 
and which requires to be guardod from 

ία Ire yap iv rj οσφύϊ...] Oomp. 
v. 5 i&k. Ik rift 6σφ. The repetition 
of the phrase, which occurs again in 
the N.T. only in Acts ii. 30, empfaa- 

VIL ίο] 



rises the idea of the real unity of 
Abraham's race in the conditions of 
their earthly existence. By this 
teaching a mystery is indicated to ns 
into which we can see but a little way, 
a final antithesis in oar being; we 
feel at every tarn that we are depen- 
dent on the past, and that tho future 
will depend in a large degree upon 
ourselves. This is one aspect of life, 
and it is not overlooked in Scripture. 
At the same time it does not give a 
complete view of our position. On 
the one side our outward life is condi- 
tioned by our ancestry: on the other 
side we stand in virtue of our ' spirit' 
in immediate, personal connexion 
with God (c. xiL 9). Each man is at 
once an individual of a race and a new 
power in the evolution of tho race. 
He is born (Traducianism), and also 
he is created (Creationism). Comp. 
Martensen Dogm. § 74. Additional 
Note on ir. 12. 

του πατρός] The context in the ab- 
sence of further definition, requires 
the sense 'his father' (not 'our 
fathor'). Abraham, who was the 
father of all Israel (Luke L 73; John 
viii 53, 56; Acts vii 2; James ii. 21; 
Rom. iv. I, 12, ό πατήρ ήμωρ) 9 can be 
spoken of also as the father of Levi in 
particular, through Isaac and Jacob. 

(e) The Levitical priesthood and 
the priesthood of Christ (11—25). 

Having interpreted the type of an 
absolute priesthood, independent of 
descent and uninterrupted by doath 
(v. 3) offored in the record of Melchi- 
xcdok, and having pointod out the 
thoughts to which that history might 
guide a student of the O.T., in respect 
of the later priesthood of the Law, 
the writer goes on to consider in de- 
tail tho characteristics of tho Lovitical 
priesthood and of the Law which it 
essentially represented in relation to 
the Priesthood of Christ The Le- 
vitical priesthood (generally) was in- 
capable of offecting that at which a 
priesthood aims, the 'perfecting' of 
the worshipper; an end which tho 

Priesthood of Christ is fitted to 1 
This is established by the fact that 
the Levitical priesthood was, 

(a) Transitory : a new Priesthood 
was promised (11— 14) ; and 

(β) Temporal, as contrasted with 
that which is eternal, universal (15— 


While on the other hand the new 
Priesthood is 

(a) Immutable: confirmed by an 
oath (20 — 22) ; and 

(0) Uninterrupted : embodied for 
over in the One Priest (23—25). 

Briefly, if we regard the argument 
in its bearing on the Gospel, the notes 
of Christ's Priesthood after the order 
of Melchisedek are that it is : (1) New, 
(2) effective, (3) sure, (4) one. 

The argument turns mainly upon 
the nature of the Levitical priesthood, 
but the Law is involved in the Priest- 
hood The abrogation of the one 
carries with it tho abrogation of the 
other. If the Hebrews came to feel 
that Christ had superseded the priests 
of the Old Covenant, they would soon 
learn that the whole Law had passed 

Throughout It is implied that if 
Molchiaedek was greater than Levi, 
then a fortiori Christ was, of Whom 
Melchisedek was a partial type. 

%t Now \f there had been a bringing 
to perfection through the Levitical 
priesthood, for under it the people 
hath received the Law, what further 
need would there have been that en- 
other priett should arise after the 
order of Mekhixedek and be styled 
not after the order of Aaron? "For 
when the priesthood is changed, there 
is made also oj necessity a change of 
law. * For He of whom these things 
are said belongeth to another tribe, 
from which no man hath given at- 
tendance at the altar. "For it is 
evident that our Lord hath risen out 
of Judah, as to which tribe Moses 
spake nothing of priests. n And what 
we say is get more abundantly evident 
if after the likeness of Mekhixedek 
12 — 2 


cyNHNTHceN Α^τφ Μελχιοβλέκ. M €ί /U6P ow τβλβίωσΊϊ 

ίο ΜΛχ. KBO*D,•: +s' Μ«λχ. ΓΑ. ιι tl : f 0. 

<A«r* ariseth another priest, ''wAo 
λαώ ton ma<i0 imX q/tor tft* too <^a 
coma/ commandment but after the 
power of an indissoluble life; vfbr 
it is witnessed of Him, 

Thou art a priest for ever, 
After the order of Melchizedek 

* For there is a disannulling of a 
foregoing commandment, because oj 
its weakness and unprofitableness — 
t9 for the Law made nothing perfect — 
and a bringing in thereupon of a 
better hope, through which we draw 
nigh to Ood. M And inasmuch as He 
hath not received Hie office without 
the taking of an oath— "for while 
they (the Levitical priosts) have been 
made priests without any taking of 
an oath, He was made with taking of 
an oath, through Him that saith to 

The Lord sware and will not re- 
pent Himse\f, 
Thou art a priest for ever— 
m by so much also hath Jesus become 
surety of a better covenant **And 
while they have been made priests 
many in number, because they are 
hindered by death from abiding with 
men» H He, because He abideth for 
ever, hath His priesthood inviolable. 
* Whence also He is able to save to 
the uttermost them that come unto 
God through Him, seeing He ever 
liveth to make intercession for them. 

ii — 14. The Levitical priesthood 
and the Law, which it represented, 
were alike transitional and transitory. 

It is assumed that the object of the 
Law was to bring or to prepare for 
bringing the people to 'perfection': 
divine legislation can have no other 
end. The priesthood, on which the 
Law rested, embodied its ruling idea. 
And conversely in the Law as a com- 
plete system we can see the aim 
of the priesthood. The priesthood 

therefore was designed to assist in 
bringing about this ' perfection.' 

If then there had been a bringing 
to perfection through the Levitical 
priesthood — if in other words there 
had been a bringing to perfection 
through the Law— there would have 
been no need of auothor priesthood. 
If on the other hand the whole Law 
(ailed to accomplish that to which it 
pointed, then so far also the priest- 
hood failed. Such a failure, not a 
failure but the fulfilment of the divine 
purpose, was indicated by the promise 
of another priesthood in a new line. 

II. f Ι μ*ν ovv...$9...rit fri χρ*ία... 

Xiyta&u ;] Now if there had been a 
bringing to perfection. . .what further 
need would there havebeen..J Υ \ug. Si 
necessarium...t Tho argument starts 
from tho line of thought just laiddowu. 
Before the Levitical priesthood was 
organised auothor typo of priesthood 
had been foreshown. But if the utmost 
object of a priesthood — of a divine 
provision for man's progress to his 
true goal— had been capable of attain- 
ment under the Mosaic order, what 
need would there have been that 
another priest should arise and that 
this now priest should be styled after 
a different order f Experience how- 
ever proved its necessity. The Levi- 
tical priesthood was, and was proved 
to be, only provisional It could not 
effect that to which it pointed. This 
conviction was expressed by the 
Psalmist when he recalled tho earlier 

The conditional form (ci...$i'...W* 
In xptia. . .;) may be rendered either ' if 
there had been (which was not the 
case) what further need would there 
have been (as in fact there was) Γ or 
1 if there were (as is uot the case) what 
further need would there be (as there 

VII. 12] 



ha της AeveiTiKtjs \*ρωσννη* ην, ό \aos γαρ έπ' αι/τι;* 
ν€νομοθέτηται 9 tis έτι χρ^ία κατ^ tAj τ&ιν Μελχκελέκ 
trepov άνιστασθαι iepeA «cai ου κατά τΑν τ&ιν 'Ααρών 
λ€γ€<Γ0αι; ** μ€τατιθ€μένη^ yap της Ίβρωατννης 4ξ ανάγκης 

om. jrB. 

*r' aMf KABOD/: *r' a*r» Γ. 

Ρ9*ϋμοθ4τηται : -nyro δ". 

it) Γ The former raits the context 
bett Oomp. e. It. 8 Additional Note. 

For the use of μΐρ o3p without any 
W afterward•, soo c ?iH. 4 ; Acts 1. 6; 
it 41 ; xWi. 4; 1 Oor. vL 4, 7; Phil. 
Uf. 8. 

δια r^r Acvftrinyf l*p.] The word 
Actw crcffof appears to have been formed 
by the writer. It is not found in the 
lxx, nor is it quoted from Josephus, 
Philo or the Apostolic fathers. The 
use of this title (as distingnished from 
'Aaronic': κατά τηρ τάξατ 'Aapmp) illus- 
trates the desire of the writer to 
regard the priesthood as the concen- 
tration (so to speak) of the hallowing 
of the tribe (0. 5 note). 

The word 1*ρ*σύρη occurs in the 
N.T. onlj in this chapter (re. 12, 24 
[14 icpfWD. It is rare in the lxx, 
and found there only in the later 
books. As distinguished from UparSa 
(•9(a) (©. 5 note) it expresses the ab- 
stract notion of the priestly office, as 
distingnished from tho priestly service. 
Tho words aro not distinguished in 
the Versions. 

ο λαότ γόρ...ρ<ρομο6.] Vitlg. poptdtts 
enim sub ipso... legem accepit. The 
efficacy of the Law may justly be 
represented by the efficacy of the 
priesthood, for the people, called to 
be the people of God (0. 5), hath 
received the Law, retting on it (the 
priesthood) ae its foundation. For 
this use of Μ with gen. see Luke 
iv.29. The general sense is expressed 
more naturally in English by * under 
it 9 as the forming, shaping power. 
The temporal sense (Matt L n) has 
no force here. 

For 6 λαό? comp. c ii. 17 note. 

This use of the passive (νηομοΐέτ?• 
rot comp. viii 6) corresponds directly 
with the active form popoforttp run 
(Ps. xxiv. (xxv.) 8; cxvill. (cxix.) 33)5 
as it is found also in Plato, answering 
to ρομ. rim. The Law is regarded as 
still in force (χ. 1 ; ix. 6). 

Wr In xptla...\*y*aBcu;] The expli- 
cit words of the Psalmist at once 
separate the new priest from the 
former line. He was styled 'not after 
the order of Aaron/ The tn marks 
that the want was felt after the 
Levities! priesthood had been estab- 
lished. The change was found by 
experience to be required, and it was 
described long before it came to pass 
by one who lived under the Law and 
enjoyed its privileges. 

The negative (ov) belongs to the de- 
scriptive clause and not to Xfyta&u. 

For άρίστασύαι see Acts iii. 22 ; vii. 
37. By tho use of krtpop (not άλλο») 
the two priesthoods are directly com- 
pared to tho exclusion of all others. 
Contrast iv. 8 (ircpl SKkqt 4μ.). 

12. μ9τατι$.γάρ...γΙριταί\ For when 
the priesthood is changed... Tho yep 
may refer to the main thought of «. 1 1 
or to the parenthesis (4 Xafo yrfp...). 
The former connexion appears to be 
the more natural. The change of 
priesthood involves the change of 
Law. Such a change must have been 
called for by an overwhelming neces- 

The change of the priesthood is 
presented as the transference, the 
removal, of the priesthood from one 
order, one line, to another : transla- 
tum estsacerdotiumdetribu in tribum, 
de sacerdotali videlicet ad regalem 



καΐ νόμου μετάθεση yiverat. %ι ίψ w yap λβγβται 
ταύτα φνλης ετέρας μβτέσχηκβν, αφ' fc ovieh προσβσ- 
χηκ€ν τψ θνσιαστηρίω 9 ** πρόδηλο ν yap ότι έξ Ιούδα 

13 om. col ιφιβν Β. 13 Mytrai 1 Myci D t *. προτέσχηκπ MBD S : νρονίσχ** AG. 

(Primasius). The 'removal' of the Law 
is more complete: c xii. 27. This 
change is considered in the abstract 
(ρόμου μ*τά$*σν); and the use of the 
pre*, partic. (μη-ατιώμΑφ ) makes the 
two processes absolutely coincident 
(this thought is lost in the Vulg. 
translate enim). 

13. 4φ % t>v γαρ λ. r.] Latt ill quo 
*ntm...Thig clause goes back to v. 11, 
the intervening verse 12 boing treat- 
ed as parenthetical. The necessity 
there spoken of lias been recognised 
and met The promise in the Psalm, 
with all its consequences, has been 
fulfilled; /or He to whom these divine 
words are directed... For ty' fa comp. 
Mark ix. 12 f. : tls ήρ *. 14 note. 

μιτίσχηκ*»] Latt (de alia tribu) e$t. 
The choice of this word points to the 
voluntary assumption of humanity by 
the Lord. It is not said simply that 
He was born of another tribe: He was 
of His own will so born. Compare ii. 
14 0**r«<rx«*); and for the perfect v. 6 

The use of Mpat appears to place 
the royal and priestly tribes in signi- 
ficant connexion and contrast 

The Qloeea Ordin. (following Chry- 
sostom) draws a parallel between the 
tribe of Judah and tho Lord. Intuere 
mysterium : primum fuit regalis [tri- 
bus Iud»l postea facta est sacerdo- 
talis. Sic Ohristus rex erat semper ; 
sacerdos autem factus est quando 
carnem suscepit, quando sacrificium 

It was not unnatural that some 
endeavoured to claim for the Lord a 
double descent from Levi as well as 
from Judah. Comp. Lightfoot ou 
Clem. 1 Cor. 32. 

προσίσχηκ** τω 0νσιαστ•] hath given 
attendance a*.. .Latt (alt.) pronto fuit, 

For προσιχα» compare α iL 1 note. 
From the sense of 'giving attention to,* 
that of practical 'devotion* to an ob- 
ject follows naturally : 1 Tim iv. 13 ; iii. 
8 (τψ οϊρψ). The statement applies 
only to the regular legitimate service 
of the altar and does not take account 
of any exceptional acts, as of the royal 
sacrifices of David and Solomon. 

14. πρόοηλο* yap...]For it is openly, 
obviously, evident to all... Comp. 1 
Tim. v. 24 f. Tho word wpobjkot 
occurs several times in Clem. 1 Cor. 
cc. 11, 12,40, si. 

ii 'Ιούδα] out (/the tribe of Judah. 
Compare Apoc. v. 5 ο λ/ω* 6 i* της 
φυλής *Ιονδα. 

These arc tho only two passages in 
the N.T. in which the Lord is definitely 
connected with Judah except in the 
record of the Nativity (Matt iL 6 ii 
Micahv.2). The privilege of tho tribe 
is elsewhere concentrated in its repre- 
sentative, David (2 Sam. vil 12; Jer. 
xxiii. 5; Pa exxxtt. 11 ; Luke L 32; 
Rom. L 3). Comp. Gen. xlix. 8 ff. 

Here the contrast with Levi makes 
the mention of the tribo nocossary. 
The Lord traced His descent from the 
royal and not from the priestly tribe. 
There is no direct mention in this 
Epistle of the relation of the Lord to 

It is important to observe that the 
writer affirms here most plainly the 
true manhood of the Lord (comp. v. 7 
ft). Like St John he combines the 
most striking testimonies to His divine 
and Human natures. 

There is nothing to show in what 
exact form he held that the Lord's 
descent from Judah through David 
was reckoned : whether as the legal 
representative of Joseph, or as the 
Son of Mary, who was herself known 


άνατ€τα\κ€ν ό κύριο? ημών, c<? ην φνλην πβρί iepewv 
ovbev Μωυση* έλαληατεν. ts Kai wepurcrotepov €τ« κατά- 
ΰηλόν ίίΓτιν 9 €i κατΧ τΜν ομοιότητα Μελχιεελέκ άνίσταται 

ι 4 rfpl lep. oteb (K)ABO*D t # : oboh νς/Λ Upwrowm Γ syrr. oW. M.: M. ott. 

tt # . 15 om. njr B. 

to 1» of Davidio descent. Tho genea- 
logies iro in favour of the former view. 
Compare Clem. R. xxxii. and Lightt 

άρατέταΧκςν] hath risen, sprung. 
Latt ortut est. Tho image may be 
taken from the rising of tho sun or of 
a star, or from the rising of a plant 
from its hidden germ. For the former 
image comp. Lake i. 78; 2 Pet i. 19 ; 
Nnm. xxiv. 17; Mai. iv. 2. For the 
latter, Is. Ixi. 1 1 ; Jor. xxiii. 5 ; Zoch. 
iii. 8 ; vi. 12. Tho usage of tho N.T. is 
in favour of the former interpretation; 
and Thoophylact, referring to Num. 
xxiv. and Mai ir., says well : 6V Λρ 
σηλουται rh th φωτισμό* του κόσμου 
τη* παρουσία* του κυρίου γ*ρ4σθαι. 

6 κύριος ήμων] Compare c. xiii. 20 ό 
κύριος ή. *\ησους. 

The title without any addition is 
very rare and occurs (only) 1 Tim. i. 
14 ; 2 Tim. i. 8; 2 Pet iii. 15. 

Comp. ό κύριος ii. 3 note. 

In Apoc, xi. 15 the title is applied 
to the Father; 6 κύριος ημών κα\ 6 
χριστός αυτόν, 

cfe ffv φ.] Latt in qua tribu. 

Comp. ίφ op v. 13; Luke xxii 65 ; 
Eph. v. 32 ; Acts ii. 25 ; and also 
1 Pet i. 1 1. 

15—19. The Levitical priesthood 
was transitory, and during its con- 
tinuance it was stamped with tho 
conditions of limitation. 

The incapacity of the Iiovitical 
priesthood to bring to perfection was 
shewn, as has boon seen, by the fact 
that the promise of another priest- 
hood was made while it was still in 
lull sctivity (1 1— 14). The conclusion 
is established still more obviously from 
the consideration that this promised 
priesthood was after a wholly different 
type, not legal but spiritual, not sacer- 

dotal only, but royal, not transitory 
but eternal. 

15. xal πιρισσοτιρορ th-t κατάλ...] 
And what wo say if yet mors abun- 
dantly evident. ..Vulg. Et amplius ad- 
huemanifestum est... Doubt has been 
felt as to the exact reforenco of this 
statement Is it the abrogation of 
the Law which Is more abundantly 
proved by the language of the Psalm? 
or the inefficacy of tho Lovitieal priest- 
hood? Both conclusions follow from 
the special description of the new 
priesthood. But the thought of the, 
abrogation of the Law is really second- ' 
ary. This is involved in the inefficacy 
of the priesthood which is the domin- 
ant thought in connexion with Christ's 
work. Hence the new proof is direct- 
ed to the former main argument. 

This is the view given in the mam 
by patristic commentators: τΐ Am» 
κατάδηλο*; το μ4σορ της Ιιρωσΰρης 4κα• 
τ(ρας, τ6 διάφοροι*, όσον Kpttrrwv ος ου* 
κατά ρόμορ ιρτολής σαρκικής yryoi* 

J) οτι το ιραλ\αγησ<σ6αι καί τήρ Upm- 
σνψη* κα\ τήν &α$ι}κηψ (TheophlctjL 

amplius manifestum est... subaudl 
destructum esse sacerdotium legis 

κατάδηλο*) The word occurs here 
only in the Ν. T. and it is not found in 
lxx (Hdt Xen. Jos.). Compare for 
the force of κατά, καπίοωλος (Acts xvii. 
16), καταφΐΚΛρ. 

tl κατά τ^ν όμοιο. Μ.] \f t as may be 
most certainly laid down on the au- 
thority of 8criptare, it it after the 
likeness of Melchizedek another prieet 
ariseth, if this is to be the pattern of 
the new priesthood. Rom. viii. 31 he. 
'John vii. 23 Ac. 

The idea of 'order' is specialised 


iepcjc trepos, ,6 os ου κατά νόμον εντολής σάρκινης yeyovev 

16 rcpcfop : *αμτ<χφ Γ. 

into that of likeness. Melckisedek 
furnishes, eo to speak, the personal μ 
well at the official type of the new 
High-priest Thia 'likeness' brings 
out more clearly than before the dif- 
ference between the new and the old 

For the nae of ct, where the truth 
of the supposition is assumed, see 
Rom. vili 31 ; John vii 23 &c 

'O/iotoryf occurs again in α It. 15. 
The word is classical and is found in 
Gen. i. II I; Wisd. xiv. 19. 

αφίσταται] v. ii. The present de- 
scribes the certain fulfilment of the 
divine purpose, which has indeed 
become a fact (*. 16, y*yow). Comp. 
Matt ii. 4; xxvi 2. 

If/Mvc frtpor]».! 1,».*. Christ fulfilling 
the promise of tho Psalm. Thoodoret 
remarks (on 9. 3) that while Melchixo- 
dok was ouly a typo of (Jurist's rorsou 
and Nature, the Priesthood of Christ 
was after the fashion of Melchisedek. 
For the office of priest is the office of 
a man. 

16. ος.,.γίγονιρ... ακατάλυτου] who 
hath become priest not after a law 
expressed in a commandment of 
M*K but after the power of an indis- 
soluble life. There is a double con- 
trast between 'law 9 and 'power/ and 
between the 'commandment of flesh 9 
and the 'indissoluble life.' The 'law' 
is an outward restraint : the 'power* 
is an inward force. The Command- 
ment of flesh 9 carries with it of neces- 
sity the issue of change and succes- 
sion : the 'indissoluble life' is abore 
all change except a change of form. 

A priesthood fashioned after the 
former type was essentially subject to 
the iufluenco of death : a priesthood 
fashioned after the latter type must 
be eternal 

Bach part also In the expression 
of the second contrast is contrasted, 
'oonimandmeot' with 'Ufe,' that which 

is of external injunction with that 
which is of spontaneous energy : and 
'flesh' with 'indissoluble, 9 that which 
carries with it the necessity of cor- 
ruption with that which knows no 

ού κατά ρόμ. Λτ. σαρκ.] Vulg. non se- 
cundum legem mandatl carnalis. In 
the phrase κατά νάμον the writer neces- 
sarily thinks of the Jewish Law, bnt 
this is not directly referred to in its 
ooncrete form as 'the Law, 9 but indi- 
cated in its character as 'a law/ so 
that the words express a perfectly 
general idea : 'not according to a law 
of carnal commandment/ The gen. 
expresses that in which the law Auds 
expression. Comp. John ?. 29. See 
also v. 2 note 

In characterising tho oouimaud- 
ment (ivr. σαρκ.) tho strong fonn which 
expresses tho substance (σάρκινος) and 
not simply the character of flesh (σαρκι- 
κό*) is used to mark tho element with 
which the oommandinent dealt, in 
which it found its embodiment It 
was not only fashioned after the 
nature of flesh: it had its expression 
in flesh (comp ix. ΙΟ δικαιώματα σαρκός). 
All the requirements, for example, to 
be satisfied by a Levitical priest were 
literally 'of flesh, 9 outward descent, 
outward perfectness, outward purity. 
No moral qualification was imposed. 

The distinction between σάρκινος 
(carneus, qffie$h^ fleshy) and σαρκικός 
(carnalis, flesh-like, flesfdy) is obvious. 
The formor doscribos that of which 
the object is made (comp. Xi'&awr John 
ii.6; 2 Oor. iii. 3 ; ζύ\ικ>$ 2 Tim. ii. 20). 
Tho latter, which is a very raro and 
late word in non-Biblical Greek, and 
found ouly ouco as a false v. /. for 
σάρκινος in lxx. 2 Ohrou. xxxii. 8, is 
moulded on the typo of πηνματικάς, 
and expresses that of which the object 
bears the character. 

There is considerable confusion in 

VII. 17] 



αλλά κατά Ζύναμιν ζωής άκαταΧντου, %1 μαρτυρέιται yap 

17 paprvpttrai K(-rc)ABD,* syrr me the : μαρτυρά Γ Ο. 

authorities μ to the form need in 

some passages of the Ν. T. The 

following appears to be the true die* 

tribntion of the words : 
ι. σάρκινα. 

Rom. vii. 14 «yd flc σάρκιρον cfyu op- 
posed to 6 νόμος πνευματικά*, 

1 Cor. iii. 1 «Jr σαρκίροκ opposed to 
4t πνευματικοί*. 

2 Cor. iii. 3 *A<zx«r σάρκινοι opposed 
to w\axtt Xiutvau 
2. σαρκικά* 

Rom. xv. 27 rck σαρκικά opposed to τά 

I Cor. iii 3 (frit) σαρκικοί itrr* (in iii. 4 

read άνθρωποι). 

1 Cor. ix. 1 1 re σαρκικά opposed to τά 

2 Cor. i. 1 2 iv σοφία σαρκική. 

Χ. 4 τά δπΧα.,.ού σαρκικά ά*ΧΧά 
δυνατά τφ Θβψ. 
I Pot. Η. 1 1 αϊ σαρκικοί 4πιΘ%»μΙαι. 

The crucial passage for the use of 
the words is 1 Cor. iii. 1 ff. Here 
there can be no doubt as to the read- 
ings. In e. 1 we must read σάρκινοι*, in 
0. 3 (bis) σαρκικοί and in 0. 4 άνθρω- 
ποι. The juxtaposition of the forms 
(though the diflcrenco is lost in the 
Latt) seems to bo conclusive as to 
the fact that there is a difference in 
their meaning. 

The true reading in 0. 4 throws light 
upon the other two. In 0. 1 St Paul 
says that he was forced to address his 
readers as though they were merely 
'men of flesh,' without the πνεύμα. 
In 0. 3, seeking to soften his judg- 
ment, he speaks of them as shewing 
traits which belong to the σαρξ. In 
r. 4 it seems to him enough to suggest, 
what was beyond all question, that 
they were swayed by simply human 

In the present Terse Chrysostom, 
following the later reading σαρκικής 
gives part of the sense well: πάντα 
Ισα &ι*ρΙ(<το σαρκικά ifr. το γαρ Χεγειν 

περίτεμε rip σάρκα, χρισον τ^ν σάρκα, 
Χουσον ri)r σάρκα, περίκεφον την σάρκα 
...ταδτβ, chrc μοι, ουχί σαρκικά; εΐ Μ 
θεΧει* μαθειν κα\ τίνα a ε*πηγγ(ΧΧετο 
αγαθά, άκουε* TloXXty ζωή, φησί, rj 
σορκί, γάλα κα\ μίλι η} σαρκΐ, ειρήνη η} 
σαρκί, τρνφη rg σαρκΐ 

άλλα κατά σύναμι» ζ. άκατ.] Latt fed 
secundum virtutem tilm imolubUis 

The life of Christ was not endless 
or eternal only. It was essentially 
'indissoluble' (ακατάλυτο*)- Although 
the form of its manifestation was 
changed and in the earthly sense He 
died, yet His life endured unchanged 
even through earthly dissolution. He 
died and yet He offered Himself as 
living in death by the eternal Spirit 
(c. ix. 14). Comp. John xi. 26; xix. 
34 note. 

This life found its complete expres- 
sion after the Ascension, but it does 
not date from that consummation of 
glory (comp. vii. 3). 

It must be further noticed that the 
possession of this indissoluble life is 
not only tho characteristic of Christ's 
exercise of His priestly office: it is 
the ground on which He entered upon 
it. Other priests were made priests 
In virtue of a special ordinance: He 
was made priest in virtue of His 
inherent nature. He could be, as 
none other, victim at once and priest 

Yet again, the permanence of the 
personal life of the new Priest dis- 
tinguishes Him essentially from the 
legal priests. To Phinehas 'the son 
of Bleasar the son of Aaron, and to 
his seed' was given 'the covenant of 
an everlasting priesthood' (Num. xxv, 
13; Ex. xl. 15); but this was subject 
to tho conditions of succession, and 
therefore to the possibility of change. 
A priesthood founded upon a covenant 
involves conditions on two sides: a 
priesthood founded on an oath to a 



[VII. 18 

#τι Σγ iepefc eic ton »Jo>na κατά* ti-'n taIin ΜβλχιοεΑέκ. % *άθέτησκ 
μεν yap γίνεται προϊούσης εντολής δια το αύτης ασθενή 

*ύχ rd+«tvgsyrrmethe ( 

18 *ροσαγ>ύ<τφ D/. 

penwn for himself is absolute. Coma 
Gal iii. 19ft 

17. μαρτνράτα* yap Art 2v...]/or ώ 
w witnessed of him, Thou ar/...Vulg. 

contestatur enim quoniam TV 

Comp. v. 8. The quotation establishes 
both the eternity and tlie oharaotor 
of tlie new priesthood («If re* alow, 
«ana r^v r. M.). 

The art here is recitative (x. 8; xi. 
1 8) ; and ραρτνρ* trot is used absolutely 

<*t 39). 

The direct personal reference in 
the Psalm (2v Ifpcw...) has not been 
given since the first quotation : v. 6. 
It occurs again in v. 21. 

1 8, 1 9. άβίτησι* μίν yap. . . λκισαγαφ) 
W...] /or ΐΛ^τβ ύ a disannulling... 
and a bringing in thereupon... Υ xug. 
Reprobatio quidetn fit..Antroductio 
two... The γαρ goes back to 9. 15. 
The conclusion there pointed to is 
confirmed by the decisivo fact that the 
promised priesthood is not only dis- 
tinct from the Levitioal but also irre- 
ooncileable with it, exclusive of it; so 
far, that is, that the Levitical priest- 
hood has no longer any ground for 
continuance when this has been estab- 

The whole seutonco is divided by 
μέν and 8< into two corresponding 
parts. Tlyrrai goes with both; and 
outfit... νόμο* is parenthetical This 
construction appears to be established 
decisively by the correspondence of 
άΰίτησΗ. . .Art ισαγωγφ, and of the gene- 
ral scopo of tlie two clauses. Tho 
'commandment' stands over against 
the 'hope,' the 'weakness and unpro- 
fitableness' of the one over against 
the power of the other, whereby 'we 
draw nigh to God.' Παώται, φηο -i*, 
.6 νόμος ίπιισάγτται di ή rmv #cp#irrow*r 

18. άθ*τησΐ£.:προαγ. άτ...] The 

word άβέτησν occurs again c ix. 26; 

the ?erb aoVrr fr is found e. x. 28 ; 
Gel ii. 21; iii. 15; 1 Tim. v. 12; and 
is common in the lxx.; but it is 
generally used there of unfaithful, 
rebellious action: Ex. xxi. 8; Jer. iii. 
20 (άθ*σΙα, Μίτημα). 

This open, direct disannulling of 
tho provious systom, which is, as it 
were, sot at nought, 'cometh to pass 9 
(ytWai) in the fulfilment of the divine 
order, as indicated by the mention 
of an eternal priesthood on a new 

The indefinite form of the phrase 
προαγούσης ΙιποΚής serves to express 
the general thought of the character 
of the foundation 011 which tho Leviti- 
cal priesthood rested as a 'preceding/ 
a 'foregoing,' and so a preparatory 

The word rpooyovo-a (1 Tim. L 18; 
y. 24) expresses not only priority (an 
earlier commandment) but connexion 
(a foregoing commandment). Tho 
divine commandment (Ατολιί), point- 
ing to an earthly institution, stands 
in oontrast with the hope, rising above 

The use of cVroXij fixes the refer- 
ence to the ordiuauce of tho priest- 
hood particularly (0. 16) iu whioh, as 
has been seeu, the Law (otto* ά•«λ. ο 
νόμος) was summed up, so far as it is 
oompared with the GospeL 

die re αύτ. άσ$. «αϊ ά*ωφ.] because of 
its weakness arid unprofitableness... 
Vulg. propter infirmitatem ejus et 
inutilitatem. A command, a law, is 
essentially powerless to help. It can- 
not inspire with strength: it cannot 
bring aid to the wounded conscience. 
And the ritual priesthood was affected 
by both these faults. It was external, 
and it was formal. It did not deal 
with the soul or with things eternal. 

Infirmitatem habebat lex, quia oper- 
antes se non valebat juvare : inutilita- 

VIL 19] 



καΐ αρωφέ\&, X9 ou$€P yap ereXeluHrev ό ρόμον, έπεισα- 
γωγη ie κρ€ΐττονο* i\iriSo* f it fc έγγίζομ&τ τφ 0€a*. 

19 brttffayvyflt D f *. 4yyfJli/Mr A. 

tern ?ero, quia nemlni regnum «rio- 
rum valebat aperire (Prima*.). 

piv κα\ σφΛρα 4φί\ησ*ψ <1λλΑ to 
woiifvm r«Xf ίου* ουκ 4φίΚησ•ν (Chrys.). 

The two of the abstract forma rh 
Ασ6. 9 το Λρωφ. 9 marks the principle 
and not only the fact Comp. vi. 17. 
For to mreVw comp. 1 Oor. i. 37 ; Gal. 
It. 9; Rom. viii. 3 (ijadfi*i). 

ivravQa ijfitr λτιφάηται ol alpcrinoL 
dXX' 2xovt Ακριβά*, ουκ ttwt bui to 
νονηρόν, affl &ώ το μοχθηρά*, αλλά die 
to evrijr dau*vi$ κα\ Αρωφιλί* (Chrys.) 

19. ovftfr y«y...] The Law, of which 
the institution of the Levitkal pricst- 
hood (the special commandment just 
noticed) was a part or indeed the 
foundation (©. 11), brought nothing to 
perfection. In every application (ovMv) 
it was provisional and preparatory 
(comp. ix. 21 if.; Lor. xvi. 16). Tbit 
decisive parenthesis is explanatory of 
'the weakness and unprofitableness' 
of the commandment {for the Law. . .). 
Man must strife towards the perfec- 
tion, thoaeeonipllshment, of hlsdestiny 
on earth. The Law failed him in the 
effort He outgrew It The very 
scope of the Law indeed was to define 
Ute requirements of life, and to shew 
that man himself could not satisfy 
them. Comp. Gal. 1L 15 f.; iii. 19; 
Rom. Hi. 19 1; ?ϋ.7π*. 

iriXiiwrtv) e. 11 note Tito tense 
indicates the final view of the Law. 
Contrast x. 14 m-cXc fox**. 

iwturayor^ Ac κρ. Air.] There was 
on the one side the disannulling of a 
preparatory commandment* and there 
was on the other side the introduction 
of a new (ArQ and better hope to 
occupy the place which was held by 
the commandment before. 

This hope is described as better 
than tho commandment, and not 
simply as better than the hope con- 

veyed by the commandment The 
comparison is between the command- 
ment characteristic of the Law and 
the hope characteristic of the Gospel ; 
and not between the temporal hope 
of the Law and the spiritual hope of 
the Gospel. Though the Law had 
(ct viil. 6) a hope, the thought of it 
seems to be out of place here. 

For ίπασαγωγη compare frcwr ρχο- 
μαι Luke xxL 35 ; and for ikwU c iii. 
6; vi. 19 notes. 

&V iff iyy. to) ό\ ψ ] through which 
hope we draw nigh to God. . . Vulg. per 
quam proximamue ad Deunv The 
commandment was directed to the 
fulfilment of ordinances on earth: 
hope enters within tho veil and carries 
believers with it (c. vi. 19). 

The phrase /yy/fttr r• o\ ψ is used, 
though rarely, in lxx. of the priests: 

Ex. xlx. 33 (Bty)j Lev. x. 3 py>); Β- 
ίο*, xliL 13; xliii. 19. 

But also more widely; la xxix. 13: 
comp. Ex. xxiv. 3 5 Hoe. xii. 6 (iyy. 
wpot t. &). 

It occurs again in the N.T., James 
iv. 8. 

All believers are, in virtue of their 
Christian faith, priests : 1 Pet ii. 5,9; 
Apoc. i. 6; v. 10 ; xx. 6. That which 
was boforo (in a figure) tho privilege 
of a class has become (in reality) the 
privilege of all; and thus man is en- 
abled to gain through fellowship with 
God the attainment of bis destiny 
(rrXtliMrif). Comp. c x. 19. 

20—35. Tho Apostle goes on to 
shew the superiority of Christ's Priest- 
hood over the Levitical priesthood 
from its essential characteristics. 
Christ's Priesthood is immutable in 
its foundation (30—32); and it is un- 
interrupted in its personal tenure (33 

30—33. The And corresponds to 

1 88 



Και κα& όσον ov χωρίς ορκωμοσίας, (ο! μεν yap χωρίς 
ορκωμοσίας βισιν ιερείς yeyovores, **ό Se μετά ορκω- 
μοσίας δια τον λέγοντος προς αυτόν *Ωμοο6ν KVpioc, και of 
10 οϊμέ* yap χ. Ιρκ.ι om. D/ eyrhl. 

the And in ρό. ι $, 23, and introduces 
a new moment in the argument 

The additional solemnity of the oath 
gives an additional dignity to the cove- 
nant which is introduced by it (com* 
pare vi. 13 ff.). And yet further, by 
this oath the purpose of God is declared 
absolutely. Man 's weakness no longer 
enters as an element into the prospect 
of its fulfilment The permanence of 
a covenant which rests upon an oath 
is assured. 

The introduction of the idea of a 
'covenant* is sudden aud unprepared. 
It was probably suggested by the words 
recorded in Matt. xxvi. 28. The 
thought of Christ's Priesthood is ne- 
cessarily connected with the history 
of His Passion. 

20 (22). καο* άσο?... «ατά τοσούτο 
«αϊ...] And $0 much 
afro... Latt Quantum... in tantum... 

The sovereign validity of the divine 
oath is the measure of the exceeding 
authority of the dispensation which 
rests upon it 

For the form of comparison see c 
i. 4 «pcrrr«M'...arf &ιαφορ*τ<ρορ. iii. 3 
w\ttovos...Katf όσο?, ix. 27 naff Boo* 
...ovr**... ; and for the introduction of 
the parenthesis (ol μίρ γάρ.,.ιΐς το» 
aloma) compare α xil 18 — 24. 

20. ov x*pU όρκ.] not without the 
taking of an oath bath He received 
His office. This addition is suggested 
by 9. 22, and by prra όρκ, which follows. 
The words however may be taken gene- 
rally: 'the whole transaction doth not 
take place without the taking of an 

The word ορκωμοσία, which occurs 
again in v. 28; Esek. xviL 18 f.; 1 
Esdr. viii 90, expresses the whole ac- 
tion, and not simply the oath. 
. ol /tcV yop...o 6V...<fo το* M»a] for 

while tf*y...ift...Vulg. olii quidem 
...hie autem... This elaborate paren- 
thesis is inserted to explain fully 
the contrast implied in x«olr 6ρκ*- 

'For while the one dose of priests 
(the Levitical priests) have become 
prieete without any taking of an oath, 
He was made priest with it 9 (μ*τά 
comp. Matt xiv. 7). The stress laid 
upon the oath suggests the contrast 
between 'the promise ' and 'the Law' 
on which St Paul dwells (e.g. Oal. iii. 
15 ft). The Law is an expression of 
the sovereign power of God Who re- 
quires specific obedionce: the oath 
implies a purpose of love not to be 
disturbed by man's unworthiness. 

c Ur\* Up*h ycy©*.] The periphrasis 
marks tho possession as well as the 
iinpartmont of the office: tlioy have 
boon made priests and they act as 

Oomp. v. 27; iv. 2; x. 10 (it 13). 
The construction is not uncommon 
throughout the N.T., aud is never 
without force. Compare Moulton- 
Winer, p. 438. 

2 1, ώα row Xtyorror] through Him 
that eaith (Latt per eum qui diadt\ 
t.*. God through the mouth of the 
Psalmist The divine voice is not 
regarded as an isolated utterance (διό! 
row f&roWoc» c x. 30; 2 Cor. iv. 6; 
James ii. 1 1), but as one which is still 
present and effective. Oomp. xil 25(0 
λαλώ?); L 6 note. 

Though tho words (rf/ioow...ow μ*• 
ταμ*\.) are not directly spoken by the 
Lord, they are His by implication. 
The oath is His. 

npot owW| The words have a 
double meaning in relation to the two 
parts of the verse quoted. The first 
part has Ohrist for its object ('in 


ΜετΑΜβλΗθΗεβτΑΐ, Σϋ i€pr{c etc ton aicona,) ^κατα toctoGto 
κρείττονος διαθήκης yiyovev iyyvo* Ίησοΰς. * $ Kai oi 


μίν irXeioves άσιν yeyovores iepeh δια to 


rai /ατω 

si om. its τδτ α/. K # . eh rhw at. BO vg the : + «ατά rV rd{*r M. X«AD, syrr me. 
t* roe-, ami K # BO # : om. «oi X # AD, vgme. rwoOrw ΓΚ••η* D f *. 33 717. 

Up. KB Tg syrr me : Ιφ. Try. AOD r 

the Son of man, has been exalted to 
the right hand of God, where He is 
seated as King and Priest In His 
divine humanity He assures us that 
Qod has potentially accomplished the 
purpose of Creation, and will accom- 
plish it 

The word ryyvof does not occur 
elsewhere in N.T. See flcolus. xxix. 
15 f.; 2 Mace X. 28 fyyvo» *νημ*ρίατ 
καΙ νίιαμ. 

A surety for the most part pledges 
himself that something will be: but 
here the Ascended Christ witnesses 
that something is: the assurance is 
not simply of the future but of that 
which is present though unseen. 

It must be noticed that Christ is 
not said here to be a surety for man 
to God, but a surety of a covenant of 
God with man• 

Theodoret interprets the phrase too 
narrowly: out rijt oltilat λραστ&σιωψ 
ίβ*βα(ωσι rtjs ijftc r/par <Jra<rr«rf»c rijp 

For αΊαθήκη see Additional Note on 
ix. 16. 

23—25. A second fact establishes 
the pre-eminence of Christ's Priest- 
hood. It is held uninterruptedly by 
One Brer-living Priest 

23. καί ol μίν wX. f2. yry....o dc...] 
And while they— the one class, the 
Levitical priests— have been made 
priests many in number... He. ..hath 
Hi* priesthood inviolable. Vulg. Et 
alii guidem plures facti sunt sacer- 
dotes...hic autem.... The Levitical 
priests held the priesthood In suc- 
cession, one after another. Thoywere 
made priests many in number, not 
simultaneously but successively. The 
thought is of the lino which repre- 

regard to Him': comp. i. 7): In the 

second part He is directly addressed. 

For Λμοσ** compare Luke L 73$ 

Acts ii. 30; and for ού μ*ταμ<\ηόήσ€- 
raty Rom. xi. 29; Num. xxiii. 19; 1 
8am. xv. 29. The necessities of human 
thought require that sometimes, 
through man's failure or change, God, 
who is unchangeable, should bo said 
to repent The temporary interrup- 
tion of the accomplishment of His 
counsel of love must appear in this 
light under the conditions of time to 
those 'who see but part': Gen. vL 6: 
1 Sam. xv. 10; 2 Sam. xxiv. 16; Jer. 
xviii. 8. 

22. Kpf{rroi»of ../Itprovf] Jesus hath 
become surety of a better covenant 
(Vulg. melioris testamenti sponsor 
/actus est Jesus) in that He has shewn 
in His own Person the fact of the 
establishment of a Now Covenant be- 
tween God and man. This Ho has 
done by His Incarnation, issuing in His 
Life, His Death, His Resurrection, 
His otornal Priesthood. But inas- 
much as the immediate subject here 
is Christ's Priesthood, the reference is 
especially to this, the consummation 
of the Incarnation. Jesus— the Son 
of man— having entered into the 
Presence of God for men is the sure 
pledge of the validity of the New 

In later passages of the Epistle 
(viif. 6 note) Christ is spoken of as the 
Mediator of the New Covenant He 
Himself brought about the Covenant; 
and He is the adequate surety of its 

'Itprovt] The human name of the 
Lord stands emphatically at the end. 
(Comp. vi. 20; ii. 9 note.) Jesus, 



κωλύεσθαι παραμίνβιν **ό ie δια το μβν*ιν αυτόν dc τον 
aiojna απαράβατο? ίχ€ΐ την ιβρωσύνην* **6θ€ν και σώζει? 

sonts the office. The covenant of an 
everlasting priesthood was not with 
Aaron personally, bat with Aaron and 
his sons ' throughout their generations' 
(Ex. xL 15; comp. Num. xxv. 13). 
At the same time it is a true thought 
that the perfect continuity of the 
office could only be secured by the 
existence of many priests at once 
(comp. Ex. xxix.); but that is not the 
point here. 

The ordor in the words ytyowrtt 
Up*h as compared with v. 20 Upclt 
yryopfat is worthy of notice. In the 
former passage Upus was accentuated ; 
here the thought is of the number 
who are 'mado' priests. 

dia ro $. κωλ. παραμίκι*] The multi- 
tude of the Levitical priests is a neces- 
sity, because they are hindered by 
death from abiding as priests among 
men. The statement is made generally 
and not of the past only. The use of 
the rare word repa/uwiy (PhiL i. 25, 
not 1 Cor. xvi. 6) implies the idea of 
fellowship, service on the part of the 
priests during their abiding {Le. πάρα- 
μίν<ιν voir &ρ$ράποις, not τ§ Upartla. 
HdL L JO τίκρα...παραμ*ί»αντα). It 
would be pointless to say that 'death 
hindered them from living'; it hin- 
dered them from discharging the 
function which was necessary for man's 

24. 6 di bta to μ4ρ€»...τήρ 1$ρωσ.] 
He^ became He abideth/or ever, hath 
Hi» priesthood inviolable. Vulg.uftc 
autem eo quod maneat in astemum 
sempiternum habet saeerdotium. In 
both respects Christ offers a contrast 
with the Levitical priests. He 'abides 
for ever/ though in this sense it is 
not said that He abides with us 
(παραμ*¥ΐν\ while they were hindered 
by death from so abiding. In this 
respect Christ's eternal abiding as Son 
(John viii 35; xiL 34; comp. 9. 28) 

is contrasted with the transitory con- 
tinuance of mortal men on earth. And 
again the fact that Ho 'abides for ovor' 
in virtue of His Nature involves the 
further fact that He will fulfil His 
priestly office for ever. 

Jesus quia immortalis est sompiter- 
num habet sacerdotium; nee ulluin 
habere poterit subeequentem, eo quod 
ipse maneat in externum (Primas.). 

άπαράβατορ 1χ§ι τήρ Up.] Literally 

hath His prieet/tood inviolable, unim- 
paired, and so unchangeable. The 
word απαράβατος has caused difficulty 
from early times (Ambr. imprce• 
varicabUe 9 Aug. intranegressible: 
Thooplllct τουτίστιρ αδιάκοπο*, adta- 
οοχορ). Tliero appears to be no inde- 
pendent authority for the souse 'un- 
transmitted,' 'that does not pass to 
another. 1 According to the analogy 
of Αβατος ΙπΙβατος, the form παράβατος 
expresses that which is or may bo 
transgressed, invaded. 'Απαράβατος 
is therefore that which cannot be (or in 
met is not) overstepped, transgressed, 
violated, that which is 'absolute.' 
Thus Oalen speaks of Observing an 
absolute law' (νάμον άπαράβατορ φν 
\arrtt»). Compare Epict Bneh. 50, 
2 (ropor απαράβατος); Pseudo-Just 
Quant, ad Orihod § 27; Jos. c\Ap. ii. 
41 (W cva-*fi*lat απαράβατου (inviolate) 
κάλλιο*; but in Antt. xviii. 9 (10), 2 
ho uses it of men απαράβατοι μ*μ*ρψ 
KOTis in connexion with the phrase 

ούο* op αυτοί παραβαίημιρ). So the 
word is used in connexion with Θ*ωρ1α, 
τάζις, ιΐμαρμίνη (comp. Wetst ad loc). 
Christ's Priesthood is His alone, open 
to no rival claim, liable to no invasion 
of its functions. 

25. oo\p *ai] toJience (c. ii. 17 note) 
alio, because His priesthood is ab- 
solute and Anal, He is able to ful- 
fil completely the ideal office of the 

VII. a 5 ] 


I 9 I 

€« το παντέλέΐ Ζύναται tow προσίρ-χομενοντ δι' αύτου 
τφ 0€ω 9 irctPTOT€ ζών €i? το ivrvyyaveiv νπϊρ αυτών. 

If Christ's priesthood had failed in 
any respect then provision would hare 
been made for some other. But, as it 
is, the salvation wrought by Christ 
reaches to the last element of man's 
nature and man's Ufa In relation to 
man fallen and sinful am(n* expresses 
the same idea as rtXuow applied to 
man as he was made by God (comp. 
ii. 10), and it finds its fulfilment in the 
whole course of his existence. The 
thonghthere is not of ' the world' (John 
iii. 17) but of believers: not of salva- 
tion in its broadest sense, but of the 
working out of salvation to the utter- 
most in those who havo recoivod the 

Thus the present (σωζπν) as distin- 
guished from the aorist (σωσαι) has 
its full force. The support comes at 
each moment of trial. 

The present occurs again 1 Cor. xv. 
2; Judo 23; c v. 7 (Acts xxvii. 20, 
contrasted with 31). For the aorist, 
see Rom. viii. 24; Tit iii. 5; 1 Tim. 

c if το iraiTfXtff] completely, wholly, 
to the uUermoet. Comp. Lk. xiii. 1 1 
(with neg.). The phrase does not 
occur elsewhere in the N.T. The old 
commentators strangely explain it as 
if it were cir το bitpttit (so Latt in 

rout προσ*ρχ. δι* αυτού τψ A] Com- 
pare John xiv. 6; x. 9; vi. 37. Some- 
thing is required of men answering to 
the gift of Christ They use the way 
of God, which He has opened and 
which He is. 

The word προσίρχ<σ6αι (comp. /yy/- 
{«* e. 19 note), is not used in this 
sense by St Paul nor elsewhere in N.T. 
except 1 Pet ii. 4 (προσιρχ. npot). 
Comp. α iv. 16 note; x. 1, 22; xi. 6; 
xii. 18, 22. Theophylact expresses 
the thought very neatly: αυτή Ιστι 1) 
irpof rowwaripa ooor, καί 6 ταύτης δραξά- 
fifivf Art t KorakwL 

A remarkable reading, aeeedem (for 
accedentee), which is not quoted from 
any existing MS., is noticed by Pri- 
mulas (so also 8edul.): Quod vero 
quidam codices habent Aeeedem per 
eemetiptum ad Deum, quidam vero 
plural! numero Accedente*, utrumqne 
recipi potest. 

narror* (&r th το Αγ.] teeing He ever 
liveth to make intercession, Vulg. tern• 
per vivens ad inierpellandum (0. L. 
exorandum). The final clause tit to. . . 
in connexion with (mv can only express 
the purpose (aimed at or attained). 
Comp. it 17 note. The very end of 
Christ's Lifo in heavon, as it is hero 
presented, is that He may fulfil the 
object of the Incarnation, the perfect- 
ing of humanity. 

The word wmnor• belongs' to later 
Greek and is said by the grammarians 
to represent the Ικάστοτι of the class- 
ical writers. In the N.T. it has almost 
supplanted att (which occurs very rare- 
ly), yet so that the thought of each 
separate occasion on which the con- 
tinual power is manifested is generally 
present (e.g. John vi. 34; Phil. i. 4)• 
As often (speaking humanly )ae Christ's 
help is needed He is ready to give it 

ivTvyxatHtv] The word is of rare 
occurrence in the N.T. and is not found 
in the lxx. translation of the books 
of the Hobrow Canon ; though it is 
not unfrequont in lato Greek in the 
sense of 'meeting with' ('lighting 
upon ') a person or thing. It is found 
in this sense 2 Mace. vi. 12 (r£ βΙβΚψ\ 
Comp. 2 Mace ii. 25 ; xv. 39. 

Prom this sonse comes thesecondary 
sense of 'meeting with a person with 
a special object' This purpose is 
sometimes definitely expressed: Wisd. 
viii. 21 Ινίτνχον τψ κνρΐψ καί <&ν}θητ 
οντον. 3 Mace. vL 37 ί"*τυχο* *# 
βασύ«ΐ...αΙτούμ*ΐΌς. Sometimes it is 
only implied: Wisd. xvi. 28 ; 2 Mace, 
iv. 36 (vircp τον arc κτώώιι). 



[VII. a 5 

The purpose may be the invocation 
of action against another: ι Mace, 
viii 32 (άτ. κατά run f); x. 61 ff.; xi. 25. 

This aenae is implied in Acts xxv. 
24 (Ιντνγχ. ru4 w*pi twos)', and the 
exact phrase recurs, Rom. xL 2 (Arvyx• 
ran κατά τίνος). 

Or again the invocation may be on 
behalf of another: Rom. viii. 27, 34 
(άτνγχ. υπ4ρ\ 20 (vrtpfir. νπίρ). 

Compare fr™ v£it, 1 Tim. ii. 1 ; iv. 5. 

The object of supplication in this 
latter case may be either help or for- 
giveness. In the present passage (as 
in Rom. viii. 26 ff.) the idea is left in 
the most general form. Neither the 
Porson who is approached nor the 
purpose of approaching Him is defined. 
Whatever man may need, as man or 
as sinful man, in each circumstance of 
effort and conflict, his want finds inter- 
pretation (if we may so speak) by the 
Spirit and effective advocacy by Christ 
our (High) Priest In the glorified 
humanity of the Son of man every true 
human wish finds perfect and prevail- 
ing expression. Ho pleads our cause 
with the Father (1 John ii ι παρά• 
κλητοί), and makes the prayers heard 
which we know not how to shape. In 
John xvii we can find the substance 
of ourownhighest wants and of Christ's 

vvipavrmv] The advocacy of Christ 
is both social and persoiial: for the 
Church and for each believer, for one 
because for the other. Comp. Rom. 
viii. 34 ; 1 John ii. 1, and Philo de vit. 
Mos. UL § 24 (it 155 Μ.) αναγκαίο» 
$¥ tw 1*ρωμ*ρορ τψ κόσμου πατρί πάρα- 
κλητψ χρησθαι τιΧιιοτάτψ τή* aptTtjv 
υΐψ, προς τ§ άμνηστ*ία* αμαρτημάτων 
καϊ χορηγία* άφθονιστάτων άγαβων. 

The Fathers call attention te the 
contrasts which the verse includes 
between Christ's human and diviuo 
natures; and bow His very presence 
before Ood in His humanity is in itself 
a prevailing intercession. 

lnterpellat autem pro nobis per hoc 
quod humanam naturam assumpsit 
pro nobis quam assidue ostendit vultui 

Dei pro nobis, et miseretur secundum 
utramque substantiam (Primus.). 

Kol «Jro di τούτο το σάρκα φορουντα 
τό* vlup σνγκα&ησθα* τψ πατρΧ ϊντ%ν^1ς 
Ιστι* vwip ημών' ωσανΑ της σαρκός 
ύπίρ ήμων όνσωπούσης t&w πατίρα, 4ς 
6V αΜ τούτο προσΧηφό^ίσης πάντως, 
&ιά τη* ημ*τίραν σωτηρία* (Theophlct). 
Αντή ή (ΙνανΰροΙπησις αύτου παρακαΚΰ 
top πατίρα ύπίρ ήμων (Ruth. Zig.). 

In the Leviticai ritual the truth was 
foreshadowed in the direction that 
'Aaron shall bear the names of the 
children of Israel in the breastplate 
of judgment upon his heart when ho 
gooth in unto the holy place...' (Ex. 
xxviii. 29). 

(2) Christ is High-priest for ewer 
after the order of Melchizedek, thai 
it the absolute High-priest (26—28). 

Up to this point the writer has 
devolopod the ideas lying in the 
phraso 'after tho ordor of Molchiso- 
dek': he now shortly characterises 
Christ as High-priest after this order 
(vi. 20), before drawing out in detail 
the contrast botwoon Christ and the 
Aaronic High-priest. Nothing is 
said in Scripture of tho High-priest- 
hood of Melchisedok, or of any sacri- 
fices which he offered. In these 
respects tho Aaronic High-priest (not 
Mdchisedek) was the type Of Christ 

The subject is laid open in a simple 
and natural order. First the personal 
traits of Christ are characterised (©. 
26); aud then His High-priestly work 
(9. 27); and lastly the contrast which 
He offers to the Leviticai High-priests 
in regard to His appointment, nature 
and position (t>. 28). 

*For such a High-priest [in truth] 
became us, holy, guileless, undefiled, 
separated from sinners, and become 
higher than the heavens; "Who 
hath no need daily, as the high 
priests, to offer up sacrifices first for 
their own sins, then for the sins of 
the people, for this He did once for 
all in that He offered up Himself. 
"For the Law appointeth men high 
priests, having infirmity; but the 

VII. 26] 



* Τοιούτο* yap ημιν [και] inpenev άρχιβρενς, οσιοϊ, 

ί6 ηφ καΐ ABD, syrr: om καΐ HC vg me. 

word qf the oath-taking appointeth 
a Son perfected for ever, 

26. The preceding Terse furnishes 
a transition to the doctrine of Christ's 
High-priesthood. It is seen that 
something more is required for men 
than Melchizedek as priest could 
directly typify. He showed the form 
of priesthood which Christ realised in 
its ideal ]>orfootinn as High-priest 

τοιούτος yap ήμΐρ] From the cha- 
racteristics of Christ's priesthood fore- 
shadowed in Melchizedek the writer 
deduces the general nature of His 
High-priesthood. The separation of 
rotovror from apxuptvt helps to lay 
stress upon the character which it 
summarises (conip. viii. 1). This the 
Vulgate translation talis enimdeeebat 
ut nobis esset pvntifex endeavours to 
express, almost as if the translation 
were: '8uch an one became us as 

rmotfTot] Such a High-priest, that 
is, one who is absolute in power (eft 
ro iravrcXcf) and eternal in being 
(πάντοτ* ζ&ρ\ The word (rowvrot) 
looks backwards, yot not exclusively. 
From tlioparallol (viii. 1 ; comp. 1 Cor. 
v. 1 ; Phlm. 9) it is seen that it looks 
forward also to or οάτ ?χ« (e. 27), 
which gives tho most decisive feature 
of Christ's High-priesthood. 

ijfu» [«el] tfirptwtp] Even our human 
sense of fitness is able to recognise 
the complete correspondence between 
the characteristics of Christ as High- 
priest and the believer's wants. Comp. 
α ii. 10 note. And wo shall observe that 
sympathy with temptation does not 
require the experience of sin. On 
the contrary his sympathy will be 
fullest who has known the extremest 
power of temptation because he has 
conquered. Ho who yields to tempta- 
tion has not known its uttermost 
force. Comp. Hinton, Life and 
Letters p. 179. 

Tho *ai before ftrptwc tr emphasises 

W. H. f 

this thought 'Such a High-priest 
has been given us and also in very 
deed answers to our condition/ Comp. 
α vi. 7 note ; and for hrprrrtv see c. ii. 
10 note. 

Primasius adds a thought beautiful 
in itself which may perhaps lie in tho 
word (inp*wtp): Judcei velut servi 
timore legis Deo serviontes logales 
pontifices habuerunt, sibl conservos 
mortalesque ac peccatores...nos au- 
tem, quibus dictum est Jam non dico 
vos servos sed amicos moos, quia 
Alii Dei sumus serviendo illi amore 
filiationis, decet ut habeamus pontifi- 
cem Immortalem, segregatum a pecca- 

ήμΖν] ' us Christians,' not generally 
' us men. 9 The pronoun is apparently 
always used with this limitation in 
the Epistle. 

The dominant thought is of tho 
struggles of tho Christian life, which 
are over calling for divine succour. 
Christians have gained a view of the 
possibilities of life, of its divine mean- 
ing and issues, which gives an infinite 
solemnity to all its trials. 

curior...] This detailed description 
characterises the fitness of the High 
Priest for tho fulfilment of His work 
for man. Even in the highest ex- 
altation He retains the perfection of 
His human nature. He is truly man 
and yet infinitely more than man. 
The three epithets (ariof, <f«a*or, αμί- 
αντος) describe absolute personal 
characteristics: the two descriptive 
clauses which follow express the 
issues of actual life. Christ is person- 
ally in Himself holy, in relation to 
men guileless, in spite of contact 
with a sinful world undefiled. By the 
issue of His life He has been sepa- 
rated from sinners in regard to tho 
visible order, and, in regard to the 
invisible world, He has risen above 
the heavens. 

arm] V. L. Justus, Vulg. sanetus. 



άκακος, αμίαντο*, κ€χωρισμ£νο* άπο των αμαρτωλών, 

«xoxot+ftoi Α. 

The word is of rare occurrence in the 
Ν. T. It ie used of Christ (aa quoted 
from Ps. xvi) Acts ii. 27; xiii. 3S : 
and again of ' the Lord 9 Apoc. xv. 4; 
xvi 5; comp. Ps. cxlv. (cxliv.) 17; 
(Jer. iii 12 Hebr.). It is used also 
ofthe 'bishop' Tit i. 8; andofhands 
in prayer 1 Tim. ii. 8. 

Tho word is found not very un- 
frequently in the lxx. and occurs 
especially in the Psalms (more than 
twenty times) as tho regular equiva- 
lent of Tpn. Thus the people of God 
are characteristically described as ol 
ίσιοι [τον κυρίου] (ol «r«x Ps. cxiix. 1, 
5). The phrase ol άγιοι (Β*#"Ί?) i* 
much rarer: Ps. xvi. (χτ.) 2; xxxiv. 
(xxxiii) 10; Ixxxix. (lxxxviii.) 5, 7. 

To speak broadly, oViot refers to 
character and aytot to destination. 
Tho former is used in Biblical Greek 
predominantly of persons (yet see 
la lv. 3 Acta xiii. 34 • Deut xxix. 19 ; 
Wisd. vl loj 1 Tim. ii. 8), the latter 
equally of persons and things. 

As applied to God Byws expresses 
that which Ho is absolutely; όσιο* 
that which Ho shews Himself to be 
in a special relation to men. 

Taken with regard to men in their 
relation to God άγιο* describos their 
dedication to His service: όσιο* their 
participation in His character, es- 
pecially as shewn in His love towards 
thorn (Ί99). Comp. Hupfold, Ps. iv. 

4 note. 

As applied to men in themselves 
αγως marks consecration, devotion: 
arm marksaparticular moral position. 

Perhaps it is possible to see in this 
difference the cause of the remark- 
able difference of usage by which 
the people of God in the Ο. T. are ol 
δσιοι, and in tho Ν. T. ol άγιοι. The 
outward relation of the people to God 
under the 0. T., which was embodied in 
an outward system, included, or might 

be taken to include, the corresponding 
character. Under the N.T. the re- 
lation of the believer to Christ em- 
phasises an obligation. 

The general opposite to άγιο* is 
'profane' (β4βη\ος)ι the general op- 
posite to oo-iot is 'impious': the 
standard beiug the divine nature 
manifested under human conditions 
in the dealings of God with men. In 
this oonnexion oVior is the comple- 
ment of dUawt (Plat. Qorg. 507 a; 
comp. 1 Those, it 10; Tit. L 8; Luke 
i. 75 ; Bph. iv. 24) on the one side, and 
of Up6t on tho other (Thuc. ii. 52). 

άκακο t\ Latt. innocens («ins nudi- 
tia), guileless. Comp. Rom. xvL 18: 
1 Pet. ii 22. 

'Ακακος W iarur; άπόνηρος, ουχ Arov- 
Xor κα\ 0V1 rotovror &cov« του προ- 
φήτου. ls.liii.9. (Ohrys.) 

Ακακο t and ακακία oocur sovorai 
times in the lxx., the former most often 
for *flf, the latter for Dh. 

He who is άκακος embodies Christ- 
ian love (1 Cor. xiii. 6 £). 

αμίαντος] V. L. immacukUus (m- 
contaminatus), Vulg. itnpoUutus, «n- 
dsJUed. ι Pet L 4; James L 27; (c. 
xiiL4); Wisd. viii. 2a 

No impurity ovor hindered tho ful- 
filment of llis priestly office (Lev. 
xvl 4). 

Primasius tersely marks the appli- 
cation of the throe words : Sanctus in 
intoriore homiuo. Innocent manibus. 
Impolluto corpora. 

Philo speaks of divine reason (0 
Ιβρώτατος λόγος) in man as ο αμίαντος 
άρχι<(χύς (de prof. § 21 ; i. 563 U.\ 
αμέτοχος γάρ κα\ άπαράο^κτος παντός 
tltKU πίφυκί* αμαρτήματος. Comp. de 
via. § 10 (ii. 246 Μ.}. 

κ<χωρισμίνος...γ*νόμ*νος...] Latt*Sfc- 

gregaius a pecccUoribu$...excel$un* 

The change of tense in the two 
participles (comp. L 4) marks the 

VII. 27] 



και αψηλότερος των ουρανών γενόμενος* * 7 8ς ούκ ίχει 
κα& η μέρα ν ανάγκην, ωσττερ οι αρχιερείς, πρότερο ν ύπερ 

permanent issue of Christ's Life in 
His exaltation, and the single fact 
(to human apprehension) by which 
it was realised. Contrast It. 14 &*\ψ 


κ*χ*ρ. Are rmv άμ.] The complete 
separation of the Lord from sinners 
(των άμ.) which was realised throngh 
His Life (John xiv. 30) was openly 
established by His victory over death 
at the resurrection (Acts H. 24); and 
that victory is the foundation of His 
present work. (8yr vgyhmi fins.) 

This internal, moral, separation cor- 
responded to the idea symbolised 
by the legal parity of the Levities! 
priests; and especially to the sym- 
bolic separation of the High Priest 
who, according to the later ritual, 
seven days before the great Day of 
Atonement removed from his own 
house to a chamber in tho sanctuary 
(Oehler, Ο. T. TheoL § 140). 

νψηλ. rmv ούρ. y*v.] having became 
(v. 9 note)... Both in His Person and 
in the place of His ministry Christ 
fulfilled in fact what the Jewish 
priests presented in type. 

Under different aspects Christ may 
be said (1) to have been taken, or 
to have entered, 'into heaven, 1 Mark 
xvi. 19; Luke xxiv. 51; Acts i. 10 f.; 
iii. 21; 1 Pet iii. 22; c ix. 24; and 
to be 'in heaven,' Eph. vi. 9; and also 
(2) 'to have passed beyond theheavens' 
(Eph. iv. 10; c. iv. 14 noto)L 

The former phrase expresses His 
reception to the immediate, presence 
of God ; the latter His elevation above 
tho limitations of sense. 

27. ος σνκϊχιικαΐ? ήμίρα*...] The 
comparison which is instituted here 
is beset at first sight with a serious 
difficulty. It seems to be stated that 
the High-priests are under the daily 
necessity of offering sacrifice for their 
own sins and for the sins of the people. 

This double sacrifice is elsewhere in 
tho Epistle (c. ix. 7) connected with 
the great Day of Atonement and the 
'yearly' work of the High-priest 
(ix. 25); nor is it obvious how the 
language can be properly used of any 
daily function of the High-priest 

There can be no question that «off 
ήμ*ρα* (Latt quotidie) means only 
'day by day,' 'daily' (a x. 11). And 
further 'to have necessity of sacri- 
ficing' cannot without violence be 
limited to the meaning of 'feeling 
daily the necessity of sacrificing ' from 
consciousness of sin, though the sacri- 
fice is made only once a year. 

have found fevour may be at once set 

1. ' Who hath not necessity, as tho 
High Priests have on each Day of 
Atonement (or 'on recurring days,' 
' one day after another'), to offer sacri- 

This interpretation is Ingeniously 
represented by Biosenthal's conjecture 
that the (assumed) Aramaic original 
had HDV , KD1\ which the Greek trans- 
lator misunderstood. 

2. ' Who hath not necessity, as the 
High Priests daily feel the necessity, 
to offer...' 

At the same time the order of the 
words must be observed. The writer 
says or ουκ Jjr* ι Kaff ήμ, άράγκην. . .Θυσίας 
Α*αφ*ρ<ιρ, and not ot ουκ ίχη ανάγκην 
Knff ήμ. θ. άναφ. That is, the necessity 
is connected with something which is 
assumed to be done daily. 

This peculiarity seems to suggest 
the true solution of the difficulty. 
The characteristic High-priestly office 
of the Lord is fulfilled 'daily,' 'for 
ever,' and not only, as that of the 
Levitical High-priest, on one day 
In the year. The continuity of His 
office marks its superiority. But in 




[VII. 27 

των ϋίων αμαρτιών θυσίας αναφέρει, έπατα των τον 
λαον- (τοντο yap έποίησβν εφάπαξ έαντόν dveviyw) 

θυσία* D r 

«7 wpoamfryxat 
aV«r4y*at rBD t : «-pwcrtyrat ΚΑ. 

this daily interoeMion He requires no 
daily sacrifice, as those High-priests 
require a sacrifice on each occasion of 
their appearance before Qod in the 
Holy of Holies. 

Thus the καί ήμίρα* belongs ouly to 
the description of the Lord's work, 
and nothing more than ανάγκη* ίχουσι* 
is to be supplied with ol άρχι*ρ<ϊς, the 
sense being: 4 He hath not daily neces- 
aity [in the daily fulfilment of His 
intercessory workl as the High-priests 
[hare necessity on each occasion when 
they fulfil them], to offer sacrifices...' 

This interpretation however does 
not completely explain the use of «off 
ήμίραν. It might have seemed more 
natural to say woXXwus (x. n). But 
here a new thought comes in. The 
daily work of the Priests was summed 
up and interpreted by the special 
High-priestly work of the Day of 
Atonement. The two parts of the 
daily sacrifice, the priestly (High- 
piiestly) Miuchah (meal-offering) and 
the lamb (the burnt-offering), were re- 
ferred to the needs of the priests and 
of the people respectively. SeePhilo, 
Quit rer. div. hair. { 36 (L p. 497 M.): 
ras iwb*k*x*is Θυσίας 6pa$ *lt ίσα oty- 
ρημινας, ty r* vsip αντωρ άνάγονσι* ol 
Uptit ώα της σιμώαΚιως καϊ την vwip 
τοΰ ίθνονς των dvoi* άμνων ους αναφε- 
ρόν dttlpqrai. 

And as the High-priests took part 
in the daily sacrifices on special occa- 
sions, Jos. B. J. v. 5, 7, or at their 
pleasure (Mishna, Tamid 7. 3), they 
were said both by Philo (<U spec 
Ugg. i 23, iL 321 M.) and by the 
Jewish Rabbis to offer daily: Dolitssch, 
Zischr. f. d. luth&r. TheoL i860 £ 
593 f. The passage of Philo is of 
considerable interest He is dwelling 
upon the representative character of 

the High-priest In this respect, he 
says: row σύμπαντος Ιθνους σνγρνης 
κα\ άγχιστινς kowos β άρχι•ρ*\>ΐ iort... 
βύχάί...κα\ θυσίας τ*\ων καθ* έκαστη* 
ημίραν κα\ αγαθά αΙτονμ**ος ως Μρ 
ά6*\φω* κα\ γονιών καϊ r«w»... 

Comp. Eccles. xlv. 14 θυσίαι αύτου 
('Ααρών) οΚο*αρπωθήσονται καύ* ημίραν 

ΙνΜ^χως Ms. v. 16. Ex. xxx. 7; Lev. 
vl 20 ff; Jos. AnU iii. 10^ 7. 

Under this aspect the daily saori- 
fiees were a significant memorial of 
the conditions of the High-priestly 
intercession on the one Day of Atone- 
ment It may be added that iu this 
connexion the variant άρχ**ρ*ύς iu x. 
1 1 is of considerable interest 

or ουκ l X ti...] This, which is the 
chief characteristic of the new High- 
priest, is not given in a participial 
clause, but as a substantive statement 
(ro4oGrof...ot ουκ Ιχβι). 

| χ . άν....αΜΐφήΜΐ»'] Lk. xiv. 18; 
(xxiil 17X The phrase is not in the 

ol αρχ.] the High-priests who belong 
to the system under discussion. 

(πρστιρον) hrevra των τον λαον] 

Latt deinde pro populi. This was 
the order on the great Day of Atoue- 
ment: Lev. xvi.6£ 

άναφ4ρ*ιν] The Hellenistic use 
of this verb for the offering of sacri- 
fices occurs in Ν. T. in c xiii. 15; 
James IL 21 ; 1 Pet iL 5. Comp. c ix. 
28 ; 1 Pet ii. 24. 

The full construction of the word 
is ανάφεραν csrl ro θυσιαστήριο* (James 

In the lxx. άναφίρ** is the habi- 
tual rendering of nf%*) in connexiou 
with the njty (ολοκαύτωμα) i and of 
■vpfJO in connexion with n08|P0 iu 
the Pentateuch. 

VII. 28] 



*8 • 

ο νόμος yap ανθρώπους καθί&τηοΊν dp%i€p€K ίχοντας, 

«8 κα0. UptU ά*0ρ. D r 

It occurs very rarely In this sens• 
for W?ft (2 Chron. xxix. 31 f.). 

Oil the other hand προσφίρ** is 
the habitual rendering of Κ'?Π and 

of anp?j/ 

It is not used in tho Pentateuch as 
a rendering of ϊγ#η, though it does 
so occur in tho lator books: Jer. xiv. 
12; and for *vppn 2 K. x?i 15. 

The full construction is προσφίρ** 
τψ θ<$ («vp/y). 

From thoso usages it appears that 
in &ραφ4ρ*ι* (to offer up) we hare 
mainly the notion of an offering made 
to God and placed upon His altar, in 
προσφίριιν (to offer) that of an offering 
brought to Ood. In the former the 
thought of the destination of the 
offering prevails: in the latter that of 
tho offerer in his relation to God. 

*Κναφίρ<ιν therefore properly de- 
scribes the ministerial action of the 
priest, and προσφ4ρ<ιν the action of 
tho offerer (Lor. il. 14, 16; ?i 33, 35); 
but tho distinction is not observed 
nnivoraally ; thus Α*αφ(ρ<ν is used of 
the people (Lov. xrii. 5), and προσ- 
φίριιν of the priosts (Lor. xxi. 21). 

τούτο γ**ρ...] It is gonorally sup- 
posed that the reference is to be 
limited to tho latter clause, that is, to 
the making an offering for the sins of 
the people. It is of course true that 
for Himself Christ had no noed to 
offer a sacrifice in any sense. But 
perhaps it is better to supply the 
ideal sense of the High-priest's offer- 
ings, and so to leave the statement in 
a general form. Whatever the Aaronic 
High-priest did in symbol, as a sinful 
man, that Christ did perfectly as sin- 
less in His humanity for men. 

4φάπα(] c ix. 12; x. 10. Comp. 
&παξ vi. 4 note. 

Contrary to the general usage of 
the Epistle <φάπαξ follows the word 

with which it is connected instead of 
preceding it. 

iavro* &*ρ4γκας] in that He offered 
up Hinuefa Lett «0 (eeipeum) offer- 
endo. Here first Christ is presented 
as at once the Priest and the victim. 
Comp. ix. 12, 14 (tut nw. al»¥.\ 25 f„ x. 
IO, 12; Eph. v. 2 (παρ4σ»Κ9ρ\ Offror 
ti το iavnv προσίνήνοχ* σ»μα, avYof 
Uptvt καί Uptlow γιρομιροΐ, κα\ tit Btot 
μ*τα του warpot καί τον πΡίνματΜ το 
trnpow h x 6p*rot (Thdt). 

Herveius calls attention to the 
uniqueness of Christ's sacrifice: ut 
quoniam quatuor considerantar in om- 
nl sacrificio, quid offeratur, cui offera- 
tur, a quo offeratur, pro quibus offera- 
tur, idem ipse unus verusque mediator 
per sacrificium pacis reconcilians nos 
Deo unum cum illo maneret cui offere- 
bat, unum in $e faceret pro qttibut 
offerebat, unus ipse esset qui offerebat 
et quod offerebat 

The offering of Christ upon the 
Cross was a High-priestly act, though 
Christ did not become ( High-priest 
after the order of Melchisedek,' that 
is, royal High-priest! till the Asoon- 
sion. Comp. vi. 20 note. 

On tho completeness of Christ's 
priostly work Chrysostom has a strik- 
ing sentence: jm) toiVvp adrow Upia 
άκονσαί at\ UpSurBat ρύμιζί' άπαξ yap 
Ιιρόσατο καϊ λοιιτο* ίκάθισιν. Comp. 
Euth. Zig. ο Xpurrbf άπαξ UpArcwrtp. 

28. 6 ψόμοψ.,.δ Xoyot rrjt ορχωμ....] 
The freedom of Christ from the ne- 
cessity by which the Aaronic High- 
priests are bound follows from His 
nature, for the Law... The truth 
which has been laid open in the two 
preceding verses is here expressed 
summarily by recapitulation in its 
final form: the Levitical High-priests 
are weak men, the High-priest after 
the order of Melchisedek a Son eter- 
nally perfected. 

Mpamovt] in contrast with via»: 



[VII. 28 

aadeveiavy Xoyos $e της ορκωμοσίας της μετά τον 
νόμον γίΟΝ # elc τον ΛΐωΝΑ τετ€\€ΐωμ€νον. 

many men (v. 23) are contrasted with 
the One Son. The plural also suggests 
the Dotiou of death in contrast with 
tit τον αΙωνα. 

Ιχοντας άσθ.] cf. c. τ. 2. For the 
force of ίχων ao-Bivtiav as distinguished 
from άσβίφ see ι John L 8 note. 
Compare y. 12; vii. 27; ix. 8; x, 36; 
it 25. Thin 'weakness' includes both 
the actual limitations of humanity as 
it is, and the personal imperfections 
and sins of tho particular priest The 
use of the sing. (aaBtvtta) aud the plur. 
(aa&ivtuu) is always instructive. 

For sing, in the Epistles see Rom. 
vi. 19; τϋϊ. 26; 1 Cor. ii. 3; xv. 43; 
2 Cor. xi. 3a 

For plur. civ. 15; 2 Cor. xil 5, 10. 

The sing, and plur. occur together, 
2 Cor. xii. 9. Compare Matt viii. 17. 

Ι λ. της έρκωμ. της μ, τ. v.] the word 

of the oath, spoken iu Psalm ex. 4, 
which wot taken after the Law... 
The 'oath-taking' and not the 'word' 
is the emphatic element (op*, της μ*τά 
τ. v. not 6 μ€τά τ. *.χ The oath came 
after the Law, and must therefore 
have had respect to it, and so pro- 
spectively annulled it In this respect 
the 'oath' takes up the 'promise.' 
Oomp. Gal. iii. 17. 

vioi>, tit r. al. rtrtX.] The idea of 
Son (i. 1 ft; iii. 6; iv. 14 τον vlov τον 
Btov) is now combined with that of 
High-priest Our High-priest is not 
only a Bon, but a 8on who having 
become man has been raised above 
all the limitations of humanity. The 
complete idea of the Person of the 
High-priest of the new Dispensation 
is thus gained before His work is un- 
folded in detail 

Compare Thbodorbt: 01) μήν ikkov 

vlov voqrtov πάρα τον φνσ« vlov άλ\ά 
τον αύτον mu φύσ -ti tvra vlov tit Btov 
col πάλιν &€χ6μ**ον την aMjv προση- 
γορία* tit Ανθρωπο*. 

Aud Primasius: Ponithic^postolus 
Filii nomen ad distinctionem servorum 
qui fuerunt in lege; quia servi infirmi 
fuerunt sive quia peccatores sive quia 
mortales erant: Filium vero perfectum 
ostendit» quia semper vivit et sine 
poccato est 

TtTt\*mp4vov] For tho idoa of 
riXfWif see iL 10 note. Hitherto 
the idea of Christ's consummation has 
been regarded in its historic realisa- 
tion (it ΙΟ ι»«λ#Μ»σαι, V. 9 rfXfi«»0cfr). 
Now it is regarded in its abiding 
issues. Comp. il 18 π*πονο\ν note. 

The participle, as contrasted with 
the adjective rAtior, forms a com- 
plete antithesis to Ιχων aautvttav. 
The perfection is gained through the 
experience of a true human life (c v. 


Tho realisation of the Priosthood of 
Christ necessarily carries with it the 
abrogation of the typical priesthood 
of the Law. The presence of 'weak- 
ness 1 in the Levities! priests was 
realised in the consequences of im- 
porfoction and death. Such a priest- 
hood oould not bring TtXtiwrit, and 
it was of necessity interrupted. On 
the other hand Christ took upon Him- 
self human nature (iv. 15) subjoot to 
temptation and death, that so He 
might taste death/or aU, but as High- 
priest in His glory He is raised wholly 
above all infirmity and death, though 
still able to sympathise with tho»e 
who are subject to them (ct ν ι £). 
Compare Additional Note. 


Additional Note on vii. i. The significance of Melchizedek. 

The appearance of Melchizedek in the narrative of the Pentateuch is of 
deep interest, both (i) from the position which he occupies in the course of 
Revelation ; and (2) from the manner in which the record of his appearance 
is treated in the Epistla 

1. Melchizedek appears at a crisis in the religious history of the world The po- 
as the representative of primitive revelation, or of the primitive relation of £Η°? .°* 
God and man still preserved pure in some isolated tribe. If, as on the de ^ fothe 
whole seems to be most likely, he was an Amorite, the fact that he had course of 
preserved a true faith becomes more impressive. On this point however Revels- 
Scripture is wholly silent. The lessons of his appearance lie in the appear- * lon - 
ance itself. Abraham marks a new departure, the beginning of a new 
discipline, in the divine history of mankind starting from a personal call. 

The normal development of the divine life has been interrupted. But 
before the fresh order is established we have a vision of the old in its 
superior majesty; and this, on the eve of disappearance, gives its blessing 
to the new. So the past and the future meet: the one bearing witness to 
an original communion of God and men which had been practically lost, the 
other pointing forward to a future fellowship to be established permanently. 
At the same time the names of the God of the former revelation and of the 
God of the later revelation are set side by side and identified (Gen. xiv. 22 ; 
comp. Deut. xxxii. 8 f.). 

2. The writer of the Epistle interprets the Scriptural picture of The treat- 
Melchizedek, and does not attempt to realise the historical person of J? en JlSf r 
Melchizedek. He starts from the phrase in the Psalm after the order ^cJ^qq^ 
Melchizedek (κατά τάξ w Μ€λχισ<ο7κ), and determines the ideas which such m the 

a description was fitted to convey from a study, not of the life of the king- Epistle, 
priest, which was unknown, but of the single record of him which had been 
preserved. By the choice of the phrase the Psalmist had already broadly 
distinguished the priesthood of the divine king from the Levitical priest- 
hood. It remained to work out the distinction. Therefore the writer of 
the Epistle insists upon the silence of Scripture. He draws lessons from 
the fact that in the narrative of the Ο. T. no mention is made of the 
parentage or genealogy of Melchizedek or of the commencement or close of 
his priestly office 1 . He seeks to set vividly before his readers the impres- 
sion conveyed by the remarkable phenomena of his unique appearance in 
patriarchal life, and the thoughts which they might suggest 

1 Philo uses the silence of Scripture birth of Cain (Gen. iv. 1 ; contrast iv. 

in a similar way: e.g. the absence of 35), de Cher. §8 16 f. (i. 149 M.); the 

any geographical details in the mention absence of the personal name of the 

of the Euphrates (Gen. ii. 14), Leg, man who met Joseph, Quod det. pot. 

Alleg. I 17 (L 60 M.) ; the absence of intid. § 8 (i. 195—6). Siegfried, Philo 

the title 'son' in the record of the v. Alex. 179 f. 


At the same time this mode of treatment leaves the actual human 
personality and history of Melchizedek quite untouched. The writer does 
not imply that that was true of him literally as a living man which is 
suggested in the ideal interpretation of his single appearance in the Bible. 
He does not answer the question Who and what was Melchizedek t but 
What is the characteristic conception which can be gained from Scripture 
of the Priesthood of Melchizedek t 
. The treat- The treatment of the history of Melchizedek is typical and not allegorical 
oal^iotTa- The Bpist,e in fact contaiD8 no allegorical interpretation. The difference 
legorical. " between the two modes is clear and decisive. Between the type and the 
antitype there is a historical, a real, correspondence in the main idea of 
each event or institution. Between the allegory and the application the 
correspondence lies in special points arbitrarily taken to represent facts or 
thoughts of a different kind. A history, for example, is taken to illustrate 
the relation of abstract ideas (oomp. GaL iv.). The understanding of the 
type lies in the application of a rule of proportion. The law by which it is 
regulated lies in the record, which is taken to represent the life. The 
understanding of the allegory depends on the fancy of the composer. lie 
determines which of many possible applications shall be giveu to the subject 
with which he deals. 

A type presupposes a purpose in history wrought out from age to age. 
An allegory rests finally in the imagination, though the thoughts which it 
expresses may be justified by the harmonies which connect the many 
elements of life. 

This consideration tends furthor to explain why the writer of the 
Epistle takes the Biblical record of Melchizedek, that is Melchizedek so 
far as he enters into the divine history, and not Melchizedek himself, as 
a type of Christ The history of the Bible is the record of the divine life 
of humanity, of humanity as it was disciplined for the Christ. The im- 
portance of this limitation of the treatment of the subject is recognised by 
patristic writers ; e'.g. Xlyt 4 τά κατ iKtivov ου τη¥ φυσιν ίξηγούμ§νος αλλά τη* 
κατ αύτο¥ διήγησιν άπο της Btiat nutU γραφής και άπ Ικύνης εμφαίνω* τό 
Ζμοιον (Theodore ap. Cram. Cat. vii. p. 203). 
The onus- λ One omission in the Epistle cannot but strike the student The writer 
"ifTo / the A akes no notioe of the B^ 1 * of M^chizedek, who 'brought forth bread and 
Dread and| wme ' (^ eD - xiv • l8 ) wuen ue came *° meet Abraham. This is the more 
wine. ι remarkable as the incident is dwelt upon in the Midi-ash. The * bread and 
I wine' are regarded there as symbols of the shewbread and the drink- 
/ / offering, or of the Torah itself (Beresh. R. xliii. 18 [Prov. ix. 5]; WUnsche 
V / P• I 99)• And stress was naturally laid upon this detail in later times. 
I The Fathers from Clement of Alexandria (see below) and Cyprian (Ep. ad 
I Cadi. 63, 4) downwards not unfrequently regard the bread and wine as 
I the materials of a sacrifice offered by Melchizedek ; and Jerome distinctly 
I states that they were offered for Abraham {ad Matt. xxii. 41 ff. ; comp. ad 
I Matt. xxvi. 26 η*.) 1 . 

1 Bellarmine [Controv. de Mitta i. still farther collection is given by Peta- 

0. 6) dwells at considerable length on vius de Incarn. zii. 11. The true view 

this aspect of the incident, and gives a is preserved by Joeephus Antt. i. 10, 1; 

long array of quotations in support A Philo (see below) ; Tertullian adv. Jud. 


All this makes tho silence of the Apostle the more significant. He 
presents, and we cannot but believe that he purposely presents, Melchizedek 
as priest, not in sacrificing but in blessing, that is, in communicating the 
fruits of an efficacious sacrifice already made. He only can bless who is in 
fellowship with God and speaks as His representative. And it is under 
this aspect that the writer of the Epistle brings before us characteristically 
the present work of Christ. 

A similar lesson lies in the positive fact which stands out most signifi- The com- 
cantly in the words of the Epistle. Melchizedek is priest at once and king, hination of 
The combination of offices which meets us in the simplest forms of society «^£5^° 
is seen to be realised also when humanity has attained its end. Philo in an offices, 
interesting passage points out the difficulty of combining the priesthood 
with kingly power (de carit. § ι ; ii. p. 384 M.), and yet such a combination 
must exist in the ideal state. He who unites with the Unseen must direct 
action. He who commands the use of every endowment and faculty must 
be able to consecrate them. He who represents man to Ged with the 
efficacy of perfect sympathy must also represent God to man with the 
authority of absolute power. 

It is remarkable that Melchisedek is not dwelt upon in early Jewish Silepce of 
commentators. It does not appear that he was ever regarded as a type of ^-J^ M 
Messiah (Schoettgen ad loc\ The only example of this interpretation is to Melchi- 
quoted by Heinsius from Moses Hadarshan, whose person and writings are zedek. 
involved in great obscurity, but who seems to have lived in the nth 
century (Heinsius, Ezercit. Sacra, p. 517 ; and from him Deyling, ExerciU 
Sacra, ii. 73). 

The writer of the Epistle, as we have seen, regards Melchizedek as a Philo. 
living type of a living and eternal King-priest The old history, true in its 
literal reality, was, according to him, perfectly, ideally fulfilled in the facts 
of Christian history. Philo also deals with Melchizedek, but with charac- 
teristic differences. For Philo the history is a philosophic allegory and 
not a typical foreshadowing of a true human life. Melchizedek represents 
the power of rational persuasion which offers to the soul food of gladness 
and joy, and so in some sense answers to the priestly Logos : Leg. AUeg. 
Hi. §§ 25 f. (1. p. 103 Μ.) : καλ§1σθω ovv /icr τύραννος άρχων πολίμον ο Μ 
βασιλ* vr ήγ*μων ιϊρήνης, 2α\ήμ. καΐ προσφ*ρ*τω rj) ψυχρ τ ροφάς ευφροσύνης 
καί χαράς πλήρεις• Χρτονς γαρ κα\ οινον προσφίρει... Thus he recognises his 
position as a 'natural 1 priest, but his priesthood is a symbol of the action 
of 'right reason,' which brings to man righteousness and joy through 
thoughts of absolute truth. Compare de congr. erud. grot. § 1 8 (i. p. 533 M.) 
ο rfjv αντομαθή κα\ αυτοδίδακτο* \αχών Ιερωσννην ; de Abrahamo § 40 (Η• 34 
Μ.) ο μ4γας Αρχιερευς τον μεγίστου θεού. 

Clement of Alexandria dwells on the combination of righteousness and Clement of 

3; Epiph. Hat. lv. § 8, p. 475, nor Bellarmine, Whitaker Disputation, pp. 
can there be any doubt that the 167 f. (Park. Soc.) ; Jackson On the 
original narrative describes refresh- Creed, ix. 10 ; Waterland App. to the 
ment offered to Abraham and his ChrUtian Sacrifice explained, pp. 
company and not a sacrifice made on 461 if. (ed. 1868). Heidegger Hi$t. 
their behalf. Compare, in answer to Pair. ii. Dissert. 2 g u. 


peace in Melchizedek and Christ, and sees in the offerings of bread and wine 
a figure of the Eucharist (elt τύπο* ευχαριστία* Strom, iv. 25 § 163, p. 637 P.; 
comp. Strom, ii. 5 § 21, p. 439 P.). 
Jerome. Jerome gives in one of his letters (Ep. lxxiii. ad Evangelum ; comp. 

Vallarsius ad loc.) a summary of early opinions as to the person of 
Melchizedek in answer to a correspondent who had sent him an essay 
written with a view to shew that Melchizedek was a manifestation of the 
Holy 8pirit 

Origen and Didymue, he says, regarded him as an Angel (compare 
Nagel Stud. u. Krit. 1849, ss. 332 ft). Hippolytus, Irenasus, Eusebius of 
Ceesarea, Eusebius of Emesa, Apollinaris, and Eustathius of Antioch, as 
a man, a Oanaanite prince, who exercised priestly (unctions, like 'Abel, 
Enoch, Noah, Job.' 

The Jews, he adds (and so Primasius: 'tradunt Hebnei'), iden- 
tified him with 8hem, an opinion which finds expression in the Tar- 
gums of Jonathan and Jerusalem : Melchizedek king of Jerusalem, he 
is Shorn the son of Noah [Jerus. the High-priest (Κ2Ί jro) of the Most 

This last opinion has found much favour; but it is supported by 110 

direct evidence (comp. Heidegger Hi$t. Patriarch, ii. Diss. 2). Epiphanius 

attributes it to the Samaritans (How. Iv. 6 ; p. 471). 

Some hold Two other strange opinions may be noticed. Some orthodox Christians 

? ί to'S supposed that Melchizedek was an Incarnation of the Son of God or 

divine ma- Pe r h a P* simply a Chrietophauy. How then, Epiphanius asks, could he be 

nifeeta- said to be made like to himself 1 (Host. Iv. 7 ; p. 474). Hierax (c 280) in 

tion. order to avoid this difficulty held, according to the view uoticed by 

Jerome, that be was an Incarnation, or more probably an appearance, of 

the noly Spirit (Epiph. Harr. ixvil 7 ; p. 715). This opinion finds a very 

bold expression in the anonymous Quant, ex V. et N. Testamento appended 

to the works of Augustine (Vol. iii. Ed. Bened.) : Similis Dei filio non potest 

esse nisi sit ejusdem naturae. Et quid incredibile si Melchisedech ut 

homo apparuit cum intelligatur tertia esse persona ? Si enim Christus qui 

secunda persona est frequenter visus est in habitu homjnis, quid ambigitur 

de iie quoj dicta sunt? Suinmus sacerdos Christus est, Melchisedech 

8ecundue...ChritttU8 vicarius Patris est et autistes, ac per hoc dicitur et 

sacerdos. Similiter et Spiritus sanctus, quasi antiste*, sacerdos appellatus 

est excels! Dei, non summiis, sicut nostri in oblatione presumunt... 

(Aug. iii App. § cix. Migne P. L. 35, p. 2329; comp. Hier. Ep. lxxiii. ad 

Eoang. § 1). 

The sect of The sect of the 'Meldiizedechians' described by Epiphanius (Haw. Iv.) 

the^ Mel- offerg gome points of interest. As an offshoot of the 'Theodotians' (Epiph. 

ohiane. 6 ' * α *> Ρ* 4^) ^ iev efcarfce ^ ft" " 1 humanitarian views of Christ, and 

naturally looked for some higher Mediator. Melchizedek, they argued, 

was higher than Christ, because Christ was appointed after his order. 

Christ was ordained by Qod to turn men from idols and shew them the 

way to the true knowledge of this eternal High-priest They therefore 

* made their offerings to the name of Melchizedek' (§ 8 els Svopa τούτου τοΰ 

McXxuTfdfK ή...αϊρ*σις κα\ τάς προσφοράς &*αφ4ρει), in order that 'through 

him offerings might be made (προσβηχθο) for them and they might find life 


through him.' He was hi their judgment the priest ' who brought men'to 

God * (tleaymytvt «pot rhm tfroV) 1 . 

The tradition, or fiction, as to Mekhiiedek in 'the Book of Adam' it Tholegend 
singularly picturesque. To him and Shorn, it is said, the charge wai given J^Jfi* 011 ^ 
to bear the body of Adam to Calvary, and place it there where in after Jj2£. 
time the Incarnate Word should suffer, so that the blood of the 8aviour 
might fall on the skull of the Protoplast In the fulfilment of this mission 
Melchlsedek built an altar of twelve stones, typical of the twelve apostles, 
by the spot where Adam was laid, and offered upon it, by the direction of 
an angel, bread and wine 'as a symbol of the sacrifice which Christ should 
make' in due time. When the mission was accomplished Shorn returned 
to his old home, but Melchisedek, divinely sppointed to this priesthood, 
continued to serve God with prayer and fasting at the holy place, arrayed 
in a robe of fire. 80 afterwards when Abraham came to the neighbourhood 
he communicated to him also 'the holy mysteries, 9 the symbolical Eucharist 
(Dillmann, Da» ChrUtl. Adambuch a\ Morgenl. as. 111 n% 1853.) 

Additional Note on vii. 1. The Biblical Idea of Blessing, 

The idea of 'blessing 9 in Its simplest form, the solemn expression, that The 
is, of goodwill towards another by one who occupies in this respect a β*™**? 
position of superiority towards him, is a natural recognition of the spiritual ^jeming. 
influence of man upon man. The idea ofton becomes degraded, materialised, 
perverted : it gives rise to the opposite conception of 'cursing'; but in 
Scripture it assumes a characteristic form which throws light upon the 
Biblical teaching as to man's relation to God. 

The two words which are need in the Old and Now Testaments for Biblioal 
blessing ιρί OP?) and «vXoyt w appear to convoy two fundamental thoughts words for 
which are included in the act The first (TO), from a root which describes °*' 

'kneeling,' 'prostration/ seoms to oxpress the feeling of reverent adoration 
which arises from the recognition of a spiritual presence by him who 
blesses*; and the second (ivXoyi*) marks the utterance of the good which 
is supposed to be prophetically seen or ideally anticipated and realised 3 . 

1 The sect is noticed very briefly by tibos angelis atque virtu tibae 1 ... (I.e.). 

Fhflastrlus, H*r. 51; and by An- * The construction of Ή3 ta nor " 

muun^Dihrnr.^. Tlw writer whose mftll ^ |η Λβ nmple ^^Ινο 

fragment is attached to Tertuli de whether Λβ ο}ή „ % ^ Qod or man# 

jwwser. (| 53) and Theodoret {H*r. Jn Αβ utwp ^^φ | t fa construed 

Fab. ii. 6) assign its origin to another ■ u , . 

Theodotus, Uter than Thecdotus of ^™?: 1 Ohron.xxix. so; Neh.xl.s; 

Bysantium. The former writer ap- and Dan. ii. 19; iv. 31 (Ohald.). 

pears to have had some independent * Bd\oytb> in the lzz. generally 

source of information. He grounds takes an accusative of the object In 

the superiority of Melohisedek on the the later books it is rarely construed 

fact *eo quod agat Ohristuspro homini- with the dative : Dan. iv. 31 (not ii. 19); 

bus, depreeator eorum et advocatus Eeclus. L ss; li. is; s Mace. z. 38. 

faetus, Melohisedek faeere pro caries- Gomp. Jer. iv. s. 


Thua the two word• when taken together describe the conception of 
blessing in its loftiest sense as invohring a true perception of what Qod is 
and what His will is, both generally and towards the person over whom it 
is pronounced, according as the blessing is addressed to God Himself or to 

The The patriarchal blessings bring out this idea of blessing distinctly. 

ϊ^°ί This appears in the first exercise of the father's prophetio power (Gen. ix. 

Blessing 2 5 &)* The curse and the blessing of Noah pronounced upon his sons is 

illustrated the unrolling of their future. The blessing of Shem lies in the recognition 

by the of the majesty of the Lord (Gen. ix. 26 Blessedbe (is) the Losd, the God (/ 

of Λβ" 8 " Shem). The truth becomes plainer afterwards. The patriarch becomes 

Patriarch. *° β interpreter of the divine counsel to him through whom it is to be 

fulfilled. His own natural purpose is subordinated to the expression of 

the spiritual message which he delivers. The will of God found so clear a 

revelation in His direct dealings with Abraham and Isaac that no human 

voice was needed to enforce it. A new departure began with Jacob. 

Here a choice was made by God contrary to the wish of Isaac, but when 

once Isaac perceived what had been done he acknowledged that the will 

of God was his will also (Gen. xxvii. 33). Jacob himself in his turn, 

consciously set aside the privilege of birth (Gen. xlviii. 14 ff.) and gave 

precedence to Ephraiin the younger son in his blessing of Joseph (Gen. 

xlviii. 19). And so completely is the thought of the declaration of the 

divine counsel identified with the blessing of hiin to whom it is announced 

that in the prophetic outline of tho fortunes of the twelve tribos (Gen. xlix.) 

even the outward disasters which were announced to Reuben, Simeon, and 

Levi are reckoned among blessings (Gen. xlix. 28) by him who saw beyond 

the human aspect of things (comp. Deut. xxxiii.). 

Such an idea of blessing as the simple announcement of the counsel of 

God, which must in its essence be welcomed as a counsel of righteousness 

and love, is a fruit of revelation. It corresponds with the view of creation 

as destined to fulfil the purpose of the Creator in spite of the self-assertion 

of the creature. It embodies an absolute faith in human progress. 

The ethnic In sharp contrast with this divine idea of blessing is that which is 

idea of expressed by Balak. For him blessings and curses are dispensed by the 

Blessing, arbitrary will of one who is possessed of an exceptional power (Num. xxii. 

6; comp. xxiv. 1). But the utter frustration of his hopes leaves in the 

record of Scripture the fullest possible affirmation of the fact that the 

prophet cannot do more than give utterance to that which is the mind 

of God (Num. xxii. 38; xxiii. 26; xxiv. 13. Comp. Josh. vi. 26; 2 K. 


The ritual The prophetic blessing is necessarily exceptional, but the solemn decla- 

Blessing. ration of God's purpose belongs to ail time. Thus in the organisation of 

worship and life blessing is the voice of the authoritative minister of God, 

the priest or the head of the household, who acknowledges the love and 

power of God and prays that thoy may be effective for those on whose 

behalf they are invoked (comp. 2 Sam. vi. 18} 1 K. viii. 5 f., 55 ; 1 Chrou. 

xvi. 2 ; 1 Sam. ii. 20; 2 Chron. xxx. 27). Blessings formed an important 

part of the public and of the private service of the Jews. When Aaron 

was solemnly invested with the priesthood 'As lifted up his hand• towards 


the people and blessed them 1 (Lev. is. 22), and at this point of transition in 
the religions history of Israel Moses joined with him in repeating the 
action, 'and the glory of the Lord appeared to all the people 9 (Lev. ix. 23). 
The first treatise in the Mlshnah is on 'Blessings' (Berachoth); and the 
series of 'the Eighteen' Blessings is the most striking feature In the daily 
service of the Synagogue. 

The form of sacerdotal blessing prescribed to 'Aaron and his sons 9 
(Num. vi. 22 ff.) brings into a clear light the character and the foundation 
of the divine blessing: 

The Lord bleu thee and keep thee: 

The Lord make Hie fate to thine upon the$ t and be gracious unto thee : 

The Lord l\ft up Hie countenance upon thee, and give thee peace 
(cotnp. Pa iv. 6 ; lxvii. 1). 

So, it is added, ehall they put my Name upon the children of Israel, 
and I will Hess them. The blessing, that is, consists in the true fellowship 
of the people with God as He had made Himself known to them. Hence 
the act of blessing itself is said to be f in the Name of the Lord' (1 Chron. 
xxiii. 13; Ecclus. xlv. 15). He who fulfils it does so in virtue of his own 
connexion with God (comp. John xiv. 13 note). 

It appears from what has been already said that the idea of a true Blessing 
Messing lies in the vision and realisation of the divine will. This thought ty God 
is applied in many different ways. Man 'blesses' God: God ' blesses ' J^J^ 
man: man 'blesses' man: and, much more rarely, both God and man 
'bless' objects which are not personal. When man 'blesses' God he 
devoutly acknowledges some special feature in His nature or purpose or 
action which he regards as a ground of grateful praise: Deut. viil 10; 
Jud. v. 2, 9; 1 K. x. 9; Neh. ix. 5. 

If God 'blesses' man, He makes known to him something as to His 
counsel which the man is able to appropriate for his spiritual good : Gen. L 
28 ; ix. 1 ; xii. 2 f. eVc ; xvil. 16 ; xxv. 1 1 ; (Num. vl. 24). 

If man 'blesses' man, he speaks as the representative of the Divine 
Voice declaring its message in the form of prayer or of Interpretation : 
Gen. xxvii 4 ff. ; xlvii. 7 ; xlix. 28 ; Lev. ix. 23 ; Num. vL 23 ; Deut x. 8 ; 
xxL 5. 

When God blesses an impersonal object, He reveals His purpose to 
make known through it something of Himself: Gen. i. 22 5 il 3 ; Ex. xxiii. 
25 ; Job i 10 ; Ps. Ixv. 10; cxxxii. 15 ; Prov. Hi. 33. 

When man 'blesses' an impersonal object he recognises in it the 
working of God : 1 Sam. ix. 13 (a unique example in the 0. T.). 

The last form of expression Is specially liable to misunderstanding. In 
such a blessing there is nothing of the idea of a charm or of any magical 
working. The full phrase is 'to bless God for the thing' ; and the early 
forms of blessing pronounced over various articles of food express the 
thought without any ambiguity. Mishna, Berachoth, vi. 1 'How do we 
bless for fruit f For fruit of a tree say "[Blessed art Thou, Lord our 
God], who createst the fruit of the wood"... For fruits of the earth say 
"Who createst the fruit of the ground," excepting the bread. For the 
bread say "Who bringest forth bread from the earth "...' Compare 
De 8ola's Form of Prayers, eYo, Philadelphia, 5638 [1878], i. pp. 270* ft 


The The Jewish idea of ' blessing' which panes from the thought of adoration 

< ΒΒ 8 60*Γ η ' *° ** thou * hte of Potion ***& thanksgiving, all lying in the central 
tions. °" thought of God's revealed nature, finds a characteristic and most uuUo 
expression in the ' Eighteen' Benedictions which have formed a part of the 
Synagogue 8ervice from the earliest times. The text has no doubt been 
revised ; additions have been made to it: differences exist between the 
forms adopted in the congregations of the Spanish and German Jews : 
but substantially these 'Benedictions' seem to have boon iu use in the 
Apostolic age. The first three aud the last three are probably sumo 
centuries oldor. The wholo collection forms the most precious liturgical 
writing of the pravOhristian period, aud it has exercised considerable 
influenoe upon Christian services. As the embodiment of Jewish devotion 
which the Apostles and the Lord Himself may have used it claims oareful 
study. The Benedictions are given in the following form in the Spanish 
(Sephardio) recension : 

i. Blessed art Thou, Ο Loud our God, and the God of our fathers, the 
God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob (Ex. iu. 15), the 
great God, the mighty, aud the terrible (Deut x. 17), God most High 
(Gen. xiv. 18), that bestowest gracious benefits (D*?to D'*)9P), that possessest 
the universe, and rememberest the good deeds of the fathers (Πϋ{? ΊφΠ), 
even He that bringetli a Redeemer unto their sons' sons for His Name's 
sake in lova 

Ο King, Helper, and Saviour, and Shield, blessed art Thou, Loan, 
the Shield of Abraham. 

2. Thou art mighty for ever, Ο Lord. Thou causest the dead to live, 
plenteous to save, sustaining the living in Thy goodness, quickening the 
dead in Thy plenteous compassion, supporting the fallen, and healing the 
sick, and loosing them that are in bonds, and fulfilling Thy truth to them 
that sleep in the dust Who is like unto Thee, Ο Lord of mighty deeds ; 
and who can be compared unto Thee, Ο King, that bringest to death, and 
bringost to life, and causest salvation to spring forth I Yon, Thou art 
faithful to bring the dead to Ufa 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord, that bringest the dead to life. 

3. Thou art holy and Thy Name is holy. And the holy ones praise 
Thee every day. Solan. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Loan, the holy God. 

4. Thou graciously givest to man (0*J^) knowledge, and teachest ' 
mortal man (Β^(&) understanding. So graciously give unto us knowledge 
and understanding and wisdom. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord, that graciously givest knowledge. 

5. Turn us again, our Father, to Thy law ; and make us draw near, our 
King, to Thy service; and bring us back with a perfect repentance to Thy 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord, that hast pleasure in repentance. 

6. Pardon us, our Father, for we have sinned. Forgive us, our King, 


for we have transgrcssod. For Thou, God, art good and ready to 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord, most gracious, that dost abundantly pardon 
(la It. 7). 

7. Look, we beseech Thee, on oar affliction ; and plead our cause; and 
hasten to redeem us with a perfect redemption for Thy Name's sake. For 
Thou, God, art a strong Redeemer (Jer. L 34). 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Loan, the Redeemer of Israel. 

8. Heal us, Ο Lord, and we shall be healed. 8a?e us and we shall be 
saved (Jer. xvii. 14). For Thou art our praise. Tea, cure and heal all our 
diseases and all our pains and all our wounds. For Thou, God, art a 
compassionate and faithful Healer. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord; even He that healeth the diseases of His 
people Israel. 

9. Bless us, our Father, in all the works of our hands; and bless our 
year with the dews of (Thy) favour, blessing and beneficence; and may its 
close be life and plenty and peace, as the good years that were for a 
blowing. For Thou, God, art good, and doost good, and blossest the years. 

Blossod art Thou, Ο Lord, that blossest tho years 1 . 

10. Sound the great trumpot for our freedom ; and lift up a banner to 
gather our captives ; and gather us together speedily from the four corners 
of the earth (land) to our own land (Deut χτχ. 4 ; la xxvii. 13). 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord ; even He that gathereth the outcasts of His 
people Israel. 

11. Restore us our judges as at the first; and our counsellors as at the 
beginning (Is. i. 26) ; and turn from us sorrow and sighing ; and reign over 
us speedily, Thou, Ο Lord, alone, in compassion, in righteousness and in 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord, a king that lovest righteousness and 
judgment (Fs. xxziii. 5). 

12. To slanderers (traitors) 1 let there be no hope ; and let all heretics 
(Ο'^φΓΟφ) and all proud men perish in a moment And let all thy 
onemies and all that hate Thee bo speedily cut off. And let every one 
that doeth wickedness bo speedily rooted up and broken in pieces and 
consumed. And bow them down speedily in our days. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lobd, that breakest the enemies in pieces, and 
bowost down the proud. 

13. Upon the righteous, and upon the pious (D^TPtJB), and upon the 
remnant of Thy people, the house of Israel, and upon tho residue of tho 
house of their scribes, and upon the proselytes of righteousness, and upon 

1 Two forms of this Benediction are Christians, that is, Christian converts 

given for use in Summer (given in the from Judaism, see Hamburger, Real• 

translation) and Winter respectively. Encycl. filr Bibel u. Talmud ii. s. v. 

Both texts differ considerably from SchemoneEtre ; or Dr Ginsburg in 

that in the German service. Kitto- Alexander, Cyclop, of BibLLite- 

* For the history of this Section, raturt, s. v. Synagogue. 
which has been commonly applied to 


us let Thy compassions, we pray Thee, be moved, Ο Lokd, our Qod, and give 
a good reward to all that trust in Thy Name in truth, and set our portion 
with them. And let us not be put to shame for ever, for in Thee do we 
trust, and upon Thy great mercy are we stayed in truth. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Loan, that art a stay and confidence to the 

14 a. Dwell in the midst of Jerusalem, Thy city, as Thou hast said ; 
and establish in the midst of her speedily tho throuo of David ; and build 
her an oterual buildiug speedily iu our days. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord, that bulkiest Jerusalem. 

146. Oause the Shoot (npjf) of David Thy servant speedily to spring 
forth; and let his house be exalted in Thy Salvation; for we wait for Thy 
salvation day by day. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord, that causest the horn of salvation to spring 

15. Hear our voice, Ο Lord, our Qod, merciful Father. Have mercy 
and compassion upon us ; and receive in compassion and favour our prayer. 
For Thou, Ood, nearest prayers and supplications. And send us not away, 
our King, empty from Thy presence. Be gracious uuto us, and answer us, 
and hear our prayer ; for Thou nearest the prayer of every mouth. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord, that hearest prayer. 

16. Look, Ο Lord our Qod, with favour on Thy people Israel ; and 
have regard to their prayor : and restore the service to the oracle ("*?*] *?) 
of Thy house. And mayest Thou receive with favour speedily the burnt 
offerings of Israel and their prayer in love. And may the service of Israel 
be pleasing to Thee perpetually. And do Thou in Thy plenteous com- 
passion look kindly upon us and be favourable to us ; and may our eyes 
behold when Thou returnest with compassion to Zion. 

Blessed art thou, Ο Lord, even He that restoreth His Shekinah to 

17. We confess unto Thee that Thou art He, the Lord our Qod, and 
the Qod of our Fathers, for ever and over : our Rock, the Rock of our life, 
and the Shield of our salvation. Thou art He. From generation to 
generation we give thanks to Thee and declare Thy praise.... 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord; goodness is Thy Name, and to Thee it is 
meet to give thanks. 

18. Grant peace, goodness, and blessing, life, grace and mercy, 
righteousness and compassion unto us and unto all Israel Thy people; aud 
bless us, our Father, all of us together, in the light of Thy countenance 
(Num. vi. 26). For in the light of Thy countenance Thou hast given to us, 
Ο Lord our Qod, the Law and life, love and mercy, righteousness and 
compassion, blessing and peace. And may it be good In Thine eyes to 
bless Thy people Israel with abundant strength and peace. 

Blessed art Thou, Ο Lord; even He that blesseth His people with 

Each section rests upon the Confession of some feature in the revealed 
character of Qod. Prayer is only the application of that which He has 


made known of Himself to the circumstances of the worshipper. Even in 
judgment there is a manifestation of His righteousness which the belierer 
welcomes with grateful reverence (compare Hamburger and Ginsburg in 
the articles quoted above). 

When we pass from the Old Testament to the Now we find that the Blessing 
use of fvXoyfiv (tvkoyla, rvXoyirror, *ΰλσγημ€Ρος) in the Ν. T. closely corre- fa the 
sponds with the use in the utx. Evtayrnr is used The use ο Γ 

ι. Absolutely without any expressed object, but with the clear thought Bfoorcu'. 
of Him to whom praise is due for every good : Mk. vi. 41 H Matt xiv. 19 ; 
Mk. xiv. 22 Π Matt. xxvi. 26 (all. ιύχαριοτψτας) ; Lk. xxiv. 30. In these 
cases indoed it is poesiblo to take row oprovr, rov apror, as the object from 
tlie context (see § 3), but the Jewish custom points very plainly in the other 
direction ; and this construction is decisively supported by the parallel use 
of tvxapurrup Mk. xiv. 23 II Matt xxvi. 27 ; Mk. viii. 6; Lk. xxiL 17, 19 ; 
John vi. 11. Both words describe the devout acknowledgment of God's 
power and lovo ; but while <v\oy*tt> regards those in relation to God as 
attributes of His glorious Majesty, ηχηριστύψ regards them in relation to 
man as the occasion of grateful thanksgiving. 

In other connexions c tftoyr 4* is used absolutely in J Pet iii. 9 ; 1 Cor. 
iv. 12; xiv. 16; (Rom. xii. 14). 

In Mk. x. 16 av*ra is probably to bo supplied to «orvvXoVff. 

2. With a personal object ; either 

(a) God : Lk. L 64 ; ii. 28 ; xxiv. 53 ; James iii. 9 ; or 

(0) Man: Lk. ii. 34; vi. 28; xxiv. 50 f.; Acts iii. 26; Rom. xii. 14; 

Eph. i. 3 ; Hebr. vi. 14 (lxx.) ; vii. 1, 6, 7 ; xi. 20 f. (in these examples both 

man and God are the subjects). 

3. With a material object : Mk. viii. 7 ; Lk. ix. 16 ; 1 Cor. x. 16. 

In these cases 'blessing the bread 1 must be understood as 'blessing 
God tho givor of tlio bread.' The formulas in uso [at the Paschal meal] 
are givon by Lightfoot on Matt xxvi. 26. Compare p. 205. 

Tho usage of tvXoyla answers to that of cvXoycw'. Ευλογία is attributed EuXoyla. 
(a) to Divine Beings (* the Lamb/ ' He that sitteth on the throne,' God) in 
Apoc. v. 12 f. ; vii. 12 ; (ft) to men, whether It be given (a) by God (Christ) : 
Gal. iii. 14 ; Rom. xv. 29 ; Eph. L 3 (comp. 1 Cor. x. 16 ; 1 Peter iii. 9) ; or 
(β) by man: Heb. xii. 17 ; and (e) to an impersonal object: Hebr. vi. 7. 
And ( the blessing ' includes both the implied promise and that which is 
the substance of the promise, since from the divine side promise and 
fnlftlmont are one. 

The word occurs also in a wider sense of that generosity which realises 
the divine purpose of wealth: 2 Cor. ix. 5!; Rom. xvi. 18 (comp. lxx. 
Gen. xxxiii. 1 1 ; Jos. xv. 19 ; Jud. i. 15 ; 1 Sam. xxv. 27) ; and again quite 
generally, James iii. ία 

Εύλογτρός is used (seven times) of God only, and ό ηλογψή in Mk. xiv. Btooyirrfr. 
61 as tho title of God (comp. Ign. Eph. 1 ; Mart. Pol 14) 1 . By this 
limitation it is distinguished from €νλσγημίψον which is used of * Him that 

1 This is the general bat not the xxiv. 31 ; Dent. vii. 14; 1 Sam. xxv. 33. 
exclusive use in the lxx. See Gen. 

W. H. s 14 


cometh' (Ps. cxviil [cxvii.] 26; Matt xxL 9; xxiii. 39 and parallels [in 
John xii. 13 D roads <ν\ογητός]), of the Mother of the Lord and her Sou 
(Luke L 42) ; of 'the nations on the King's right hand' (Matt xxy. 34); 
and of ' the kingdom of David ' (Mk. xi. 10). 

In classical writers «UXeyt ι», which is rare in early prose, is simply ' to 

«wage. speak well of/ * to praise,' without any of the deeper thoughts which spring 

from the Jewish conception of the divine order and essence of things. 

Even in Philo and Josephus the full religious sense is comparatively rare; 

and Loesner remarks (on Eph. L 3) that when the lxx. uses «ftoyfo, 

Pliilo often introduce* *ύχη or Iwawos. 

Kcdeeias- In the Christian Church the use of * Benedictions ' obtainod a very wido 

tieal extension, but these lie outside our present scope (see the article Dmedic- 

ueage * tions in D. C. A. by Rov. R. Sinker). One detail in liturgical practice may 

be named. In the Eastern services the response to the call for a blessing 

is not unfrequently and characteristically an ascription of Messing to God, 

where in the Western it is a direct invocation of blessing on men (Sinker 

U p. 197). 

Additional Note on vii. 28. The supeiiority of tiie High- 
prieethood of Christ to the Leviticul High-priestltood. 

It is worth while to enumerate distinctly the points in wliich the writer 
of the Epistle marks the superiority of the High-priesthood of Christ over 
that of Aaron. He has already shewn that Christ possesses the quali- 
fications of High-priesthood in ideal perfection, sympathy (ii. 17 f. ; iv. 15 ; 
v. 8 ; vii 26), and divine appointment (v. 5). And more than this he places 
His preeminence in a clear light by a detailed comparison as to 

(a) the form of His appointment (vii. 2 1 ), by an oath (promise) and not 
as dependent on the fulfilment of a covenant ; 

(6) the rule of His priesthood (vii. 16), ' the power of an indissoluble 
life ' and not ' a law of carnal commandment ' ; 

(e) its duration (vii. 23 1\ unchangeable without succession ; 

(d) its nature (vii 28) as of a son made perfect, and not of a weak 

(0) the scene of His service (viii. 2; ix. u) r heaven not earth; 

(/) the character (ix. 12) and 

ig) completeness (vii. 27 ; x. 5 tt) of His offering, consummated alike 
in life and death. 

VIII. ι] 



VIII. τ Κ*φά\αιον ic im roU λβγομβίΌΚ, τοιούτον 

ι iwlrcit: fVroitA. 

IV. Tub Fulpilmsnt op Christ's 
I v rh8tlt Work (viii. I— x. 18). 

The description of the great features 
of Christ's Priesthood which has been 
given in the last division of the 
Kpistio is naturally followed by a 
view of the fulfilment of His office. 
This includes the final answer to the 
disappointments and doubts of the 
Hebrews. It has been shewn that . 
Christ possesses completely the char-, 
acteristics of a High-priest for men 
(c. v. i— 10): that the full appre- 
hension of the dignity of His Person 
and Work requires effort and patience 
(c τ. ι I— vi): that under the Levitical 
system there existed an impressive 
type of a higher order of Priesthood 
which He has satisfied (c. vii.). The 
writer therefore goes on to indicate 
how Ho discharges the duties of this 
supreme and absolute Priesthood, 
and how it involves of necessity the 
abrogation of the Mosaic ritual 

To this end he first marks the 
scene and the conditions of Christ's 
Priestly work, the Now Sanctuary 
and the Now Covenant, a Sanctuary 
of heaven and not of earth, a Covenant 
of grace and not of works (c viii.). 
/lie then compares the High-priestly 
rvice under the Old and New Cove- 
tits in its most august forms, the 
rice of the Day of Atonement 
bnder the Levitical system, and the 
/Passion and Ascension of Christ; 
/while he significantly suggests that 
we are still waiting for the Return of 
Christ from the Presence of God to 
announce the completion of His Work 
(c. ix.). 

In conclusion he brings forward 
the consideration which is at once 
the foundation and the crown of his 
argument The Levitical sacrifices 
could not have any value in them- 
selves. The sacrifice of loyal service 
is that which God requires of men. 

This has been rendered perfectly by 
the Incarnate Son of God; whose 
sacrifice of Himself in Life and Death 
avails for ever for that humanity 
which He has taken to Himself, 
Through His Work the Covenant of 
grace finds accomplishment (c. x. 
i— 18). 

These three sections : 

i. A general view of the scene 
and the condition* of Christ's High- 
priestly work (c. viiL), 

ii. The Old Service and the New : 
the Atonement of the Law and the 
Atonement ofCJtrist (c ix.), 

iii. The Old Sacrifices and the 
New : the abiding eficacy of Christ s 
one Sacrifice (α χ. ι — ι8λ 
complete the argument of the Epistle ; 
and shew that the Mosaic system, 
with its great memories and consoling 
institutions, has no value for the 

i. A general view of the scene 
and the conditions of Christ s High- 
priestly work (viii. ι — 13X 

Before discussing in detail tho 
High-priostly work of Christ, the 
writer gives a general view of its 
character in relation to (1) the new 
Sanctuary (viii. 1—6), and (2) tho new 
Covenant (7 — 13X 

(1) Tho new Sanctuary (1—6). 

The eternal High-priest has a work 
to do corresponding with the spiritual 
dignity of His office in tho heavenly 
sanctuary (1, 2). This work could 
not be fulfilled on earth, for there is 
already an earthly system of service 
(3, 4); but the earthly system is only 
a shadow of the divine archetype 
which is realised by Christ (5, 6). 

The argument, it will be seen, 
meets indirectly difficulties which 
were felt as to the death of Christ 
(ίζήτον* τ u*r, rlpot «Wecy άπ46α»*ρ 
Up€vt A>; Chrys.); and as to the 
absence of Christ The present work 



[VIII. ι 

of Christ is the application of the 
virtue of Hie one Sacrifice of Him- 
self. He is our High-priest who bat 
entered into the Divine Presence, 
and we wait patiently for His Return 
(ix. 28). It was necessary therefore 
that He should have 'somewhat to 
offer/ and that could be nothing less 
than nimself. It was necessary that 
He should be withdrawn from us that 
He might make atonement, and enter 
on His Royal Priesthood. Hie Death 
and His absence are consequently an 
essential part of the fulfilment of our 

l Now in the thing* which we are 
eaying the chief point is this: We 
Itave euch a High-prieet at eat down 
on the right hand of the throne oftlte 
Majesty in the heaven*, •α minister 
<f tfie sanctuary, and of the true 
tabernacle, which tfie Zwtf pUcJied, 
not man. s/br every high-priest is 
appointed to offer both gifts and 
sacrifices; whence it was necessary 
that this high-priest also should have 
something to offer. *Now if he were 
still upon earth, he would not he a 
priest at all, seeing there are tftose 
who offer the gifts according to law, 
*such as eeroe a copy and s/tadow 
of the heavenly order, even as Moses 
is warned of God, when about to make 
the tabernacle, for See, saith he, thou 
shall make all things acorn ding to 
the pattern tluU was shewed tliee in 
the mount. 'But, as it is, he hath 
obtained a ministry so much the 
more excellent, as also he ie mediator 
of a better covenant, which hath been 
enacted upon better promises. 

1, 2. A general statement of 
Christ's High-priostly work, as Ho is 
King at once and Minister. 

Ι. κιφαλαιο» & Ιπι rots \ty.] Now in 
tfie tilings which we are saying the 
chief point is... Latt capitulum 
autem super ea qua dicuntur 
(dicimus). The word κιφάλαιον admits 
of two different interpretations, which 
have both been adopted by some 
ancient and modern interpreters : 

(1) &umnuuy, sum. *Oror w fV 
όλίγψ τά κνριωηρα παραλαβ*!* μίλλη 

. t¥ κιφαλαίψ φησ\ν ποιΰσθαι rur λόγο*, 
Theophlct Comp.Ecclus.xxxv.(xxxii.) 
8 ΚίφαΧαίωσον λόγο*, iv ολίγας πολλά. 

(2) Chuf point, main matter. 
Κιφάλαιο* act ro μίγιστο» Xtytrcu, 
Chrys. Comp. Thucyd. iv. 50 πολλά* 
άλλα»* γιγμαμμίνω* κ*φάλαιον %ν, vL 6. 
Plat Legg. L p. 643 ο Μφόλαιο* bi 
wcubUlas λίγομ§* τή* 6ρ$ή* τροφή*. 

It occurs again in Acts xxii. 28 
for ' a sum of money'; and in the lxx. 
(caput, finn) in a similar seuso ( the 
capital sum ' : Lev. v. 24 ; (vl 5) ; Num. 
v. 7 (comp. Num. iv. 2 ; xxxl 26, 49). 

The socoud sense falls in best 
with the context What follows is 
not so much a summary of the 
Apostle's teaching, as an indication 
of the central thought by which it is 
inspired. If this souse be taken the 
question still romaius whether κ§φά• 
λαω* refers to auy new subject, as 
that of the spiritual sanctuary iu 
which Christ fulfils His office, or to 
the whole senteuce τοιούτο*... άνθρω- 
πος, in which the idea of the sanctuary 
is only one elemeut in many. 

The general construction of the 
sentence favours the latter view. Tho 
thought of a High-priest who has 
taken His seat on the right hand of 
God, who is King as well as Priest, is 
clearly the prominent thought in the 
sentence. It has not found distinct 
expression before; and it is the main 
point in tho whole discussion 011 
Christ's High-priestly work, from 
which tho couviction of tho ofneacy 
of His one sacrifice follows. His 
Session on the divine throne shews 
that Ho is sovoroigu of tho Kingdom 
which lie has established by His 
Death; and at tho same time this 
fact explains what seems to men His 
delay iu the Sauctitary (x. 13). 

The use of «φάλαιοκ without the 
article in such a construction is 
striotly correct It stands in appo- 
sition with the statement which fol- 
lows. Comp. Rom. viii. 3. 

VIII. ι] 



βχομβν άρχιβρεα, ο? €κλΘκ€ν In Aelw τον θρόνου της μβγα- 

ίπι toU XryopAwtr] in tho case of, 
in the consideration of, the thingt 
which are now being $aid, in the 
argnment which we are now con- 
ducting. The reference is to the whole 
subject of Christ's High-priesthood 
which ia still nnder discussion, and 
not to what has been advanced before 
(roir ιίρημίροκ). For Μ compare 
Lk. v. 5 ; (c xi. 4). 

τοιουτΌΡ.,.ο* ίκάΰισ**...') Tho pro-, 
noun (rowvrot) may bo taken either 
as retroapeotiTe ('we have such a 
High-priest as has been already de- 
scribed, and Ho sat down... 1 ), or as 
prospective ('we hare such a High- 
priest.. .as sat down...*). The parallel 
in vii. 26 f. is not decisive either way 
(see note). The context however seem• 
to require that Christ's kingly dignity 
in the exercise of His priestly office 
should be specially emphasised, so that 
tho second sense is to bo preferred : 
• We have a High-priest who fulfils 
His office in royal dignity, not as 
priests on earth; and the scene of 
His ministry is heaven.' 

or ffTtaoWr...] Compare x. 12 ; xii. 2 
(κ9κα6ικ<ν). The imago is taken from 
Pa ex. Tho writer of the Kpistlo is 
at length able to ropoat, iiftor gaining 
a full viow of the signiflennce of the 
statement, what ho had said at the 
beginning c. i. 3 ίκαθισ** iw &t (1$ rijt 
μιγάλωσννης ip ύψηΧοκ (note). 

Τούτο (the sitting down) ούχ) του 
lip4ms rlXXa τούτου f ϊιρησθαι Ϊκ9ιρορ 
χρή (Clirys.). θ«ο* ?χομ*ρ <φχ«ρ<α' 
το y&p κα&ησθαι ovdcvbt άλλον 1j food 

The idea of ' taking the seat» (4κά- 
Burtp) is distinct from that of * sitting ' 
(κάθηται). Compare c. L 13 note. 

In this connexion the full meaning 
of passages like Apoc. iil 21 becomes 
clear. Christ makes His people also 
kings and priests. A striking illus- 
tration is quoted from Shemoth R. 
§ 8 (Wfmsche, p. 74> ' A king of flesh 
and blood does not set his crown on 

another, but God (Blessed be He) 
will set His crown on King Messiah : 
Cant v. 1 1 ; Ps. xxi. 3.' 

rV fe £. του up, riff μ*γαλ.] Latt in 
dextera eedii magnitudinU. Comp. 
C i. 3 *V 6>£i? Tijt μιγαΚωσυρη* and 

note. 'The power' (Π^ΙΟ) was 
a common Rabbinic name for God in 
His Majesty: 'we heard it from the 
mouth of tho Power.' Comp. Buxtorf, 
Lex. #. v.; and Mark xiv. 62 Ac 6>£i»r 
Ttft Αυράμβωί. 

The phrase 'the throne of the 
Divine Majeety' is chosen with re- 
ference to the Glory which rested 
on the Mercy Seat in the Holy of 
Holies : Lev. xvi. 2 ; comp. Ex. xxv. 

The patristic interpretation of 'the 
Majesty' is uncertain ($ ση κα\ 6 
πατήρ \*χ6<1η β> αύτψ (avrot) μ*γαλ«»- 
σνρη 4 (fa dirXiSr ούτω Bpapot fwyaX•»- 
συρης 4 /Wyurrov upopot, Theophlct), 
but the Fathers carefully avoid all 
'puerile' anthropomorphism in their 
treatment of ' tho right hand of God,' 
as for example: plenitudinem majes- 
tatis summamquegloriam beatitudinis 
et prosperitatis debemus per dex- 
teram intolligoro in qua Alius sodet 
(Prima».). This 8ossion declares under 
a natural figure that tho Son of man 
has ontorod on the full and permanent 
participation of the divine glory and 
power. Compare a remarkable pas- 
sage of Philo (de Abr. § 24, ii. p. 
19 Μ.) πατήρ μίρτΑρ okmp 6 μ/σοΓ (the 

reference is to Gen. xviii. 1 ff.X oV... 
KaXtirai ο β?•», αϊ Off παρ 9 i κατ* pa πρισ- 
βΰταται κα\ τγγύταται του oprot ovuoftr it ' 
tip ή μ*ρ ποιητική ή oe αΖ βασιλική 
προσαγοριντταϊ κα\ ή μ§ρ ποιητική foot 
...ή Μ βασιλική icvpiof....And a little 
later (id. | 25) Philo speaks of 'the 
manifestation' (φαρτασία) ή Μ ocfuk 
ή cvffpytrir, f foot Ζρομα.... Pearson 
(On the Greed, pp. 277 f.) has given 
a good collection of illustrative quo- 
tations. Contrast Acts vii. 55 (Ιστ&τα 
4κ Of(uSr του foov). 



[VIII. 2 

Χωσννης iv τοις ούρανοϊς, % τών αγίων λειτουργός και 
tAc ckhnAc της αληθινής, Λη AthIcn ό «rpioc, οι/κ άνθρωπος. 

a oar *>fy. KBD,* : +«0* ούκ *>*>. Γ (A) vg me syrr. 

Α» τ οι* ovpcvoif] Compare c. ix. 24 

2. r«* άγ/ω* Xcir.] a minister qf 
the sanctuary, Latt. sanctorum 
minister. The phrase τ»» eyi•* Is 
unquestionably neater: a ix. 8, 12, 
4c It describes 'the Sanetuary,' and 
specially what is elsewhere (0. iz. 3) 
called «the Holy of Holies 1 (άγια 

The exact phrase occurs in Philo, 
Leg. AUeg. ill. 46 (L 114 Μ.), τοιούτος 
ο Btpawfvrijf «at λ«τονργότ τώ* αγά»* 
(said of Aaron). 

8ome of the Fathers, both Greek 
and Latin, treat r&v αγά»* as masc 
•of the Saints.' Thus Primasius: 
sanctorum minister: quod duobus 
modis potest accipi. Voniens quippe 
dominus in mundiim per incariiationie 
exhibitioneni miuistravit Sanctis aliis- 
que alitor: sanctorum 
minister erit in futurum qnando 
semetipsum ministrabit iilis ut oog- 
noscant eum cum patre et spiritu 
sancto sicuti est.. .Potest et altiori 
sensu iutelligi ut taboniaculum voruin 
accipiuntur aniuue justorum quibus 
ipse Alius Dei gaudia patriae ctelostis 
adniinlstrat et in quibus ipse habi- 
tare dignatur. Oompare CKcumenius : 
dpxupcvt, φησί*, τΑ» ηγωσμί*** wop* 
αύτου dpBpdwmv, and so 'riWt ' quoted 
by Theophylact 

There is a significant contrast 
between the Session of Christ and His 
1 serving' : πως &i ofoV re α ντο» ομον κα\ 
avnbprinuf κα\ XcirovpyclV; *i μη ru 
άρα λατονργίαρ «uro< r«#r ανθρώπων τήρ 
σωτηρία* ffy &σποτικως πραγματβύτται 
(Theodt). Tlie two words in fact 
present the two complementary 
aspect• of Christ's Person and Work, 
Hie divine Majesty and His inftuite 
love. Christ serves though He reigns 
and reigns in serving. All that the 
High-priest did in figure He does 

absolutely. He makes atonement for 
men with God: He makes God known 
to men ; and thus in both ways He 
fulfils their destiny. For λ«ιτονργό$ 
aud cognate words see Additional 

τη$ σκ. r. άΚ....ο4κ &4ρ.] Ooiiip. c. ix. 
1 1 note. The action of Christ's Priest- 
hood extends to all parts of the 
divine Dwelling. Thus the more 
gonoral word σκηνή is added to τα 
άγια, but no local distinction can be 
pressed in regard to the heavenly 
antitype (archetype). Coiup. Apoc 
xv. 5 ; (xiii. 6). The general thought 
is that of the immediate Presence 
of God (τά ^γ«α), and the sceno of 
His manifestation to His worshippers 
(9 σκηνή). Christ in the High-priest- 
hood of His glorified humanity repre- 
sents mau to God, and in His divine 
Nature represents God to man. 

This 'Tabernacle; wldch Christ 
serves aud through which God is 
made known to men, is the ideal 
' Tabernacle' (4 σκ. 4 αληθινή) of which 
the earthly Taboruaclo was a symbol. 
For άΧηθιτόί compute c. ix. 24 ; x. 22 
note (not ix. 14). The word is com- 
mon in St Johu's writings (John L 9 ; 
iv. 23 note). Elsewhere iu the Ν. T. 
it occurs only in Luke xvi. 1 1 ; 
1 These, i. 9. For the idea of the 
Tabernacle see Additional Note on 
9. 5. Compare Wisd. ix. 8. 

4r ίπηζι»] The verb is habitually 
used by classical writers in this con- 
nexion (πηγννναι σκηνην). So it is used 
of the heavens : la xliL 5 ; (Ps. civ. 3). 
Coinp. Num. xxiv. 6 (lxx.). 

ό κύριος] Comp. t>. 1 1 (Jer. xxxi. 34 
lxx.). Elsewhere iu the Epistle 'the 
Lord 1 (Johovah) is always represented 
by Kvpws (cloven times) while ο κύμως 
is used of Christ : 0. ii 3 note. But 
see Luke i. 6, 9, 28, 46,- James iv. is ; 
v. 15 sYc 



3 aw yap apyiepev* eh το προσψίρειν δώρα re και θυσίας 
i6ep άναγκαιον c%eiv τι και τούτον 6 
4 €£ μεν ουν ην έιτι yw 9 ονο αν ην lepevs, 

καθίσταται • 

3 τι rai : om. jral Κ* ? 

4 βδτ KABD,* vg me : τ*> Γ syr hL 

od* M/MMroff] Compare c. ii. 11, 24 
(ov χιφοποίητα). 

3, 4. The fact and the scene of 
Christ's High-priestly work. 

3. wot γαρ αρχ.] Compare c. v. 1. 
The fact that the Lord is High-priest 
— a minister of the sanctuary— in- 
volves of necessity and rests upon 
His performance of High-priestly 
functions ; Jbr every High-priest is 
appointed to offer both gifts and 
sacrifices. Ho must therefore have 
both an offering and a place of 
approach to God : an offering that in 
the virtue of the blood He might find 
entrance to the Presence of God, as 
the Aaronic High-priost on the Day of 
Atonement ; a place of approach ful- 
filling the typo of the Holy of Holies, 
not on earth (v. 4) and consequently 
in heaven. 

fir το προσφ. ft. κα\ A] Comp. c. v. 1 
(&α προσφ4ρβ) note. 

S0c9...o ιτροσοΊγκρ] whence ii wot 
neteuary that this High-priest also 
should have something to offer, Vulg. 
unde neeesse est et hune habere 
aliquid quod offeraU This offering 
is described as made once for aU 
(ir/xwrWycp contrasted with προσφ•ρ$ 
ix. 25; comp. c. vii. 27). The one 
sufficient offering was made by Christ 
as the condition of entrance into the 
sanctuary through His own blood 
(c. ix. 12). On this His intercession 
is based. That intercession knows no 
end or interruption; and therefore 
no second offering is required, as in 
the case of the Levitical High-priest, 
who made a fresh offering every year 
in onlcr that ho might again enter 
and ropcat the intercession which had 
been mado before. 

The necessary condition of the 
entrance of our High-priest into the 

Presence of God throws light upon the 
difficulty which the Hebrews felt as to 
His death. Through no less an offering 
than that of Himself could He come 
before God for His people. 

It has been debated whether $* or 
iorlw should be supplied with αναγ- 
καίον. If the reference is to the 
offering on the Cross, as seems to be 
required by the type and the context, 
then $p must be supplied. 

ϊχ«» η] that is 'Himself (vii 27 
ara&pup; ix. 1 4, 25 προσφίρ**) or 
His 'Body' (x. 10 προσφορά). It 
seems necessary to supply that object 
which is elsewhere used with προσ• 
φ{ρ*ιρ in the same connexion. Many 
have interpreted the « of 'the 
Blood.' But the Blood was not 
properly ' offered' in the Holy of 
Holies on the Day of Atonement (yet 
see c ix. 7). It was used as the 
moans of entrance and purification. 
Even so Christ entered into the 
Divine Presence 'through (dm) His 
own Blood 1 (c. ix. 12), and by that 
purifies 'the heavenly things' (ix. 23) 
and the people (c. xiii. 12) ; but we 
do not read that He 'offered' it 
The indefinite pronoun, as contrasted 
with b*pa καϊ 6\*riat, indicates the 
mysteriousness of the offering. 

ο προσ*ρ*γκη) For the construction, 
which is rare in classical prose, see 
Acts xxi. 16. 

4. ft pi» 0Z9. . Jrpevr . . .] Now \f He 
were still upon earth, He would not be 
a priest at all, and therefore still less 
High-priest ...The argument is direct- 
ed to shew that, since Christ as High- 
priost must do characteristic service, 
the scene of His sorvice must be 
heaven and not earth. The wish 
therefore which many entertained for 
some priestly work of Christ on earth 



[VIII. s 

όντων των προσψβρόντων κατά νόμο ν τά δώρα • 5 (θέτιι/€ν 
ι/πο&ιγματι και σκιά Κατρεύουσιν των επουρανίων, καθώς 

+rflr Upfar Γ syrr. »*/μτ «*ΑΒ : +τ& *. Γ N^Dg. 

frr*» KABD,* vg me 
τά 9. «. p. qyr vg me. 

was really fatal to their noblest faith. 
It is assumed that there cannot be 
two divinely appointed orders of earth- 
ly priests. The actual existence and 
service of one order therefore ex- 
cludes the possibility of the coexist- 
ence of another. The apodosis is in 
v. 6 wv» hi. For *l $r...ov# t» if»... 
see c. iv. 8 Additional Note. 

Theodoret (on λ 5) has an interest- 
ing note on the servico of Christian 
priests: τι tywort της καιρης ΟΑασηκης 
ol Up*U n)p μνστικήρ Xurovpyia» Λπ- 
TfXovw; &λά &η\ορ Totf το $*la **«- 
παιδινμίροϋ tir ουκ. 8λ\ηρ τιρά ΘυσΙαρ 
νροσφίρομιρ άλλα τήί /war ίκιιρης κα\ 
σωτηρίου η)* μνήμη* Arwf λσδ|*#*. τούτο 
γαρ ήμΐρ ούτος 6 &*σπότη$ προσίταξς 
'τούτο a-oifirc ih τήν ίμήρ άνάμνησι*• 1 
Ua tj θιωρία top τύπο* των ύπίρ ημ&ρ 
γτγίρημίρω* ά*αμψνησκ*μ*ΰα παΰημάτ 
t»f *al η)* ffffil top §ύ*μγ*τηρ αγάπη* 
ννρσιννμ** καΐ τ£* /μ λλόιτ«»ι> <Sya0£i> 
ηροσμί**μ*ρ τήρ άπόλανσι». 

Zrruw τ. ιτ/κκτφ.] seeing there are... 
Vulg. cum «Μβη< qui offerrent % V. L. 
afro oferentibus. The tense of the 
principal verb (λατρ*ύουσι) fixes the 
translation of the participle to the 
present This offering is made κατά 
νόμο*, 'according to law/ not 'accord- 
ing to the Law. 1 The idea is that of 
the authoritative character of the 
institution generally, and not of the 
specific form of the institution. Comp. 

C X. 8 (κατά ρόμορ) note. 

τά δώρα] not 'gifts' in the abstract, 
but 'the gifts' which God requires. 
The simple term is here used to in- 
clude offerings of all kinds (c. xi. 4 ; 
Matt v. 23 1; xxiiL 18 f.). 

5, 6. The earthly Lovitical service 
points to that which corresponds with 
a better covenant 

5. ofrutr...] The qualitative rela- 
tive (oomp. c. ii. 3 note; ft 6 fas) 

emphasises the character of the Levi- 
tical priesthood: print* such as 
sere* that which is a copy and 
shadotc ... Latt qui exemplar* et 
umbras (serviunt) deeerviunt. The 
Mosaic system was not complote in 
itself, original and independent: it 
was a copy of an archetype. It had 
no spiritual substance : it was only a 
shadow. Comp. John i 17. 

Like our word 'copy 1 tlio word 
ύπό&ιγμα exprossos not only the 
image which is made by imitation 
(as hero and α ix. 23) but also the 
model which is offered for imitatiou. 
(John xiii. 15 ; James v. 10; 2 Tot ii. 
6 ; comp. 2 Mace vi. 28, 31 ; Ecclus. 
xliv. 16. Comp. 0. iv. 11 note.) 

For σ«ΐφ compare c. χ. 1 note ; Col. 
ii. 17 (contrasted with σώμα). The 
word λατρίύοικη is not to bo takon 
absolutely ('serve God iu, after, a 
copy... 1 ). The priest can rightly bo 
said to serve the system. Comp. c. 
xiiL 10 ol Tg σκηρ§ \arp€vopT€s. Ksek. 
xlv. 5 (o*«y). Clem. R. L 32. For 
Xorpfvciy soo Additional Note on 0. 2. 

τώρ iwovpapfop] of Urn heavenly 
order. The Tabernacle presented iu 
figures the ideas of the Divine Pre- 
sence and the realities of heaven. 

The phrase is to bo taken generally 
and not to bo defiued by the addition 
of άγΐω* or the like. 

The range of the occurrouco of τά 
ivovpapta in the Ν. T. is limited. It 
is found in 8t Johu: iii. 12; in the 
Ep. to Kphesiaus : i. 3, 20 ; ii. 6 ; iii. 
10; vi. 12; and in this Epistle, here 
and in ix. 23. 

The general idea of the phrase is 
that of ' the heavenly ordor/ the scone 
of the spiritual life with tlio realities 
which belong to it. The abstract 
term is used here and in ix. 23 to 
guard (as it seems) against the danger 

VIII. 5 ] 



^χ/ηιμάτισταί Μωυσής μέλλων ίπιτέΚέιν τηρ σκηνην, 

ΟρΑ yap, φησίν, rroidccic πάντα κατΛ τον τγποΝ τον ΑαχθΑιΤΑ coi 

5 wotfatn KABD,: «-«Vjr Γ• 

of transferring to another world the 
local conditions which belong to the 
earthly tabernacle. 

The phrase is not found in the lxx. 
For iwovpapwt generally eee α iii. 1 
note. In one sense, as Theophylact, 
following Chrysostom, poinU out, τα 
twovpma are realised on earth by 
faith : τα ήμίτιρα inovpmna- όταν γαρ 
μη&ψ «Ίτίγηο* άλλα πάντα wvtvparuta 
iv Toit μνστηρίοις τιΧούμβνα, tv6\t 
5/μό• αγγ*λικο\ Μα jrXrifcr της βασι- 
Xtiat tuv ovpavmv κα\ &φ*σις άμαρηΛν 
*α\ ad irifXiy δισμα, όταν ημΛν το ποΧί- 
τψνμα iv ovpavolt υπάρχω π&§ ουκ 
iwovpavta τα καα* jpat ; 80 Primashu 
(on ix. 23): cielestia, ue. spiritnalia 
qn» in veritate modo in ecclesia 

καΰίς ΜχρημΑτισται Μ.] even as 
Moses is warned 0/ <7<*f...LatL sicttt 
resptmsnm est hhysl. . . The vorb χρη• 
ματίζη* is used in the active of giving 
a formal answer to an inquirer (as by 
an oracle), and then of giving an au- 
thoritative(rilvine)direction generally : 
Jcr. xxvi. (xxxiii.) 2; c xii. 25; so 
χρηματισμός Rom. xi. 4. Hence the 
poKsiro is used of tlio iicrson who 
receives such a direction : Matt ii. 12, 
22; Lllke ii 26 (D) «χρηματισμένος 
jv; Acts x. 22 ; c. xi. 7. This use of 
the pass, is very rare elsewhere : Jos. 
AnU. iil 8, 8 (a different usage is 
found Acts xi. 26). 

The direction is regarded as still 
present in Scripture (comp. Gal. if. 
23 γτγίννηταή. Comp. c. vii. 6 note. 

μίλΧων iniTtXttv] when he ii about 
(as destined by the divine counsel : c. 
xi. 8) to put into execution, to make 
(rather than to complete)... Yn\g. cum 
consummaret (0. L. consummate 
For twtrtXtur see c. ix. 6; 2 Cor. vii. 
1 ; 1 Pet y. 9. 

opa yap, φησίν, s-ouprftff...] for See, 
iaith he (i.e. God), thou shalt make... 

Vulg. Fide, inquit, omnia faeiio... 
Ex. xxv. 40 (comp. xxv. 9; xxvii 8). 
The quotation differs from the lxx. by 
the addition of πάντα (which is • not 
found in the original) and the sub- 
stitution of οιιχβίντα for bt&ctypJvov. 
The formor word really sums up the 
specific directions given in regard to 
the different objects in Ex. xxv. All 
had a prescribed character and (it 
is implied) a divine meaning. 

The construction of mui^m is un- 
certain. It may either go closely 
with'Opa: « See that thou make../; or 
it may be a distinct command: 'See, 
regard attentively, the pattern which 
is shown; thou shalt make'... as ap- 
pears to be the sense of the original. 
The γάρ belongs to the argument and 
not to the quotation. 

curA τον τύπον] Lott. secundum 
exemplar. Compare Acts vii. 44. It 
is not to be supposed that even Moses 
saw ' the heavenly things' as they are. 
He saw them as ho had power to see 
them, i.e. according to human appre- 
hension. So St Paul heard the divine 
voice in 'Hebrew.' The heavenly 
things on which Moses was allowed 
to look took for him a shape, under 
the divine guidance, which could be 
reproduced on earth. 

The command is applied to Solomon 
in Wisd. ix. 8. 

Philo dwells upon the subordinate 
position of Bezaleel in regard to 
Moses and finds in the interpretation 

of his name iv σ«$ &ov (^t$ ^X|) an 

indication of the position which his 
work occupied: Leg. AUeg. iii. § 31 
(L p. 106 M.); De Somn. i. § 35 (I. 
652 M.) top τούτου του πΧίγμστος δη- 
μιουργών 6 Upot Χσγος Bc*c λά)λ cVAc • 
σ*ν, it ίρμηνιυΘύΐ itrrtv, iv σ«ι$ 6*ον- 
ra γαρ μψήματα ούτος, τα 6c παραΜγ- 
ματα άρχντικτονύ Μωνσηί Svoua. De 



[VIII. 6 

έπ τφ rfper) 6ϊ νυν Λ hi ΰιαψορωτέρας τέτνχβν λβιτουργίας, 
οσφύ και κρείττονα* έστιν διαθήκης μβσίτης, ητι* έπι 


6 *0ρ BD,*: pwi Γ«Α. 
om. &rw...«pccrro Μ*. 

Plank Now § 6 (i. 333 Μ.), θοο Ad- 
ditional Note. 

6. ιύ» Ν 6αιφ....] 2taJ now, o«#i», 
μ the case really stands, he hath 
obtained (Ιιρονργω* tIjp vwip ήμωρ 
vpot top πατίρα μισιτιίαν, Kuth. Zig.). 
...For vvr Μ see c. xL 16 : so wri W c 
ix. 26. The form τΙτνχ•ν occurs! 
though rarely, in late writers. 

οΊαφορωτίραΐ ... κριίττορος. . .] Latt 
melius. . .melioru. . . The two words are 
used again together in close juxta- 
position in c. i. 4. Perhaps κρ*ίττων 
lias regard to intrinsio superiority and 
&ιαφορ<ίτ<ρος to a superiority which is 
manifested directly. Moreover &αφ. 
recognises an exceptional excellence in 
that which is surpassed. The 'name' 
of angels and the miuistry of the Levi- 
tical priests were both 4 excellent' 

The word Xtmvpyias goes back to 
9, 2 Χισονργός. 

&αφ. ίσψ «αϊ κρ....] Compare c. vii. 
20 £ for the converse argument 

6W. μίσίτης] Latt testammti medi- 
ator. For dtaB. μ*σίτηί see c ix. 15 ; 
xii 24. 

Elsewhere in Ν. Τ. μ*σίτην is used 
with the genitive of the person : Gal 
iu 19 f. ό μ*σΙτη{ Mt ewe leru', I 
Tim. ii. 5 μισίτηί $«ov κα\ ά*θρ*π*ν. 
Oomp. μ•σιτ*ΰω c. vi. 17. The word, 
which belongs to late Greok, answer- 
ing to the Attic /weiyyvof, is found 
oiicoin tlie lxx., Job ix. 33; aud it is 
found in Pbilo and Josephus. 

A covenant generally, and obviously 
a covenant between God and man, 
requires a mediator, one who standing 
between the contracting parties shall 
bring them duly into fellowship. Mc σί- 
τη£ describes the action of Christ at 
the establishment of the New Cove- 
nant, as tyyiwf (0. vii. 22) describee 
the position which He holds towards 

rtrvxw K*AD 3 # : τέτ•υχ» Κ•Β. «U */>.: om. «U D,\ 

men by assuring them of its validity. 

The use of the term suggests a 
point of superiority in Christ over the 
Aaronic High-priests. Moses was 
the 'mediator' of the Law (Gal iii. 
19; Philo de mt. Mas. iii § 19; ii. 160 
M.), but Christ who is the High-priest 
is also the Mediator of the now * Law.' 
Ho combines the offices of Moses and 
Aaron. Comp. α iii. 1. 

The limitod office of 'the Mediator 
of a Covenant ' suggests the thought 
of the widor work of a Mediator, 
which occupied the uiiuds of early 
speculators on tlio rotation of God to 
Creation. Philo, for example, gives a 
noble picture of the Word standing 
botwoen the crcaturo aud the Father 
of all, the messenger of divine order 
and the inspirer of human hope : Qui* 
rer. dix>. hosr. § 42 (i. 502 Μ.) ό 6c 
avrbt Ικίτης μίν Am του θνητού κηραί- 
poptos άι\ wp6s το άφθαρτον πρ*σβ*ν- 
n)f Μ του ήγ*Ρ&*°* π Ρ^ *° νπήκοορ* 
αγάλλβται 6f Arl rj 6»pcf κα\ σιμτν- 
ρομαρον αυτηρ Ικδα/γηται φάσκωρ 4 και 
4γώ fflonfjeffiy αρά μ*σορ κυρίου κα\ 
ύμ*ρ' (comp. Num. xvL 48)*. . . Perhaps 
there is no finer view of the relation 
of the world to its Maker possible 
apart from the Incarnation. 

ejru . . .ρ**ομοθ4τητΜ] The superiority 
of the New Covenant is shown by the 
superiority of the promise» on which 
its conditions are fouuded (9m, 'such 
that it is/ 'seeing that it is/ v. 5 note). 
A Covenant necessarily imposes con- 
ditions. And a Covenant (ονχβηκη) 
made by God is ' enacted.' Thus the 
Gospel itself, though in one souso op- 
posed to the Law, was not only the 
fulfilment of the Law ; but iu itsolf 
the 4 perfect Law ' (James L 25). Free- 
dom is the absolute consummation of 

VIII. 7 ] 



κράττοσιν iirayyeXian ν*νομοθ£τηται. 7 ci yap η πρώτη 
έκβίνη ην άμβμτττος, ουκ αν heurepa* έζητΛτο τόπος* 

7 9wr4p*ti MpatB*. 

Μ κριίττ. 4παγγ.] upon better pro* 
mises, such as are contained in the 
divine description which follows of 
the spirituality and officacy of the 
new relation of man to God, bated 
upon complete forgiveness. For the 
use of Μ with dot. to express the 
conditions (accompanimonte) see 2 
Cor. ix. 6; 1 Those, iv. 7; Phil. iii. 9; 
(Luke xxiv. 47). 

(2) Tho new Cofonant (7—13). 

The LoTitical system corresponded 
with a OoTenant which was recognised 
by the prophets as imperfect and 
transitory, for they spoke of the 
divine purpose to establish 'a new 
Covenant' The section consists of a 
brief introduction (7, 8 a), the pro- 
photic word (8 b— ia) f a general con- 
clusion (13X 

1 For \f that first covenant had been 
faultless, a place mould not hate been 
•ought for a second • For finding 
fault with them he saith 

Behold the day• come, saith the 

That I will make a new covenant 
with the home if Israel and with 
the home ofjudah ; 

9 Not according to the covenant 
that I made with their father•, 

In the dag that I took them by the 
hand to lead them forth out of the 
land of Egypt ; 

,e Became they ctmtinued not in 
my covenant, 

And I regarded them not, taith 
the Lord. 

Became this ie the covenant that 
I wiU covenant with the home of 

After those day•, saith the Lord, 

Even putting my law• into their 

And upon their heart will I write 

And I will be to them a God, 

And they shall be to me a people; 

" And they shall not teach every 
man hi• fellow-citizen, 

And every man his brother, toying, 
Know the Uvrd; 

Because all shall know me, 

From the leant to the greatest of 

"Became I will be merciful to 
their iniquities^ 

And their sin• will I remembe»' no 

ί/μ that he eaith A new covenant, 
he hath made the first old. But that 
which beeometh old and waxeth aged 
ie nigh unto vanishing away. 

7. The teaching of the prophets 
bears witness to the superiority of the 
New order over the Old which has 
been affirmed in the last verse, for if 
the first Covenant had completely ful- 
filled the purpose to which a Cove- 
nant between God and man is direct- 
ed, then there would have been no 
room for another. The argnmont is 
parallel to that in c, vii. 11 ff. 

tl γαρ.,. $9 Aprpirror] For if that 
fret covenant had been faultless, Latt. 
nam si... culpa vaeasset, fulfilling per- 
fectly the purpose to which it pointed. 
Comp. vii. 18. 

Tho Iaw itsolf Is not blamed : tlio 
fault lay with thoso who received it 
(v. 8). None the loss tlio Covenant 
did fail, so far as it brought no con- 
summation of man's true destiny. 

The Covenant is called first in con- 
trast with b+vripa by common Greek 
usage. Comp• c. ix. 6 f.; x. 9; Acts 
i. ij, The addition of the pronoun 
(c μ 1*17) presents the Old Covenant as 
occupying the mind of the readers. 
Comp. 2 Cor. vii 8 ; Matt xviii. 32. 

σύκ &p b*vr. Ιζητ. τόκος] a place 
would not have been sought for a 
second, Vulg. non utique secundi 
locus inquireretur. God made known 



[VIII. 8 

^μβμφόμβνος yap Γ αι/τοι)$ Ί 


8 adroit 

8 avrcot «•AD,• vg : afaft K-B. 

Hie purpose to establish a second 
Covenant; but for tide, in the ordor 
of Hie Providence, fitting conditions 
were required. Hence it was not the 
Covenant itself for which men sought» 
but the place for it» the circumstances 
under which it could be realised. The 
fooling of dissatisfaction, want, prompt- 
ed to a diligent inquiry; and to this 
the words addressed to Jeremiah — 
the prophet of the national overthrow 
and exile— bear witness. 

For the phrase ζητ*ϊ*τό*ο» compare 
τόπο* §ύρ*ϊ* c. xii. 17; r. dtdowai ltoiu. 
xii 19; r. λαβ*1ν Acts xxv. 16. 

The two imperfects *l $p...qvk a» 
ΙζηπΙτο mark a continuous state. 
While the first Covenant remained 
in force, there was yet searching for 
something more. This thought is ex- 
pressed by: * If the first had been.. .a 
place would not have been sought': 
and not by 'If the first woro... would 
not be sought' Comp. c. xi. 15 ; and 
Additional Note on iv. 8. 

8 Ο. μβμφόμ*ρος yap αυτούς] The CX- 

ietenceof failure— fault— is established 
by the language of the Lord to Jore- 
uiiah : for finding fault with them, 
he fa#A...(Latt vituperane enitn : 
«1 priuu culpa cucanet above). The 
people were not yet prepared to re- 
ceive the revelation which Qod design- 
ed to give. The Law had not had its 
perfect work with them. They had 
not lived up to that which they had 

The reference in them (*.*. the 
Israelites) is supplied from a know- 
ledge of the circumstances. Comp. 
iv. 8; xi 28. So Tbeophylact: rovr- 
* στ* rotf 'iovdoiW (reading αντοϊς) τοϊς 
μη 6υραμ4νοις τ<\€ κ*$ή»αι dia tAp νομι- 
κών προσταγμάτων. If αντοις is read 
tlie translation finding fault with it 
he eaith to them is possible, but it 
appears to be very unlikely. 

Xfyti] Jor. xxxi (xxxviii) 31—34. 

Tlie speaker is the Lord Himself, not 
the prophet. The quotation (8 — 1 2) 
is takon, with some variations, from 
the lxx., which, in tlie niaiu, agrees 
with the Hebrew. See Additional 
Note. Carpsov has pointed out that 
Philo in a remarkable passage places 
Jeremiah in couuoiion with Moses, 
yvovs art οι) μόνον μύστης Ιστίν άλλα 
κάί Ιιμοφάντης Ικαρος (De Cher. $14; 
i. 148 M.). 

Ilio coiitoxt of tlie quotation gives 
it a special force. Jeremiah at the 
crisis of national calamity pictures the 
final result of the discipline of the 
exilo into which Judah was now going. 
The united people 'Israel and Judah 1 
are to return to their laud (xxx. 3). 
Ephraim is again recoguised as first- 
born (xxxi. 9). The sorrows of Radiol 
are consoled (xxxi. 1 5 ff). The coun- 
sel of divine love finds certain accom- 
plishment (xxxi }7\ This issue is 
summed up in the establishment of 
a Now Covenant, by wliich tlie fulfil- 
ment of the whole of God's purpose is 
assured, when trial has done its work. 
Under this Covenant, grace not law 
is tlie foundation of fellowship. God 
comes to man as giving and not as 

'ΙΊ10 wholo situation is Messianic 
no less than the special words. Tlie 
time of national humiliation is the 
time of ardeut hope. The fall of the 
Kingdom, which was of man's will, is 
the occasion of a greater promise. And 
nowhere else in the Ο. T. is the con- 
trast betwoon the Law and the Gospel 
so definitely traced back to its ossou- 
tial principle. 

The promises of the Now Covenaut 
are developed in due order. 

1. The wide range of tlie Cove- 
It iucludes all the Old Covenant 
Israel and Judah (8). 




Ί&ΟΥ HM^pAl ΙρχΟΝΤΑΙ, λ^Γ€Ι KfplOC, 

και cyntcA&od iru ton oTkon 'IcpAtJA και Ini ton oIkon ΊογλΑ 

Μτ6*(ι): om.MD/. 

2. Its character: 
(a) Negatively: 
Not after tho type of that on 
which the people was first 
established (9). 
(6) Positively: 
Internal (10). 
Uniformly efficacious (11). 
Resting on complete forgive- 
ness (12). 
80. Ιδού ήμ. ϊρχ.] Behold day$ 
«ww...Tho phraso (OW? DOJ T\IT\) 

is singularly frequent in Jeremiah. 
Jer. vii. 32; iz. 25; xvi. 14; xix. 6; 
xxiii. 5, 7; xxx. 3; xxxi. 27; xlvilL 
(xxxi.) 12; xlix. (xxx.) 2; li. 47. 

Gomp. Amos viii. 1 1 ; ix. 13; Is. 
xxxix. 6. 

80 Philo, as has boon already noticed, 
dwells with special emphasis on the 
prophetic gifts of Jeremiah. 

These 'last days' mark a period of 
trial and judgment At the close of 
them the Divine Covenant is estab- 
lished in its glory. 

For the construction ήμ. ϊρχ....κα\ 
συντςλίσω see Luke xix. 43. 

σνκτ#λ«σω] Vulg. cotuummabo, O. 
L. dUponam (canftrtnabo). So lxx. 
Jer. xxxiv. 8, 15 (nn^.^Tj). 

Perhaps, as Augustine suggests (de 
*pir. et lit. 19 Quid est Omsummabo 
nisi ImpltboX), this rondoringis diosen 
to emphasiso tho officacy of tho Cove- 

Μ τ. ol % \σρ. και Μ τ. ο. Ίον.] Οηοο 
again the divided and oxilod people 
shall bo brought togothor (comp. 0. 
10). Tho schism which had brought 
rum on the kingdom is to have no 
existence under the new order. 

To this issue the other great pro- 
phets point: Is. xliii ΑΓ.; Esek. xvi. 
60 ff. 

dial. *.] Latt teetamentum novum. 
The epithet (καινήψ) is quoted special- 
ly in v. 13. 

The phraso διαθήκη καινή occurs 
1 Cor. xi. 25; 2 Cor. iii. 6; 0. ix. 15. 

The reading in Lk. xxii. 20 is very 
doubtful; and tho phrase is not found 
in the true text of Matt xxvi. 28 and 
Mk. xiv. 24 (το αίμα μου, το της δια- 

In c. xii. 24 we read διαθήκη via. 
Tlic distinction between καινός and 
vto* is clearly marked in the Ν. T. 
usage. Καινός expresses that which 
is new in regard to what has pre- 
ceded, as novel in character, or un- 
used: v4ot that which is new in 
regard to its own being, as having 
been in existence but a short time. 

The words occur in close connexion 
in Matt ix. 17 βόΧΧουσιν olvov viov 
(which has been lately made) fit 
Ασκούς καινούς (which have not been 
used before). Contrast Matt xxvi. 
29 orav avrb wtvm μ*& ύμων καινό* 
(such as has not been before). 

See also Col. iii. 10 (τον viov τον 
Ανακαινούμινον) compared with Eph. 
iv. 24 (ii. 1 5) (τον καινον ίνθρωπον τον 
κατά θιον κτισθίντα). 

Hence καινός is used of the renova- 
tion of Creation : Apoc xxi 5 ; 2 Cor. 
V. 17 rn άρχαια παρήλθιν, Ibov ytyovtv 

The direct antithesis to καινός is 
αρχαίος (that which has been from 
tho beginning: 2 Cor. v. 17); but 
παλαιός (that which has been for a 
long Ume) forms a true opposite both 
to viot and to καινός (Matt ix. 17 5 1 
John ii. 7; Matt xiii 52; Mk. ii. 21 ; 
Lk. v. 39). 

9. otl κατά την οΊαθ.] The Lord 
having fixed the breadth of His Now 
Covenant, as embracing the whole 



[VIII. 10 

in AmcpA έηιλΑΒοΜέΝογ Μογ tAc χειροχ aytcon έΐΑΓΑΓβΐΝ aytoVc 

έκ rAc Airf πτογ, 
Jn Α^ΤΟΙ ΟγΚ £n^M€INAN ά* tiJ ΛιαΘηκη μου, 
ΚΑτώ Jm^Ahca a^tcon, AeYci Kfpioc. 


9 *ΐμ*Ρ9 ϊ ^M^peui Β. J* γ$ι : U τφι D r ίο φ &α0ι)«* MB vg me eynr t +μον AD r 

stands in natural connexion with the 
idea of the institution of a universal 
Church. Compare Is. xL 16; Hoe. 

xii.9; xiii.4• 

The Covenant with Abraham still 
remained (c ii 16 note). The Law 
was a first step towards its fulfilment 

fa αυτοί.,.] became they, ..and /... 
Both pronouns aro euipliatic. ορψς 
πρώτον wop* ήμ»» άρχομινα τα κακά;... 
τά μίντοι άγαΰα καϊ ul «wpyc σίαι παρ* 
αύτοΰ Αρχονται (Thoophlct). 

It is remarkable that on causal is 
not found iu tlie Epistlo except in the 
quotations in this Chapter. It occurs 
in all the other writers of the Ν. T. 

people, goes on to describo its cha- 
racter, and first negatively (v. 9). It 
is not according to, after, ike pattern 
of that which was made at the Exodus. 
The Covenant was to be not only a 
second one, but one of a different 
type. For the use of «aril compare 
1 Pet L 15; Bph. iv. 24. 

ην iwohjoa roir warp.] The original 
phraso is tlio same as Uiat roudorod 
just above witcXcVm Art... (conip.0. 10 
διαΰήσομαι τψ ul). These different 
renderings bring out clearly the con- 
ception Uiat the Oovonant is a mani- 
festation of the divine purpose of 
love. He, of His Qooduess fixes the 
terms. The Covenant is a διαθήκη 
and not a συνθήκη. 

iv ήμ. ίπΐΚαβομένου μον...] This Is 
an unusual rendering of the form 
D T? WBO rt*f Comp. Barn. ii. 
28 iv 4μίρ$ ivrifatyivov σου αύτψ 
γραπτά* τον νομον. 

The 'day' expresses vividly the 
period which marked the fitting sea- 
son for the action of God. Comp. 2 
Cor. vi. 2 (lxx.) ; Jud. xviii. 50. 

For *πι\αβομ4νου compare c ii. 16 

More mulierum loquitur sermo divi- 
nus, qwe apprehendere solent par- 
vulorum manus et plerumque ad se 
couducoro, plorumquo otlam hue illuo- 
que susteutando no labantur, utpoto 
firmos greseus uon habentee adhuc 

1ζαγ.1κγη{Αΐγ.] The Old Covenant 
is connected with U10 first formation 
of the nation and with that sovereign 
display of God's power by which ho 
separated externally a people from 
the world. This outward deliverance 
and establishment of the chosen nation 

ούκ Μ μ «ναν iv] Hebr. VTBD. The 
same original word is used of the 
Lord annulling His Covenant : Jer. 
xiv. 21. The lxx. rendering express- 
es forcibly the idea of the constraining, 
disciplining, power of the Law : Deut 
xxvii. 26 (Gal. iii. 10). 

κάγω ήμίΚησα αυτών] Hebr. *$%) 

D? ^0?. Soe Gee. Thee, a v. i»| f 

and Additional Note. 

10—12. The positive character- 
istics of the New Covenant, * the better 
promises' on which it rests, are to bo 
found in (1) its spirituality (0. 10), 
(2) its universal efficacy (ο. 1 1), (3) its 
assuraiico of froe forgivouoss (e. 12). 

ία οτι αυτη...€πιγρά τ •* αυτούς] 
Because this i$ the covenant that I 
will covenant witfi Uts home 0/ Israel 
...even putting my laws.. .and upon 
tJteir heart will I write them. Under 
the Mosaic system the law was fixed 
and external; the now laws entor 
into the understanding as active prin- 
ciples to be realised and embodied by 
progressive thought The old law 

VIII. ίο] 



mcta 1 Tic riM^p&c €kcinac, Aipei Kfptoc, 
AiAoVc nomoyc μου etc tiIn διανοιαν ayto>n, 
και Ιπί r KApAiAc 1 ΑγτωΝ έττίΓρΑψω aytoVc, 


ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟΙ IcONTAl' MOI etc Aa<(n. 

raptor aflrwr K*AD, (oliir. me syrr) (κΑρΑΐΑ€ΑγτωΝ Β) : καρ91α»ΛύτΟν Κ•. 
7ptyw: -yptyvB. 


was written on tablee of stone: the 
new laws are written on the heart 
and become, so to speak, part of the 
personality of thobolievcr. The image 
is universal. Comp. 2 Cor. Hi. 3. 

Philo speaks of tlio revelation of 
God Himself as being the highest 
form of Divine Covenant : oW£or iav 
row oh ίνην άιχΑρναι row AoVucror fan 
τοΰφάοι '«alrydt'(Gen.xviii4),*riXcyfi 
Ιδού 1) δΊα6ι{*9 pov,' 1) πασών χαρίτ** 
αρχή re και inryi) αντότ ft/u /yti (Ζ)β 
mill, nom, § 8 ; i. 587 M.). 

Tho uso of the simple dative (ΛοΑ 
ry οίκω Ίσρ.) here as in v. 9 (ίποίησα 
rott π.) presents God as the disposer, 
framer, of the Covenant 

The people of God is now again 
called by its one namo * the honso of 
Israel.' The division of Israel and 
Judah (p. 8) has ceasod to bo. Com- 
pare Acts ii. 36 ; Rom. zi. 26 ; Gal. 
vi. 16; c. iv. 9; ziii. 12 note. 

μ*τα rat ήμ. Ac.] • Those days 1 from 
the point of view of the prophet cor- 
respond with what the writer of the 
Bpistle has spoken of as 'the end of 
these days' (i. 2). The phrase is need 
peculiarly to mark the period of con- 
flict which Immediately precedes the 
Anal triumph of Messiah. Comp. 
Matt xxiv. 19. 

Movt. . αύτω»] The participle kMt 
may go with διαθέτομαι : * Twill make 
λ cotmant even by ptUting (Latt 
dando)...and I will... 1 ; or it may be 
taken with καί ίπιγράψω : ' I will make 
a covenant even thus, putting my laws 
...IwiU aleo write them.... 9 On the 
whole tho former construction is the 
more natural. For the transition from 

the participle to the finite verb com- 
pare Moulton- Winer p. 717. 

The rendering of *trfkFrn$ by tho 
plural νόμους is remarkable. It may 
have been chosen to dissociate tho 
general idea of tho divine ' instruction ' 
from the special Mosaic code with 
which it had been identified. 

The plural occurs again in the same 
quotation α z. 16, but not elsewhere 
in the Ν. T.; nor does the plural 
appear to be found in any other place 
of tho lxx. as a translation of nita. 
It is found for the (Hebr.) plural in 
Dan. ix. ία Conversely 6 ψόμοψ is used 
to express the plural ; Bz. zviii. 20 ; 

Lev. zzvi. 46 (irnnrj). 

The construction &&>ύ*...«ί*...ίβ 
found in classical writers, e.g. Xen. 
Cyr. viii. 2, 2a Comp. Apoc. zvii. 17 
(the usage in Acts ziz. 31 is strange). 

The result of fedora* *U is marked 
in the phrase diAoW /κ... 2 Cor. i. 22; 
viii. 16. Compare John iii. 35 with 
John ziii. 3. 

n)r &ιΑι*Ηα*...καρ&ίας] Διάνοια ex- 
presses the discursive faculty of 
thought, while καρδία is the seat of 
man's personal life, the moral charac- 
ter• Comp. Addit Note on c. iv. 12. 

Comp. Lk. L 51 bwpola καρδίας. 
ι Chron. zziz. 18. 8ee also Bph. i. 
18 (v. L); 1 Pot i. 13; Bph. iv. 18 
(διάνοια, vow); I John v• 20% 
. Καρδίας may be gen. ring, or ace. 
pi ( Vulg. in eorde. O. L. in cordibm). 
Both constructions are good. The 
corresponding word in the original is 
singular, and so probably is καρδία* 
here: Prov. vii. 3. 


",και of mA AjAaIoxin Ikactoc TON ΠΟλίΤΗΝ Α^τογ 


£πό Μίκρογ £o>c Μ€ΓΑλογ a^toon. 
Μ ό*τι Γλεωε &ομαι tajc aaikiaic ΑγτωΝ, 

1 1 roMTTf» KAB (ποΚάτη*) D,me lyr vg syr hi txt: r Alitor Γ ?g syrhl mg. awroG(i): 
fevroO D,•. awroO (9) : om. D t *. elMpovtw : c ttoiw B*. «>d /u*/)o0 : 

+cu/rwr Γ me qrrr. 

«ai frofuu...XaoV] The eud of the 
new Covouant is ike same as that of 
the old. Iu both cases the purpose 
of Ood was to form a pooplo truly 
Hi* own: Ex. vi. 7. 

This end was accomplished extern- 
ally and typically by the separation 
and training of the Jewish people; 
but more than this was required. 
The type had to find its fulfilment 
To this fulfilment the prophets looked ; 
and the apostles proclaimed it : Apoc. 
xxi. 3 (λαοί v. λαός) ; 2 Cor. vi. 16. 

Nothing is said directly in the 
prophets or in the Epistle of the ad- 
mission of the Gentiles into 'the 
Commonwealth of Israel.' This fact 
is included in the recognition of the 
essential spirituality of the new Cove- 
nant Compare Hoe. i. 9 ; ii. 1 ; is. 
lxi. 9; Zech. xiiL 9; c ii. 17 (row 
λαον); xiiL 12 notes. 

For the construction *lnu tit see 
c i. 5 note. 

11. A second characteristic of the 
new Covenant follow* directly from 
the first The pooplo are brought 
into true fellowship with God, and 
this involves an immediate knowledge 
of Him. No privileged class is inter- 
posed between the mass of men and 
God. All are true scribes (John 
vi 45) in virtue of the teaching witliiu 
them (1 Johu ii. 20, 27). All have im- 
mediate access to tho divine Prosouce. 

The description marks the absolute 
relation, but does not define how the 
universal privilege will be iu fact 

ow fu) δΜζωσι*} v. 12 ; xiii. 5 ; x. 17 
(fut.). See Moulton-Wiuer, p. 636. 

ror do\] The moregoneral 
and tho more spooial rotations have 
their respective obligations. Πολίτη 
occurs a few times iu tho lxx. as a 
rendering of tfl *>g. Pro?, xxiv. 43 
(28) ; Jor. xxxvl (xxix.) 23• Comp. 
xL 10 Additional Note. 

γρώώ...«Ιδι;σονσι*'...] Latt cognosce 
...scient.... The Lord will not be a 
strauger to be first recognised: all 
will have an absolute, inborn, ac- 
quaintance with Mm from tlie least to 
the greatest (Latt a minors usque ad 
majurem eorum). There will be no 
distinction of ago or atatiou or endow- 
ments in respect of this fundamental 

This end was gained by the Incar- 
nation (John i. 18 ; xvil 6): row oVow 
iw\ της γης iw σαρκ\ διατρίψωττος και 
n)w φνσινήμώντβ νροσλήψα dfttowrof, 
ΤΚαμψ*» i* roir narrmv ψυχάις το της 
αληθούς θεογνωσίας φ*Γ, καϊ οίο* τις 
ίπιτη&•ώτης 4νιτ4θη η} ανθρωπινή φ vat ι 
wiro της χάριτος προς ro roy AVruf ilbivoi 
& όν (Theophlct). 

12. Tho third characteristic of 
tho Now Covenant is Unit which 
contains the plodge of its efficacy. 
It rests upon forgiveness on the part 
of God, not on performance on the 
part of man. Its foundation is grace 
and not works (Johu i. 17). In this 
lies the assurance against such failure 
us tho Old Covonaut brought to light 
Comp. Is. lix. 2. 

or* foe»? ϊσομαΐ] Vulg. quia pro- 
pitius ero. The New Covenant will 
be efficacious, for God Himself says 
/ will be merciful. The pliraso 
ftXf »f ίσομαι (γινήσομαή is found else- 


και τωΝ ΑΜΑρτιωΝ ΑγτωΝ of Mtl mnhcOu> έτι. 
n iv τω \eyttv ΚαινΜν πεπαΧαίωκζν την πρώτην, το ie 
παΧαιούμζνον και γηράσκον 6771)9 αφανισμού. 

ιι τωψάμ. edrw Μ*Β vg me syr vgt + «αϊ fir d><yu£r ο*τμ> M«(A)D a syr hi (tee 
x. 17). 13 τ* 94: τ6 rt 0,•. 

where in the lxx. as a rendering of Π?φ 
in referenco to God's forgiveness of 
sin: 1 K. viii. 34 ff.; and of men: 
Num. xiv. 20 ; Jer. v. 1, 7. 

In the N.T. tXr«r occnra again only 
in the phrase TXccir σο* Kypic (Matt 
xvi. 22 o&n< α to domine), a form 
which is foand in the lxx. (for 

^ Π^Π): a Sam. xx. 205 xxiii 175 

1 Ohron. xi. 19 TXttit pot 6 &&. 

For the aenae and usage of the 
cognate words see note on 1 John 
ii. 2; ail. 17 note. 

raw Α&κΙαις] The plural is found 
hore only in N.T, though it occurs 
often in the lxx., and in combination 
with ίξιΧάσασθαι Dan. ix. 24 ; comp. 
Pa lxir. 4; Bcclus. iii. 30; c ii. 17. 

In connexion with this promise of 
forgivoness the prophetio disparage- 
ment of sacrifices and ritual as 
spiritually inefficacious must bo 
noticed. The development of this 
inward religion bogins with 1 Sam. 
xt. 22 f.; compare Psalm 1. 8 ill; 
li. 15 ff.; Hoe. ri. 4 fll ; Amos v. 21 ff.; 
Micah ri. 6 ft; Is. J. lift 

In the writings of Jeremiah, on the 
eve of the long exile, when the 
sacrificial ritual became impossible, 
it was natural in the order of divine 
Providence that the realities sym- 
bolised by sacrifices should be brought 
into prominence. Comp. Jer. vil. 
21 ft 

Sacrifice, however, had its place in 
restored Israel: Jer. xxxiii. n. Com- 
pare la. lvi. 7; lxvi. 20 ft; Mai. 
i. to f.; llobr. xiii. 15 noto. Seo 
Oehler, Theol. q/O.T., § 201. 

13. Tho conclusion goes beyond 
that which tho prophetic passage was 
quoted to establish• The New Cove- 

W. H.• 

nant is not only better, and founded 
upon better promises than the Old ; 
but, yet more, it supersedes the Old. 
The characteristics of the New Cove- 
nant, and the very name which it 
bears, point to the abrogation of that 
which has now become 'the old. 1 

t* τψ Xcyfcy] In that he saith 
(Latt dteendo). Comp. c. ii 8 ; 
iii. i$. 

wtwakalmm] Latt veteremt. By 
tho use of tho term 'new' in re- 
ference to another Covenant Ood 
has necessarily placed the other 
Covenant in the position of 'old' 
relatively. Even in the days of 
Jeremiah this sentonco stands already 
written (per/). Comp. 0. 5 **χρη- 

The active use of παλαιό», which is 
generally found in the middle form 
(i. 11 note) in the sense of 'growing 
old,' is rare. It occurs in tho lxx.: 
Lam. iii. 4 4πα\α(»σ* σάρκα. Is. 
lxv. 22 τα Ipya ιταλαι^σονσι (ί?3) 

i.e. continue long, use to the fidl)\ 
comp. Job xxi 13; Job ix. 5 6 παλαιΑρ 
&ρη ; χχχϋ. 15 inaXalmvav \ayovt (they 
spoke no more). 

το vaXatovptpop κα\ γηρ.] Vulg. quod 
auiem anliquatur (O.L. veteratur) 
et eeneeeit. The use of the present 
as distinguished from ntwaXampivop 
and wakamBtp is significant The 
divine words spoken to the prophet 
were accomplished slowly on the scene 
of life• The addition of γηράσκο* adds 
a now thought When that which is 
temporal has existed a long time it 
draws to its natural end. So Theo- , 
phylact : ούκ Aitalpms tariwawrtp ή v*a 
rijp παλαιλρ aXka οΊα το yijpar... 

iyy. αφανισμού] nigh unto vanish- 



ing away, Latt props inisriium. nexions: Matt vL 16, 19 f.; James 

The word άφοΜσμός ie singularly iv. 14; Acts xiii.41 (lxx). For/yyw 

frequent in toe lxx of Jeremiah as see c. vi. 8. 

It is used, for example, of Babylon Order an outward semblance of en• 

li (xxviiL.) 26 ft The verb άφανίζο* during reality even after it was es- 

ooeurs in several interesting eon- sentially abrogated by fulfilment 


Additional Note on viii. 1. Christ the High-priest and the 

The student will find it of deep interest to trace through the Epistle 
the gradual unfolding of the thought of Christ's two offices, concentrated 
in one Person, and to consider the view which is given of the twofold 
relation in which He is shewn to stand to His people as High-priest and 
as King. Comparo Additional Note on ii. 17. The double thought is Christ 
indicated plainly in the Introduction : i. 3 καθαρισμέ τω* αμαρτιών wotij- H *j*J*• 
σάμιρος ίκάΟισ•Ψ iw &f (if rrjt μτγαΧωσυρηψ br v^nfXoit : the Completed jn Wff _ 
Atonement is followed by the assumption of the Royal throne. The idea 
of priesthood and high-priesthood is then developed ; and in vii ι ff. the 
type of Melchisedek is brought forward to make it clear that God had 
designed for man something beyond that which was realised in Abraham, 
and still more beyond that which was realised in the Levitical order. 

This type of Melchisedek is declared to be fulfilled in the ascended 
Christ, viii. Ι Totovrov Ιχομιν άρχιιρία, hs iiMunp h &*(tQ τψ μ*γα\φσννης 
cV relit oripapott (comp. vii. 16 f. ; 27). 

And Christ as King, hating offered one tacrtyce Jbr $in$ for sesr, 
waits upon His throne for the complete establishment of the sovereignty 
which Ho has finally won (comp. John xvl. 33 κνίκηκα) : χ. 1 1— 14. 

In these passages the two offices are placed in the closest connexion ; 
and the 8ession of Christ on the right hand of God is, with one exception 
(L 13), always connected with the fulfilment of priestly work (i. 3 ; viii 1 ; 
x. ts ; xii. 2). 

Thus it is plainly shewn that as High-priest Christ fulfilled two types ; A twofold 
and we must therefore distinguish two aspects of His High-priestly work : 5?b" 
(1) as the fulfilment of the Lovitical High-priesthood; and (2) as the j^ 1 " 
fulfilment of the royal High-priesthood of Melchisedek, the first before His 
Session (as High-priest), and the second after His Session (as High- 
priest- King). 

As High-priest before His Session, fulfilling the type of Aaron, Christ Fulfilment 
(1) Offered Himself (vii. 27 Iovtop <foriy«ir; viii. 35 ix. 14 ^^^ΛμοΤ* 
προσήνιγκιψ ; ix. 26 bta rrjt Bwrlat αύτου ; χ. ίο— 12 ο«Λ rijt προσφορατ τοΟ 
σώματι* *L Χ.... μία» προσ*ρίγκαν θυσία*); and (2) He entered into the 
Presence of God [iv. 14 οΊ<\η\νθότα rovt ovparovt; vi 20 οπού (fir το 
iawrtpop τον καταπ9τάσματοί)..Μση\θ9Ρ»,.; viii. 12, 16; Ix. 12,24 «&τήλΛ* 
rferaayta...]; ix. 23 f. 

The whole discipline of earthly life was the preparation for the final 
High-priestly service. When the word TrrcX*<mu (John xix. 30) had 
declared the fulfilment of every condition, the Lord made the offering of 
Himself, and so entered into the Presence of God through His own Blood. 
Thus He fulfilled tho type of the Aaronic High-priesthood (comp. Addit 
Note on ix. 7, #./.). 



The passages which deal with Christ's offeriug of Himself bring before 
us successively the fact of His sacrifice (vii. 27) ; its necessity (viii. 3) ; its 
possibility (ix. 14) ; its absolute efficacy (ix. 25, 26, 28) ; its fulness (x. 10) ; 
and its continuous personal validity (x. 12—14). 

80 again the passages which deal with Christ's entrance into the 
Presence of Qod declare the fact (iv. 14); the purpose for man (vi 20) ; the 
corresponding work (viii. i, 2, 6) ; the single entrance made once for all 
(ix. 12); and the purification of the Sanctuary of redeemed humanity 
(ix. 23 t\ 

The * offering' and the * entrance' together present the accomplishment 

of the work typified in the Aaronio. priesthood. This was gathered up 

into the service of the great Day of Atonement, which was marked by 

two chief acts, the double sacrifice, and the restoration of the covenant 

fellowship between the people and Qod by the application of the blood (the 

life) of the sacrifice to the choseu place of God's Presence. So Christ 

offered Himself upon the Cross and humanity iu Himself ami euteriug 

before Qod, through His own blood, realised the abiding fellowship of man 

and Qod in His glorified humanity, openly seen before the face of God 

(ix. 24). By this appearance the ascended Lord perfectly fulfilled that 

which was typified by the bringing of the blood of the victim as a 

hallowing power to the Mercy-seat, tho crowniug service of Uio Anionic 

priest. In Him, Priest at onco and people, the Life which was offered was 

present in a nobler and eternal form* 

Assump- Thereupon the Lord entered on the fulness of His work as Highpriest- 

Uon of the King ; and the ideas connected with His Session gain their full inter- 

Hiah pretation in its connexion with His one Divine-human Person (i. 3) : His 

priest- twofold office (viii. it); the gathering the fruits of His tictory (x. 12; 

hood after L 13); the efficacy of His preseut help (xii. 2). 

thetypeof Afar Hie Session— if we may use words of time of that which is beyond 

&£*****' time— He still fulfils his work as 'High-priest after the order of Mel• 

chisedek,' which we regard under two aspects, as the work of our King 

and the work of our High-priest: see xiii. 15 and Additional Notes on w. 

1, 2 ; xL ία 

Silenes as The aspect under which the writer of the Epistle thus regards the work 

to the f the Risen Christ explains his silence as to the fact of the Resurrection. 

5jSon ^° e **** ^^ underlies all his argument lie assunios the permanence of 

Christ's perfect humanity through death of which the Resurrection is the 

pledge; and dwells on the continued activity of Christ in His glorified 

humanity ; but he refers to the Resurrection directly only once : xiiL 2a 

He thinks, so to speak, as St John in his Epistles, not so much of Christ's 

victory as of His triumph. 

Tet more, this treatment was necessarily suggested by the comparison 
of Christ's priestly work with the typical service of the High-priest 
Christ occupied the place both of the victim and of the priest, in regard 
both to the people and to Qod ; and in that symbolic service the death of 
the victim was subordinated to the unbroken ministry of the priest; and 
there was nothing in the type which answered to the Resurrection. 


Additional Note on viii. 1, 2. The present work of Christ 
ae High-priest. 

The present work of the Glorified and Ascended Son of man for men is Two as- 
indicated to ns in the Epistle, in accordance with what has been already P"* 8 °* 
said, under two aspect*, as the work of a High-priest and as the work of a IJjj^^f nt 
Ring. As High-priest He represents man to God: as King He represents Christ 
God to man. In the latter relation He is even now the Sovereign of the 
new Commonwealth, hereafter to be realised in its completeness (compare 
Additional Note on xi. 10). But in the present passage the thought is 
mainly of His High-priestly work. To understand this we must recall the The type 
type. The sacrifices on the Day of Atonement provided the means °* S'^infh 
entrance to the Divine Presence. The application of the blood removed j^est 
every impurity which hindered the approach to God of him in whom the 
people were summed up. So cleansed the representative of Israel was 
able to sustain that awful fellowship for which man was made. And 
simply standing before the Lord he fulfilled his work. No words were 
spoken : no uttered intercession was made. It was enough that man was 
there according to divine appointment, to witness in the most emphatic 
manner to the continued preservation of the established relation of man to 
God. Gomp. Thilo, de Monarch, ii. 6 (ii. 237 M.); de tiL Hon. iii. § 14. 

Thus wo read in a figure tho High-priestly Work of Christ By His The type 
offering of Himself llo has mad* purification of trim (i. 3); He has appliod ^Mllea by 
the virtuo of His Blood, to speak in earthly language, to tho scone of tho ^^ wt 
worship of rodoomod humanity (ix. 23); He has takon His scat upon the 
throne, ontering in His humanity upon the full enjoyment of evory privilege 
won by His perfect fulfilment of the will of God. Henceforth He applies for 
the benofit of men the fruits of the Atonement which He has completed. 

This work is shewn to us in the Epistle in three distinct forms, and we in three 
have no authority to go beyond its teaching. forms. 

i. Christ intercedes for men as their present representative before 
God: vii 25, 27; ix. 24. 

it Christ brings the prayers and praises of His people to God, 
embodying their true spiritual desires, so that at each moment they 
become articulate through His Spirit and are brought through Him to 
the Throne: xiii. 15. 

iii. Christ secures access for His people in their present state to 'the 
holy place,' whore Ho Himself is, in His Blood— the virtuo of His earthly 
life lived and offered: iv. 16; x. 19—22. 

These three forms of Christ's work shew under the conditions of human 
experience what He does for humanity eternally. Our fellowship with 
God will grow closer, more perfect, more conscious, but still our approach 
to God, our worship, our spiritual harmony, must always be 'in Him 9 In 
Whom wo havo boon incorporated. 


The modern conception of Ohriet pleading in hoaven Hi• Passion, 
1 offering Hie blood,' on behalf of men, hoe no foundation iu tlio Eplstlo. 
Hit glorified humanity is the eternal pledge of the absolute efficacy of 
His accomplished work. He pleads, as older writers truly expressed the 
thought» by His Presence on the Father's Throne. 

Meanwhile men on earth in union with Him enjoy continually through 
His Blood what was before the privilege of one man on one day in the 

So far the thought of the priestly work of the Ascended Christ is 
expressed under the images of the Levitical covenant, as He works for 
'the people' (ή ίκκλησία); but He has yet another work, as 'priest after 
the order of Melchizedek,' for humanity. He does not lay aside this wider 
relation in completely fulfilling the narrower. Rather it is through the 
fulfilment of His work for the Church— the firstfruits— that He moves 
towards tho fulfilment of His work for tlio world. Wo have no power» to 
pursue the development of the truth, but it is necessary to remember it. 

In illustration of this conception of an universal priesthood it is inter- 
esting to compare Philo's conception of the priesthood of the righteous 
man: Leg. AUeg. iii 87 (i. 135 M.); de post. Cain. 54 (L 261 M.); de 
Monarch. L 8 (il 220 M.). 

Additional Note on viii. 2. On the words XetrovpyetP, 
Xarpevew ώο. 

The groups of words connected with Xc trovpytu' and Xarpmw are 
naturally of frequent occurrence in this Epistle. Thus we find λειτουργός i. 
7; XftToupyfu* x. 11; λκτονργία νϋί. 6; ix. 21; λειτουργικοί i. 14; and 
λατρεία ix. 1, 6; Xarpcviw viii. 5; ix. 9, 14; x. 2; xiL 28; xiiL 10. Tlie 
former group of words is found elsewhere in the Ν. T. only in the writings 
of St Luke and St Paul: the latter group is found also in St Matthew 
(lxx.) and St John (Gosp. Apoc). The ideas which they express require to 
be distinguished. 
1. Atirovfh 1. The group λειτουργός λιιτΌυργ€Ϊ* ί λειτουργία, is of common occurrence 
y&, 60. | Q ^ u^ Af «Toiipyor in every place represents ni?9, which is less oftcu 
rendered by ouucowr and θ<ράπωκ Αατουργεϊ* is tho gonoral translation of 
ΓΠΚ? (more than sixty times), and iu a very limited range it is used ulso for 
Ity Aurovpyta is nearly always a rendering of n"]hj{. The words are used 
habitually of the service of priests (Ex. xxviii. 31, 39) and Levitos (1 Chrou. 
xvi. 4, 6). But they have also a wider application, of the service of Samuel 
to God (1 Sam. ii. 18; iii. 1); of service to the pooplo (Ezek. xliv. 11 f.); of 
service to men (Num, iii. 6; xviii. 2; 1 Kings L 4, 15; Ecclus. x. 25). 

Thore is however one common feature in the different applications of 
the words. The λειτουργία is the fulfilment of an office: it has a definite 
representative character, and corresponds with a function to be discharged. 
This appears to be true even when the office is most personal The olaasioal 
usage of the term accentuated this thought of public service which lies in 
the word by its derivation (λαά, X^firvr, Xctror). The Athenian ' Liturgies ' 


(Diet of Ant t. v.) expressed vividly the idea of a necessary service 
rendered to the state by a citizen who had the means of rendering it 
And the usage of the word in the N.T. reflects something of the colour 
thus given to it. 

The words λειτουργός, -civ, -fa, are used in the apostolic writings of 
services rendered to God and to man, and that in the widest relations of 
social life. 

(a) Thus the officers of civil government are spoken of as λειτουργοί 
θεού (Rom. xiii. 6). St Paul describes himself as λειτουργός Χρίστου 'ίησου 
είς τα ίθνη (Rom. xv. 16) in the discharge of his debt to mankind in virtue 
of his commission to proclaim the Gospel (Rom. i. 5, 14). The priestly 
office of Zacharifth was a λειτουργία (Lk. i. 23). ' Prophets and teachers ' 
performed a public service for the Church to the Lord (λειτουργούντων 
αύτων τψ κυρίγ Acts xiii. 2 1 ). In the widest sense the whole life of a 
Christian society becomes a sacrifice and ministry of faith (d καί σπενοομαι 
επ\ rfj θυσία καί λειτουργία της πίστεως ύμων Phil. ϋ. 17)» to which the life- 
blood'of their teacher is as the accompanying libation. And in a narrower 
sense the vessels of the Tabernacle were 'vessels of the ministry' (τα σκεύη 
της λειτουργίας Hebr. ix. 21). The Levitical priests serve (λειτουργεϊν absoL 
Hebr. x. 1 iX And Christ Himself 'has obtained a more excellent ministry' 
(οιαφορωτερας τ4τνχε λειτουργίας Hebr. viii. 6), being 'a minister of the 
sanctuary and of the true tabernacle' (των αγίων λειτουργός καϊ της σκηνής 
της αληθινής Hebr. viii. 2). 

The ministry to God is in a most true sense a ministry to men and for 
men. This λειτουργία is the accomplishment of an office necessary for 
human well-being. 

(b) The λειτουργία directly rendered to men has an equally broad 
character. It is a service which answers to deep relations of social life. 
The wealthy have a ministry to fulfil towards the poor which belongs to the 
health of the body (άφειλουσιν κα\ εν τοΐς σαρκικοις λειτουργησαι αύτοϊς 
Rom. χν. 27); the due accomplishment of which brings wider blessings to 
the society (ij διακονία της λειτουργίας ταύτης.., εστί... περισσεύουσα δια πολλών 
ευχαριστιών τγ θεγ 2 Cor. ix. 1 2). In the closer relations of the Christian 
life a corresponding ministry has its place which cannot be disregarded 
Without loss (λειτονργον της χρείας μου Phil, il 2$ ; ίνα αναπλήρωση το ύμων 
υστέρημα της προς με λειτουργίας id. V. 30). 

In Ecclesiastical usage the word λειτουργία was used specially of the 
stated services of public worship, of 'the evening service' (9 εσπερινή 
λειτουργία), of 'the service of Baptism' (if του θείου βαπτίσματος λειτ.), and 
specially of the service of Holy Communion (1) των θείων μυστηρίων λειτ. and 
simply η λειτουργία 9 ). See exx. in Sophocles Lex. s. v. 

The words are common in Clement: 1 Cor. 8, 9, 20, 32, 34, 40, 41, 43 f. 

1 The words find a remarkable paral- * There is an interesting disouseion 

lei in Doetr. Apost. § 15 χειροτονήσατε of the use of the word in this con• 

ofr favrotf επίσκοπου* teal διακόνου*... nexion by Melanohthon in the Apology 

bpiv yap λειτουργονσι καί αυτοί τήν Xet- for the Augsburg Confession (0. xii. §§ 

τουργίαν των προφητών καί διδασκάλων. 8ο ff.) in answer to the assertion that 

The ministry to the Lord is also a * λειτουργία signifies sacrifice.' 
ministry to His people. 


They are found also in Hermae: Mand. v. I, 2, 3: Sim. v. 3, 3, 8; vii. 6; 
ix. 27, 3: but they are not noted from Ignatius, Polycarp or Barnabas. 
Oomp. Test. Lev. 2, 3, 4• 

2 ' **£ τρβ *' 2 * The U8a S e °* λ^Ρ*»*"* and Xorpc /α is more limited. The verb 
""' ' Xorpt v€t» ie common in the lxx. and is almost always a rendering of 13f 
(Pent. Josh. Jud.: twice of I1T#)l The noun Xarptfo is rare and in each 
case represents ITjhlJ. The words always describe a divine service, a 
service to God or to gods. This idea appears to spring from the conception 
of complete devotion of powers to a master which lies in the root of the 
word (Xorpir, latro, a hired servant). In classical writers the word 
Xarptla is used of an absolute service, personal (ifiech. P. V. 966), or moral 
(Plut ConsoL ad ApolL 107 and Wyttenbach's note), or religious (Plat 
Apol. § 9 μ 23 β). 

The usage of the N.T. agrees with that of t